# GIS for Educators. Overview:

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 GIS for Educators Topic 5: Raster Data Objectives: Keywords: Understand what raster data is and how it can be used in a GIS. Raster, Pixel, Remote Sensing, Satellite, Image, Georeference Overview: In the previous topics we have taken a closer look at vector data. While vector features use geometry (points, polylines and polygons) to represent the real world, raster data takes a different approach. Rasters are made up of a matrix of pixels (also called cells), each containing a value that represents the conditions for the area covered by that cell (see Illustration 1 below). In this topic we are going to take a closer look at raster data, when it is useful and when it makes more sense to use vector data. Illustration 1: A raster dataset is composed of rows (running across) and columns (running down) of pixels (also know as cells). Each pixel represents a geographical region, and the value in that pixel represents some characteristic of that region. Raster data in detail: Raster data is used in a GIS application when we want to display information that is continuous across an area and cannot easily be divided into vector features. When we introduced you to vector data we showed you the image in Illustration 2 below. Point, polyline and polygon features work well for representing some features on this landscape, such as trees, roads and building footprints. Other features on a landscape can be more difficult to represent using vector features. For example the grasslands shown have many variations in colour and density of cover. It would be easy enough to make a 1

2 single polygon around each grassland area, but a lot of the information about the grassland would be lost in the process of simplifying the features to a single polygon. This is because when you give a vector feature attribute values, they apply to the whole feature, so vectors aren't very good at representing features that are not homogeneous (entirely the same) all over. Another approach you could take is to digitise every small variation of grass colour and cover as a separate polygon. The problem with that approach is that it will take a huge amount of work in order to create a good vector dataset. Illustration 2: Some features on a landscape are easy to represent as points, polylines and polygons (e.g. trees, roads, houses). In other cases it can be difficult. For example how would you represent the grasslands? As polygons? What about the variations in colour you can see in the grass? When you are trying to represent large areas with continuously changing values, raster data can be a better choice. Using raster data is a solution to these problems. Many people use raster data as a backdrop to be used behind vector layers in order to provide more meaning to the vector information. The human eye is very good at interpreting images and so using an image behind vector layers, results in maps with a lot more meaning. Raster data is not only good for images that depict the real world surface (e.g. satellite images and aerial photographs), they are also good for representing more abstract ideas. For example, rasters can be used to show rainfall trends over an area, or to depict the fire risk on a landscape. In these kinds of applications, each cell in the raster represents a different value. e.g. risk of fire on a scale of one to ten. An example that shows the difference between an image obtained from a satellite and one that shows calculated values can be seen in Illustration 3 below. 2

3 Illustration 3: True colour raster images (left) are useful as they provide a lot of detail that is hard to capture as vector features but easy to see when looking at the raster image. Raster data can also be non-photographic data such as the raster layer shown on the right which shows the calculated average minimum temperature in the Western Cape for the month of March. Georeferencing: Georeferencing is the process of defining exactly where on the earth's surface an image or raster dataset was created. This positional information is stored with the digital version of the aerial photo. When the GIS application opens the photo, it uses the positional information to ensure that the photo appears in the correct place on the map. Normally this positional information consists of a coordinate for the top left pixel in the image, the size of each pixel in the X direction, the size of each pixel in the Y direction, and the amount (if any) by which the image is rotated. With these few pieces of information, the GIS application can ensure that raster data are displayed in the correct place. The georeferencing information for a raster is often provided in a small text file accompanying the raster. Sources of raster data: Raster data can be obtained in a number of ways. Two of the most common ways are aerial photography and satellite imagery. In aerial photography, an aeroplane flies over an area with a camera mounted underneath it. The photographs are then imported into a computer and georeferenced. Satellite imagery is created when satellites orbiting the earth point special digital cameras towards the earth and then take an image of the area on earth they are passing over. Once the image has been taken it is sent back to earth using radio signals to special receiving stations such as the one shown in Illustration 4 below. The process of capturing raster data from an aeroplane or satellite is called remote sensing. 3

4 Illustration 4: The CSIR Satellite Applications Center at Hartebeeshoek near Johannesburg. Special antennae track satellites as they pass overhead and download images using radio waves. In other cases, raster data can be computed. For example an insurance company may take police crime incident reports and create a country wide raster map showing how high the incidence of crime is likely to be in each area. Meteorologists (people who study weather patterns) might generate a province level raster showing average temperature, rainfall and wind direction using data collected from weather stations (see Illustration 3 above). In these cases, they will often use raster analysis techniques such as interpolation (which we describe in Topic 10). Sometimes raster data are created from vector data because the data owners want to share the data in an easy to use format. For example, a company with road, rail, cadastral and other vector datasets may choose to generate a raster version of these datasets so that employees can view these datasets in a web browser. This is normally only useful if the attributes, that users need to be aware of, can be represented on the map with labels or symbology. If the user needs to look at the attribute table for the data, providing it in raster format could be a bad choice because raster layers do not usually have any attribute data associated with them. Spatial Resolution: Every raster layer in a GIS has pixels (cells) of a fixed size that determine its spatial resolution. This becomes apparent when you look at an image at a small scale (see Illustration 5 below) and then zoom in to a large scale (see Illustration 6 below). 4

5 Illustration 5: This satellite image looks good when using a small scale... Illustration 6:...but when viewed at a large scale you can see the individual pixels that the image is composed of. Several factors determine the spatial resolution of an image. For remote sensing data, spatial resolution is usually determined by the capabilities of the sensor used to take an image. For example SPOT5 satellites can take images where each pixel is 10m x 10m. Other satellites, for example MODIS take images only at 500m x 500m per pixel. In aerial photography, pixel sizes of 50cm x 50cm are not uncommon. Images with a pixel size covering a small area are called 'high resolution' images because it is possible to make out a high degree of detail in the image. Images with a pixel size covering a large area are called 'low resolution' images because the amount of detail the images show is low. In raster data that is computed by spatial analysis (such as the rainfall map we mentioned earlier), the spatial density of information used to create the raster will usually determine the spatial resolution. For example if you want to create a high resolution average rainfall map, you would ideally need many weather stations in close proximity to each other. One of the main things to be aware of with rasters captured at a high spatial resolution is storage requirements. Think of a raster that is 3x3 pixels, each of which contains a number representing average rainfall. To store all the information contained in the raster, you will need to store 9 numbers in the computer's memory. Now imagine you want to have a raster layer for the whole of South Africa with pixels of 1km x 1km. South Africa is around 1,219,090 km 2. 5

6 Which means your computer would need to store over a million numbers on its hard disk in order to hold all of the information. Making the pixel size smaller would greatly increase the amount of storage needed. Sometimes using a low spatial resolution is useful when you want to work with a large area and are not interested in looking at any one area in a lot of detail. The cloud maps you see on the weather report, are an example of this it's useful to see the clouds across the whole country. Zooming in to one particular cloud in high resolution will not tell you very much about the upcoming weather! On the other hand, using low resolution raster data can be problematic if you are interested in a small region because you probably won't be able to make out any individual features from the image. Spectral resolution: If you take a colour photograph with a digital camera or camera on a cellphone, the camera uses electronic sensors to detect red, green and blue light. When the picture is displayed on a screen or printed out, the red, green and blue (RGB) information is combined to show you an image that your eyes can interpret. While the information is still in digital format though, this RGB information is stored in separate colour bands. Whilst our eyes can only see RGB wavelengths, the electronic sensors in cameras are able to detect wavelengths that our eyes cannot. Of course in a hand held camera it probably doesn't make sense to record information from the non-visible parts of the spectrum since most people just want to look at pictures of their dog or what have you. Raster images that include data for nonvisible parts of the light spectrum are often referred to as multi-spectral images. In GIS recording the non-visible parts of the spectrum can be very useful. For example, measuring infra-red light can be useful in identifying water bodies. Because having images containing multiple bands of light is so useful in GIS, raster data are often provided as multi-band images. Each band in the image is like a separate layer. The GIS will combine three of the bands and show them as red, green and blue so that the human eye can see them. The number of bands in a raster image is referred to as its spectral resolution. If an image consists of only one band, it is often called a grayscale image. With grayscale images, you can apply false colouring to make the differences in values in the pixels more obvious. Images with false colouring applied are often referred to as pseudocolour images. Raster to vector conversion: In our discussion of vector data, we explained that often raster data are used as a backdrop layer, which is then used as a base from which vector features 6

7 can be digitised. Another approach is to use advanced computer programs to automatically extract vector features from images. Some features such as roads show in an image as a sudden change of colour from neighbouring pixels. The computer program looks for such colour changes and creates vector features as a result. This kind of functionality is normally only available in very specialised (and often expensive) GIS software. Vector to raster conversion: Sometimes it is useful to convert vector data into raster data. One side effect of this is that attribute data (that is attributes associated with the original vector data) will be lost when the conversion takes place. Having vectors converted to raster format can be useful though when you want to give GIS data to non GIS users. With the simpler raster formats, the person you give the raster image to can simply view it as an image on their computer without needing any special GIS software. Raster analysis: There are a great many analytical tools that can be run on raster data which cannot be used with vector data. For example, rasters can be used to model water flow over the land surface. This information can be used to calculate where watersheds and stream networks exist, based on the terrain. Raster data are also often used in agriculture and forestry to manage crop production. For example with a satellite image of a farmer's lands, you can identify areas where the plants are growing poorly and then use that information to apply more fertilizer on the affected areas only. Foresters use raster data to estimate how much timber can be harvested from an area. Raster data is also very important for disaster management. Analysis of Digital Elevation Models (a kind of raster where each pixel contains the height above sea level) can then be used to identify areas that are likely to be flooded. This can then be used to target rescue and relief efforts to areas where it is needed the most. Common problems / things to be aware of: As we have already mentioned, high resolution raster data can require large amounts of computer storage. What have we learned? Let's wrap up what we covered in this worksheet: Raster data are a grid of regularly sized pixels. Raster data are good for showing continually varying information. The size of pixels in a raster determines its spatial resolution. Raster images can contain one or more bands, each covering the same 7

9 The QGIS User Guide also has more detailed information on working with raster data in QGIS. What's next? In the section that follows we will take a closer look at topology to see how the relationship between vector features can be used to ensure the best data quality. 9

### Understanding Raster Data

Introduction The following document is intended to provide a basic understanding of raster data. Raster data layers (commonly referred to as grids) are the essential data layers used in all tools developed

### GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.

GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,

### Chapter 1 Overview of imaging GIS

Chapter 1 Overview of imaging GIS Imaging GIS, a term used in the medical imaging community (Wang 2012), is adopted here to describe a geographic information system (GIS) that displays, enhances, and facilitates

### Visual Interpretation of Images

Using Saga Tutorial ID: IGET_RS_003 This tutorial has been developed by BVIEER as part of the IGET web portal intended to provide easy access to geospatial education. This tutorial is released under the

### SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS

SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS KEY CONCEPTS: In this session we will look at: Geographic information systems and Map projections. Content that needs to be covered for examination

### WHAT IS GIS - AN INRODUCTION

WHAT IS GIS - AN INRODUCTION GIS DEFINITION GIS is an acronym for: Geographic Information Systems Geographic This term is used because GIS tend to deal primarily with geographic or spatial features. Information

### Review for Introduction to Remote Sensing: Science Concepts and Technology

Review for Introduction to Remote Sensing: Science Concepts and Technology Ann Johnson Associate Director ann@baremt.com Funded by National Science Foundation Advanced Technological Education program [DUE

### Chapter Contents Page No

Chapter Contents Page No Preface Acknowledgement 1 Basics of Remote Sensing 1 1.1. Introduction 1 1.2. Definition of Remote Sensing 1 1.3. Principles of Remote Sensing 1 1.4. Various Stages in Remote Sensing

### Getting the Most out of Raster Imagery in Autodesk Civil 3D

Autodesk Raster Design Getting the Most out of Raster Imagery in Autodesk Civil 3D Autodesk Raster Design is the solution for working with nonvector information within the Autodesk product family. Raster

### A Gentle Introduction to GIS

A Gentle Introduction to GIS Brought to you with Quantum GIS, a Free and Open Source Software GIS Application for everyone. T. Sutton, O. Dassau, M. Sutton sponsored by: Chief Directorate: Spatial Planning

### Raster Data Structures

Raster Data Structures Tessellation of Geographical Space Geographical space can be tessellated into sets of connected discrete units, which completely cover a flat surface. The units can be in any reasonable

### QGIS plugin or web app? Lessons learned from the development of a 3D georeferencer.

QGIS plugin or web app? Lessons learned from the development of a 3D georeferencer. Produit Timothée 1, Jens Ingensand 2, and Gillian Milani 3 1-2 University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland, G2C

### Map Scanning and Automated Conversion

Objectives (Entry) Map Scanning and Automated Conversion This unit will introduce quick and less costly method of data capture - map scanning and automated conversion. This unit will briefly discuss about

### Module 1 Educator s Guide Investigation 3

Module 1 Educator s Guide Investigation 3 What can satellites tell us about Earth? Investigation Overview Students learn to identify basic characteristics of satellite images. They demonstrate how satellite

### 2.3 Spatial Resolution, Pixel Size, and Scale

Section 2.3 Spatial Resolution, Pixel Size, and Scale Page 39 2.3 Spatial Resolution, Pixel Size, and Scale For some remote sensing instruments, the distance between the target being imaged and the platform,

### Emerging remote environmental monitoring techniques. Remote Sensing

Emerging remote environmental monitoring techniques Remote Sensing Satellite and airborne Remote Sensing techniques Emerging trends in remote sensing are occurring largely in four broad areas: 1. advances

### Landsat color composite image draped on a Digital Elevation Model

SFR406 Spring 2015 Formation and Interpretation of Color Composite Images Introduction One sees color images collected by earth orbiting satellites in popular magazines, in movies and television shows;

### How Landsat Images are Made

How Landsat Images are Made Presentation by: NASA s Landsat Education and Public Outreach team June 2006 1 More than just a pretty picture Landsat makes pretty weird looking maps, and it isn t always easy

### Scalar Visualization

Scalar Visualization 4-1 Motivation Visualizing scalar data is frequently encountered in science, engineering, and medicine, but also in daily life. Recalling from earlier, scalar datasets, or scalar fields,

### A Short Guide to Modern Mapping Systems for Managing Woodlands

A Short Guide to Modern Mapping Systems for Managing Woodlands A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a powerful mapping system many professional foresters use to maintain clients management portfolios.

### Chapter 1 Introducing GIS

Chapter Introducing GIS Learning objectives Learn what geographic information systems are used for Learn how GIS layers work Differentiate between GIS features and surfaces Obtain preliminary knowledge

### GIS Lesson 6 MAPS WITH RASTER IMAGES III: SATELLITE IMAGERY TEACHER INFORMATION

GIS Lesson 6 MAPS WITH RASTER IMAGES III: SATELLITE IMAGERY TEACHER INFORMATION Lesson Summary: During this lesson students use GIS to load and view truecolor and enhanced satellite images of Alaska. Based

### Introduction to Imagery and Raster Data in ArcGIS

Esri International User Conference San Diego, California Technical Workshops July 25, 2012 Introduction to Imagery and Raster Data in ArcGIS Simon Woo slides Cody Benkelman - demos Overview of Presentation

### internal 427 report Radiological anomalous area on the Nabarlek minesite visual interpretation of temporal aerial photography K Pfitzner March 2004

internal report Radiological anomalous area on the Nabarlek minesite visual interpretation of temporal aerial photography Kirrilly Pfitzner Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist

### Files Used in this Tutorial

Generate Point Clouds Tutorial This tutorial shows how to generate point clouds from IKONOS satellite stereo imagery. You will view the point clouds in the ENVI LiDAR Viewer. The estimated time to complete

### Remote sensing is the collection of data without directly measuring the object it relies on the

Chapter 8 Remote Sensing Chapter Overview Remote sensing is the collection of data without directly measuring the object it relies on the reflectance of natural or emitted electromagnetic radiation (EMR).

### What do I do first in ArcView 8.x? When the program starts Select from the Dialog box: A new empty map

www.library.carleton.ca/find/gis Introduction Introduction to Georeferenced Images using ArcGIS Georeferenced images such as aerial photographs or satellite images can be used in many ways in both GIS

### INTRODUCTION REMOTE SENSING

INTRODUCTION REMOTE SENSING dr.ir. Jan Clevers Centre for Geo-Information Dept. Environmental Sciences Wageningen UR Remote Sensing --> RS Sensor at a distance EARTH OBSERVATION EM energy Earth RS is a

### Image Analysis CHAPTER 16 16.1 ANALYSIS PROCEDURES

CHAPTER 16 Image Analysis 16.1 ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Studies for various disciplines require different technical approaches, but there is a generalized pattern for geology, soils, range, wetlands, archeology,

### Ocean Color Lesson II: Data Processing and Imagery

Ocean Color Lesson II: Data Processing and Imagery Ocean color observations made from an Earth orbit allow an oceanographic viewpoint that is impossible from ship or shore -- a global picture of biological

### GIS: Geographic Information Systems A short introduction

GIS: Geographic Information Systems A short introduction Outline The Center for Digital Scholarship What is GIS? Data types GIS software and analysis Campus GIS resources Center for Digital Scholarship

### Practitioner s Guide:

www.methodfinder.net Practitioner s Guide: Low Cost Amateur Aerial Pictures with Balloon and Digital Camera Low Cost Orthophoto Production in Battambang Town, Cambodia Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche

### University Map Library Historical Air Photo Digitization Project

University Map Library Historical Air Photo Digitization Project By Eva Dodsworth Geospatial Data Services Librarian University of Waterloo Abstract In October 2007, the University Map Library launched

### Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Economics 1

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Economics 1 Henry G. Overman (London School of Economics) 5 th January 2006 Abstract: Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are used for inputting, storing,

### Availability and Potential Use of Low Resolution Satellite Imagery for Peacekeeping and Disaster Management. Mryka Hall-Beyer

Availability and Potential Use of Low Resolution Satellite Imagery for Peacekeeping and Disaster Management Mryka Hall-Beyer Spatial resolution: The ability to see detail Expectations people have: to be

### MEASURING, MAPPING AND MONITORING AGRICULTURE S FOOTPRINT IN THE WESTERN CAPE. Dr Mike Wallace Research & Technology Development Services

MEASURING, MAPPING AND MONITORING AGRICULTURE S FOOTPRINT IN THE WESTERN CAPE Dr Mike Wallace Research & Technology Development Services Background on Land Use & Infrastructure data in the Western Cape

### DEPARTMENT OF REMOTE SENSING

DEPARTMENT OF REMOTE SENSING Ph. D. RESEARCH AREA Natural Hazards Disaster Management Natural Resource Management Watershed Management Himalayan Geoenvironment Glaciology Hydrology & Water Resources Climate

### Geomorphology G322 Introduction to Aerial Photographs

Geomorphology G322 Introduction to Aerial Photographs I. Introduction to Air Photos A. Aerial photographs are acquired by airpcraft especially equipped with cameras and view ports. 1. Early Work... Balloon-based

### Imagery. 1:50,000 Basemap Generation From Satellite. 1 Introduction. 2 Input Data

1:50,000 Basemap Generation From Satellite Imagery Lisbeth Heuse, Product Engineer, Image Applications Dave Hawkins, Product Manager, Image Applications MacDonald Dettwiler, 3751 Shell Road, Richmond B.C.

### Remote Sensing Image Processing

Remote Sensing Image Processing -Pre-processing -Geometric Correction -Atmospheric correction -Image enhancement -Image classification Division of Spatial Information Science Graduate School Life and Environment

### Yield Mapping. Explorer s Guide

Yield Mapping Yield maps are some of the most valuable sources of spatial data for precision agriculture. They represent the output of crop production. Processed yield maps can be used to investigate factors

### An introduction to Geographic Information Systems and Careers in GIS

An introduction to Geographic Information Systems and Careers in GIS Context: Why GIS? Many of the issues in our world have a critical spatial component: Land management Property lines, easements, right

### KaarbonTech AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY & TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS. 75% cheaper than traditional aerial topography,

75% cheaper than traditional aerial topography, We source the most advanced technology to bring affordable environmental solutions for our clients. As a licensed UAV survey company we can safely capture

### How to georeference images in ArcMap (Arcinfo, ArcReader, ArcView)

How to georeference images in ArcMap (Arcinfo, ArcReader, ArcView) This procedure outlines the steps required to georeference any image, including air photos or raster copies of scanned paper maps. In

### Supervised Classification workflow in ENVI 4.8 using WorldView-2 imagery

Supervised Classification workflow in ENVI 4.8 using WorldView-2 imagery WorldView-2 is the first commercial high-resolution satellite to provide eight spectral sensors in the visible to near-infrared

### Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies. 13 th May 2004. Content. What is GIS?

Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies 13 th May 2004 Content Introduction to GIS Data concepts Data input Analysis Applications selected examples What is GIS? Geographic Information

### Selecting the appropriate band combination for an RGB image using Landsat imagery

Selecting the appropriate band combination for an RGB image using Landsat imagery Ned Horning Version: 1.0 Creation Date: 2004-01-01 Revision Date: 2004-01-01 License: This document is licensed under a

### Remote Sensing of Global Climate Change

of Global Climate Change 2009 TECHNICAL STUFF... WHERE ON THE EARTH IS THAT??? Students should understand various geographic coordinate systems used to locate images, and how to translate these into distances

### Understanding Geospatial Data Files used in Geographic Information System Software A Basic Introduction

Understanding Geospatial Data Files used in Geographic Information System Software A Basic Introduction by Lynn Carlson GIS Manager Environmental and Remote Technologies Lab Brown University A: What Is

### Image Draping & navigation within Virtual GIS

Image Draping & navigation within Virtual GIS Draping of Geo Corrected data such as aerial imagery or map data enables virtual 3D field tours to be conducted in an area of interest. This document covers

### Remote Sensing and Land Use Classification: Supervised vs. Unsupervised Classification Glen Busch

Remote Sensing and Land Use Classification: Supervised vs. Unsupervised Classification Glen Busch Introduction In this time of large-scale planning and land management on public lands, managers are increasingly

### What is GIS? Geographic Information Systems. Introduction to ArcGIS. GIS Maps Contain Layers. What Can You Do With GIS? Layers Can Contain Features

What is GIS? Geographic Information Systems Introduction to ArcGIS A database system in which the organizing principle is explicitly SPATIAL For CPSC 178 Visualization: Data, Pixels, and Ideas. What Can

### Radiometric Calibration of a Modified DSLR for NDVI

Radiometric Calibration of a Modified DSLR for NDVI Christian Taylor Carlson Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology ABSTRACT Silicon CCD detectors found in commercial DSLR cameras

### Information Contents of High Resolution Satellite Images

Information Contents of High Resolution Satellite Images H. Topan, G. Büyüksalih Zonguldak Karelmas University K. Jacobsen University of Hannover, Germany Keywords: satellite images, mapping, resolution,

### INVESTIGA I+D+i 2013/2014

INVESTIGA I+D+i 2013/2014 SPECIFIC GUIDELINES ON AEROSPACE OBSERVATION OF EARTH Text by D. Eduardo de Miguel October, 2013 Introducction Earth observation is the use of remote sensing techniques to better

### INCORPORATING VEGETATION IN VIEWSHED AND LINE-OF-SIGHT ALGORITHMS

INCORPORATING VEGETATION IN VIEWSHED AND LINE-OF-SIGHT ALGORITHMS Peter L. Guth Department of Oceanography United States Naval Academy 572C Holloway Road Annapolis, Maryland 21402 pguth@usna.edu ABSTRACT

### 5. GIS, Cartography and Visualization of Glacier Terrain

5. GIS, Cartography and Visualization of Glacier Terrain 5.1. Garhwal Himalayan Glaciers 5.1.1. Introduction GIS is the computer system for capturing, storing, analyzing and visualization of spatial and

### A Method Using ArcMap to Create a Hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model

A Method Using ArcMap to Create a Hydrologically conditioned Digital Elevation Model High resolution topography derived from LiDAR data is becoming more readily available. This new data source of topography

### BASICS OF PRECISION AGRICULTURE (PA)

BASICS OF PRECISION AGRICULTURE (PA) specific production on particular place specific production, from foot to foot... Same sense: data collection and decision making for small pieces of the field. Particular

### CLIENT GUIDE TO DIGITAL ORTHO- PHOTOGRAPHY

ISSUE 2 SEPTEMBER 2014 TSA Endorsed by: CLIENT GUIDE TO DIGITAL ORTHO- PHOTOGRAPHY The Survey Association s Client Guides are primarily aimed at other professionals such as engineers, architects, planners

### Institute of Natural Resources Departament of General Geology and Land use planning Work with a MAPS

Institute of Natural Resources Departament of General Geology and Land use planning Work with a MAPS Lecturers: Berchuk V.Y. Gutareva N.Y. Contents: 1. Qgis; 2. General information; 3. Qgis desktop; 4.

### W H I T E P A P E R. Volumetric Measure Using Geospatial Technology

W H I T E P A P E R Volumetric Measure Using Geospatial Technology Contents 1. Introduction... 1 2. Project Setup/Triangulation... 1 3. Workflow One: Extract DSM Terrain File... 1 3.1. Stereo Terrain Editing...

### Land Use/Land Cover Map of the Central Facility of ARM in the Southern Great Plains Site Using DOE s Multi-Spectral Thermal Imager Satellite Images

Land Use/Land Cover Map of the Central Facility of ARM in the Southern Great Plains Site Using DOE s Multi-Spectral Thermal Imager Satellite Images S. E. Báez Cazull Pre-Service Teacher Program University

### Impact of water harvesting dam on the Wadi s morphology using digital elevation model Study case: Wadi Al-kanger, Sudan

Impact of water harvesting dam on the Wadi s morphology using digital elevation model Study case: Wadi Al-kanger, Sudan H. S. M. Hilmi 1, M.Y. Mohamed 2, E. S. Ganawa 3 1 Faculty of agriculture, Alzaiem

### Image interpretation in ArcGIS Image Analysis

Image interpretation in ArcGIS Image Analysis Aim: To explore the image analysis tools in ArcGIS Imagery: Landsat ETM+ multispectral and panchromatic images of southern Tenerife, Spain, acquired on 16

### Cartography and Geomatics. Map Basics

Cartography and Geomatics Cartography: The art, science and technology of making maps Map: A two dimensional scaled representation of a planetary surface ( traditional definition) - includes online displays,

### Using Landsat to Examine Deforestation in Brazil Part I: Identify forested and deforested areas Part II: Calculate carbon emissions from deforestation

Title: Product Type: Developer: Target audience: Format: Software requirements * : Using Landsat to Examine Deforestation in Brazil Part I: Identify forested and deforested areas Part II: Calculate carbon

### Mapping Earth from Space Remote sensing and satellite images. Remote sensing developments from war

Mapping Earth from Space Remote sensing and satellite images Geomatics includes all the following spatial technologies: a. Cartography "The art, science and technology of making maps" b. Geographic Information

### Liberia Forest Mapping. World Bank January 2012

Liberia Forest Mapping World Bank January 2012 Scope of presentation 1. Overview (5 min) 2. Service presentation (20 min) 3. Operational scenario (10min) 4. Service Utility Review (45 min) 5. Wrap-up and

### RESOLUTION MERGE OF 1:35.000 SCALE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS WITH LANDSAT 7 ETM IMAGERY

RESOLUTION MERGE OF 1:35.000 SCALE AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS WITH LANDSAT 7 ETM IMAGERY M. Erdogan, H.H. Maras, A. Yilmaz, Ö.T. Özerbil General Command of Mapping 06100 Dikimevi, Ankara, TURKEY - (mustafa.erdogan;

### The Utilization of Satellite Images to Identify Tree Endangering Transmission Lines

The Utilization of Satellite Images to Identify Tree Endangering Transmission Lines Y. Kobayashi M. S. Moeller G. G. Karady G. T. Heydt R. G. Olsen Project Tele-Seminar March 18, 2008 3/10/2008 1 Introduction

### PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH

PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH D M STILLMAN Abstract Detail surveys measured with a total station use local coordinate systems. To make the data obtained from such surveys compatible with Google

### Introduction to GIS. Dr F. Escobar, Assoc Prof G. Hunter, Assoc Prof I. Bishop, Dr A. Zerger Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne

Introduction to GIS 1 Introduction to GIS http://www.sli.unimelb.edu.au/gisweb/ Dr F. Escobar, Assoc Prof G. Hunter, Assoc Prof I. Bishop, Dr A. Zerger Department of Geomatics, The University of Melbourne

### High Resolution RF Analysis: The Benefits of Lidar Terrain & Clutter Datasets

0 High Resolution RF Analysis: The Benefits of Lidar Terrain & Clutter Datasets January 15, 2014 Martin Rais 1 High Resolution Terrain & Clutter Datasets: Why Lidar? There are myriad methods, techniques

### Geography 3251: Mountain Geography Assignment III: Natural hazards A Case Study of the 1980s Mt. St. Helens Eruption

Name: Geography 3251: Mountain Geography Assignment III: Natural hazards A Case Study of the 1980s Mt. St. Helens Eruption Learning Objectives: Assigned: May 30, 2012 Due: June 1, 2012 @ 9 AM 1. Learn

### APPLICATION OF GOOGLE EARTH FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BASE MAP IN THE CASE OF GISH ABBAY SEKELA, AMHARA STATE, ETHIOPIA

APPLICATION OF GOOGLE EARTH FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BASE MAP IN THE CASE OF GISH ABBAY SEKELA, AMHARA STATE, ETHIOPIA Abineh Tilahun Department of Geography and environmental studies, Adigrat University,

### Tools of Astronomy Notes

Tools of Astronomy Notes Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Scientists call the light you can see visible light. If you shine white light through a prism, the light spreads out to make a range

### HOW DO YOU READ SATELLITE IMAGES NASA Images and Maps

HOW DO YOU READ SATELLITE IMAGES NASA Images and Maps Author: Carol Gersmehl Overview: This lesson works with satellite images about vegetation as well as maps about land cover and population. The satellite

### SAMPLE MIDTERM QUESTIONS

Geography 309 Sample MidTerm Questions Page 1 SAMPLE MIDTERM QUESTIONS Textbook Questions Chapter 1 Questions 4, 5, 6, Chapter 2 Questions 4, 7, 10 Chapter 4 Questions 8, 9 Chapter 10 Questions 1, 4, 7

### Module 1 Educator s Guide Investigation 2

Module 1 Educator s Guide Investigation 2 How can we compare maps with images from space? Investigation Overview Students examine maps at different scales and make observations about the amount of detail

### Orthophotography CHAPTER GENERAL

CHAPTER 14 Orthophotography 14.1 GENERAL Today, many uses for geospatial mapping products require current planimetric feature data. Analysis and design from geospatial data sets generally require a known

### 6/11/2016. Apps and Data are Changing Forestry. The availability and usability of software and data are causing some shifts in forestry

June 9, 2016 Dr. James McCarter Teaching Associate Professor, NC State University, Dept. Forestry and Environ. Resources and Center for Geospatial Analytics The availability and usability of software and

### 'Developments and benefits of hydrographic surveying using multispectral imagery in the coastal zone

Abstract With the recent launch of enhanced high-resolution commercial satellites, available imagery has improved from four-bands to eight-band multispectral. Simultaneously developments in remote sensing

### A remote sensing instrument collects information about an object or phenomenon within the

Satellite Remote Sensing GE 4150- Natural Hazards Some slides taken from Ann Maclean: Introduction to Digital Image Processing Remote Sensing the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information

### Aerial Films CHAPTER AERIAL FILMS

CHAPTER 3 Aerial Films 3.1 AERIAL FILMS Aerial film is similar in construction to the film popularly used in handheld 35-mm cameras. It comes in rolls that are 10 in. wide and range in length from 200

### CCCR Outreach FAQ and User Manual

CCCR Outreach FAQ and User Manual Q.1 What is the CCCR Outreach Application used for? The CCCR Outreach Application is a Web interface for displaying data. The CCCR Outreach Application Access enables

### An Internet GIS Application for a Prototype of Water Resource Infrastructure

2009 International Conference on Machine Learning and Computing IPCSIT vol.3 (2011) (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore An Internet GIS Application for a Prototype of Water Resource Infrastructure Prattana

### Resolutions of Remote Sensing

Resolutions of Remote Sensing 1. Spatial (what area and how detailed) 2. Spectral (what colors bands) 3. Temporal (time of day/season/year) 4. Radiometric (color depth) Spatial Resolution describes how

### .FOR. Forest inventory and monitoring quality

.FOR Forest inventory and monitoring quality FOR : the asset to manage your forest patrimony 2 1..FOR Presentation.FOR is an association of Belgian companies, created in 2010 and supported by a university

### Digital Image Processing. Prof. P.K. Biswas. Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering

Digital Image Processing Prof. P.K. Biswas Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 27 Colour Image Processing II Hello, welcome

### 2002 URBAN FOREST CANOPY & LAND USE IN PORTLAND S HOLLYWOOD DISTRICT. Final Report. Michael Lackner, B.A. Geography, 2003

2002 URBAN FOREST CANOPY & LAND USE IN PORTLAND S HOLLYWOOD DISTRICT Final Report by Michael Lackner, B.A. Geography, 2003 February 2004 - page 1 of 17 - TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract 3 Introduction 4 Study

### GIS Procedural Guide Create a 3D Scene in ArcScene 9.2+ Created by Steve Zuppa, Map Library Assistant - Serge A. Sauer Map Library, 2008

GIS Procedural Guide Create a 3D Scene in ArcScene 9.2+ Created by Steve Zuppa, Map Library Assistant - Serge A. Sauer Map Library, 2008 Introduction Three-dimensional visualization is rapidly becoming

### GIS and Remote Sensing in Diachronic Study of Agriculture in Greece

GIS and Remote Sensing in Diachronic Study of Agriculture in Greece Maria Androulidaki a, Michail Salampasis b, Vagis Samathrakis c, Christos Batzios d a Alexander Technology Educational Institute of Thessaloniki,

### Making an image using altitude as background image

Try to re-do the previous exercise with different settings under Distance in Km between gridlines, Maximum interpolation radius (in Km), Minimum number of nearest stations and Maximum number of nearest

### A tiered reconnaissance approach toward flood monitoring utilising multi-source radar and optical data

5 th International Workshop on Remote Sensing for Disaster Response A tiered reconnaissance approach toward flood monitoring utilising multi-source radar and optical data Anneley McMillan Dr. Beverley

### Working with Imagery & LiDAR in ArcGIS 10.2

Working with Imagery & LiDAR in ArcGIS 10.2 Today s Agenda Online content Tools for working with imagery & LiDAR Data management using mosaic dataset Data dissemination ArcGIS is a Complete Geospatial

### MODULE 1 LECTURE NOTES 4 ENERGY INTERACTIONS WITH EARTH SURFACE FEATURES

MODULE 1 LECTURE NOTES 4 ENERGY INTERACTIONS WITH EARTH SURFACE FEATURES Energy incident on the Earth s surface is absorbed, transmitted or reflected depending on the wavelength and characteristics of

### Mobile Mapping System Workflow for Roadway Asset Inventories

workflow Mobile Mapping System Workflow for Roadway Asset Inventories SUMMARY This document describes the workflow for quickly mapping an existing roadway corridor; analyzing and extracting pertinent features;