# Automata Theory. Şubat 2006 Tuğrul Yılmaz Ankara Üniversitesi

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1 Automata Theory Automata theory is the study of abstract computing devices. A. M. Turing studied an abstract machine that had all the capabilities of today s computers. Turing s goal was to describe the boundary between what a computing machine could do and what it could not do. 1

2 Finite Automata Studied 40 s and 50 s Originally proposed to model brain function Turned out to be useful for other purposes 2

3 What is finite automata for? Designing and checking the behavior of digital circuits Lexical analyzer of a typical compiler, that is, compiler component that breaks the input text into logical units Scanning large bodies of text Verifying systems of all types that have a finite number of distinct states Etc. 3

4 Simplest nontrivial finite automaton remembering whether it is in the on state or the off state 4

5 Automaton recognizing then 5

6 Why study Automata theory? What can a computer do at all? This study is called decidability and the problems that can be solved by computer are called decidable. (chapter 9) What can computer do efficiently? This study is called intractability, and the problems that can be solved by a computer using no more time than some slowly growing function (polynomial) of the size of the input are called tractable. 6

7 Review of Basics Sets Definition A set is an unordered collection of objects S = {a, b, c} a, b, c are elements or members of the set S 7

8 Sets Definition A set is an unordered collection of objects S = {a, b, c} a, b, c are elements or members of the set S Elements in a set need have no relation to each other S1 = {1, 2, 3} S2 = { red, farmhouse, π, -32 } 8

9 Sets Definition Sets can contain other sets as elements S1 = {3, {3, 4}, {4, {5, 6}}} S2 = {{1, 2}, {{4}}} Sets do not contain duplicates NotASet = {4, 2, 4, 5} 9

10 Sets Cardinality Cardinality of a set is the number of elements in the set {a, b, c} = 3 {{a, b}, c} =? 10

11 Sets Cardinality Cardinality of a set is the number of elements in the set {a, b, c} = 3 {{a, b}, c} = 2 ({a, b} and c) 11

12 Sets Empty, Singleton Empty Set: {} or Ø, {} = Ø = 0 Singleton set set with one element {1} {4} {}? {{}}? {{3, 1, 2}}? 12

13 Sets Empty, Singleton Empty Set: {} or Ø, {} = Ø = 0 Singleton set set with one element {1} {4} {} NO! Set contains 0 elements {{}} {{3, 1, 2}} 13

14 Sets Membership Set membership: x S 3 {1, 3, 5} a {b, c, d} 3 {1, {2, 3}}? {} {1, 2, 3}? {} {1, {}, 4}? 14

15 Sets Membership Set membership: x S 3 {1, 3, 5} a {b, c, d} 3 {1, {2, 3}} {} {1, 2, 3} {} {1, {}, 4}? 15

16 Sets Describing S = {x : x has a certain property} S = {x x has a certain property} S = {x : x N x < 10} N is the set of natural numbers {0, 1, 2,... } S = {x : x is prime } A B = {x : x A x B} A B = {x : x A x B} A B = {x : x A x B} 16

17 S = {0 n 1 n n 1} S = {01, 0011, ,.} T = {0 i 1 j 0 i j } T = {1,11,,01,011,,0011,00111, } 17

18 Sets, More Union & Intersection A and B are disjoint if A B = {} S is a collection of sets (set of sets) S = {x : x A for some A S} {{1, 2}, {2, 3}} = {1, 2, 3} S = {x : x A for all A S} {{1, 2}, {2, 3}} = {2} 18

19 Sets Subset Subsets & Supersets A is a subset of B, A B if: x, x A x B (x A), x B A is a proper subset of B, A B if: A B ( x, x B x A) {} is a subset of any set (including itself) {} is the only set that does not have a proper subset 19

20 Sets Power Set Power set: Set of all subsets 2 S = {x : x S} 2 {a,b} = {{}, {a}, {b}, {a, b}} 2 {} = {{}} 2 S =? (cardinality?) 2 S = 2 S 20

21 Cartesian Product A B = {(x, y) : x A y B} {1, 2} {3, 4} = {(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)} {1, 2} {1, 2} = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 1), (2, 2)} 2 {a} {b} = {{(a, b)}, {}} 2 {a} 2 {b} = {({a}, {b}), ({a}, {}), ({}, {b}), ({}, {})} 21

22 Cartesian Product Which of the following is true: (A,B) A B = B A If and only if A = B (A,B) A B B A If and only if A B 22

23 Relations A relation R is a set of ordered pairs For example the relation < over the Natural Numbers is the set: { (0,1), (0,2), (0,3),... (1,2), (1,3), (1,4),... (2,3), (2,4), (2,5), } Often, relations are over the same set that is, a subset of A A for some set A Not all relations are over the same set, however Relation describing prices of computer components {(Hard dive, \$55), (WAP, \$49), (256M DDR, \$44),...} 23

24 Functions A function is a special kind of relation (all functions are relations, but not all relations are functions) A relation R A B is a function if: For each a A, there is exactly one ordered pair in R with the first component a A function f that is a subset of A B is written: f : A B (a, b) f is written f(a) = b A is the domain of the function if A A, f(a ) = {b : a A f(a) = b} is the image of A The range of a function is the image of its domain 24

25 A function f : A B is: Functions one-to-one if no two elements in A match to the same element in B onto Each element in B is mapped to by at least one element in A a bijection if it is both one-to-one and onto The inverse of a binary relation R A B is denoted R 1, and defined to be {(b, a) : (a, b) R} A function only has an inverse if it is a bijection 25

26 Structural representations Grammars (will be discussed in ch5) E E + E an expression can be formed by taking any two expressions and connecting them by a plus sign Regular Expressions [A-Z][a-z]*[ ][A-Z][A-Z] Matches Ankara TR but misses Palo Alto CA ([A-Z][a-z]*[ ])*[ ][A-Z][A-Z] Now matches with Palo Alto CA 26

27 Central Concepts of Automata Theory Alphabet: finite, non empty set of symbols Strings: list of symbols from the alphabet Language: a set of strings from the same alphabet. 27

28 Alphabets Conventionally denoted by Σ Examples of common alphabets: 1. Σ = {0,1}, the binary alphabet 2. Σ = {a, b, c,.,z}, the set of all lower-case letters 3. The set of ASCII characters 28

29 Strings A string (or word) is a finite sequence of symbols chosen from some alphabet from binary alphabet Σ={0,1} The empty string is the string with zero occurrences of symbols. Denoted by ε. The number of positions for symbols (ie, number of symbols) in the strings is called the length of the string has length 8. The standard notation for the length of a string ω is ω = 8 ε = 0 29

30 Powers of an alphabet If Σ is an alphabet, we define Σ k to be the set of strings of length k, each of those symbols in Σ. Examples: Σ 0 = {ε} for all alphabets If Σ = {0,1} Σ 1 = {0,1} Σ 2 = {00,01,10,11} Σ 3 = {000,001,010,011,100,101,110,111} 30

31 Σ* denotes set of all strings over an alphabet Σ. Σ* = Σ 0 Σ 1 Σ 2 Σ 3. Σ + = Σ 1 Σ 2 Σ 3. Same as previous one but without empty string. Σ* = Σ 0 Σ + 31

32 Type convention for symbols and strings We shall use lower case letters at the beginning of the alphabet to denote symbols a, b, c, a 1, a 2, c 3, lower case letters at the end of the alphabet to denote strings x, y, z 32

33 Concatanation of strings Let x and y be strings. Then xy denotes the concatanation of x and y. Example: let x = and y = 011. Then xy =

34 Languages A set of strings all of which are chosen from some Σ*, where Σ is a particular alphabet, is called language. If Σ is an alphabet, and L Σ*, then L is language over Σ. 34

35 Language examples Turkish C The language of all strings consisting of n 0 s followed by n 1 s, for some n 0: {ε, 01, 0011, , , } The set of binary numbers whose value is a prime {10,11,101,111,1011, } Σ* (set of all strings), the empty language, is a language over any alphabet {ε}, the language consisting of only the empty string,is also a language over any alphabet. 35

36 Problems In Automata theory, a problem is the question of deciding whether a given string is a member of some particular language. If Σ is an alphabet, and L ( Σ*) is a language over Σ, then the problem is: Given a sting ω in Σ*, decide whether or not ω is in L. 36

37 Prime numbers example The problem of testing primality can be reduced to a problem of testing whether the given number is a member of L p (language of prime numbers) or not. 37

38 Definition of problems as languages We are interested in proving lower bounds on the complexity of certain problems. Especially important are techniques for proving that certain problems cannot be solved in an amount of time that is less than exponential in the size of the input. 38

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