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1 Chapter Contents Page No Preface Acknowledgement 1 Basics of Remote Sensing Introduction Definition of Remote Sensing Principles of Remote Sensing Various Stages in Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Energy Radiation Laws Planck Radiation Law Wien s Displacement law Stephen-Boltzman Law Electromagnetic Spectrum Energy Interactions with the Atmosphere Atmospheric Absorption Scattering Selective Scattering Nonselective Scattering Atmospheric Windows Refraction Radiation Earth Surface Interactions Reflectance Characteristics of Earth's Cover Types Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System Remote Sensing Technology and Aerial Photography 16 2 Platforms and Sensors Platforms and their Types Ground-Based Sensors Airborne Based Sensors Satellite Based Sensors Orbits and Swaths Geosynchronous Orbits/ Geostationary Orbits Near Polar Orbits 20

2 Sun-Synchronous Orbits Swath Active and Passing Remote Sensing Satellite Sensor Characteristics Spatial Resolution Spectral Resolution Radiometric Resolution Temporal Resolution Cameras and Aerial Photography Multispectral Scanning Characteristics of Images Multilayer Image Multispectral Image Superspectral Image Hyperspectral Image Thermal Imaging Pay Load Description of Important Satellites Earth Resources Satellites Meteorological Satellites 41 3 Image Interpretation and Analysis Types of Data Products Pictorial Data Products Digital Data Products Image Interpretation Basic Elements of Visual Interpretation Digital Image Processing Image Rectification Image Enhancement Image Transformations Image Classification and Analysis 61 4 Map Basics Introduction Purpose of a Map Map Features 64

3 4.4. Classification of Maps Types of Maps Uses of Maps Map Characteristics Coordinate System Map Projections Properties of Map Projections Projections Selection of Projection Types of Projection Developable Surface Aspect of Projection Viewpoints Commonly Used Map Projections Polyconic Projection Mercator Lambert Conical Orthomorphic Projection Lambert Conformal Projection 82 5 Geographic Information Systems Introduction Development of GIS Requirement of GIS Computer System Geography and Geographic Data Components of a GIS Spatial Data Models of GIS Raster Data Model Raster Image Structures Raster Data Compression Vector Data Model Vector Feature Geometry Vector Representations GIS Data File Management/ Basic File Structures Database Management Systems 108

4 Functions of DBMS Components of DBMS Database Models Hierarchical Database Network Systems Relational Databases Object Oriented Databases GIS Softwares Data Input, Storage and Editing Data and its Classification Data Acquisition Data Input Data Evaluation Metadata On-Line GIS Data Converting from one GIS Format to Another Data Capture Converting Digital Data Conversion of Spatial Data GIS Software & Functionality of a GIS Data Input Data Editing Data Storage The Hybrid Data Model The Integrated Data Model Printers and Plotters Querying, Maintenance and Spatial Analysis Data Quality Introduction Components of Data Quality Accuracy Spatial Accuracy/ Positional Accuracy Temporal Accuracy Attribute Accuracy 137

5 Conceptual Accuracy Precision and Resolution Spatial Resolution Temporal Resolution Thematic Resolution Consistency/ Logical Consistency Completeness Lineage Sources of Error in GIS Classification of Sources of Errors Root Mean Square Error Error Detection and Correction Node Common Polygon Errors Correcting Errors Spatial Analysis Introduction Analytic Functions of GIS Measurements on Vector Data Measuring Distance Measuring Area/ Perimeter Measurements on Raster Data Selection Attribute Query (Boolean Selection) Spatial Selection Queries Classification Reclassification Overlay Functions Vector Overlay Operators Raster Overlay Operators Correlation and Regression Neighborhood Operations Proximity Computation Interpolation 167

6 Topographic Functions Connectivity Analysis Spread Computation Viewshed Modeling (Intervisibility Analysis) Network Analysis Remote Sensing and GIS Applications Introduction Managing Natural Resources Surface Temperature Productivity Suspended Materials Drought Cyclone Cyclone Warning Cyclone Management Floods Earthquake Volcanic Eruption Landslides Crop Pest and Diseases Forest Fire Environmental Investigation and Remediation Applications Applications of GIS in Disease Surveillance Geology Site Investigations Water Resources Engineering Highway Alignment Studies Using GIS Land Information System (LIS) and Cadastral Applications Importance of Cadastral Records and Land Information Systems GIS Issues in Land Records Cadastre Land Information System (LIS) Typical LIS 188

7 Land Tenure Land Records LIS Players 190 Glossary 191 Bibliography 198 Index

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