1 Using Data to Improve Student Achievement Katie Lynn Appel University of Dayton Fall 2007
2 References Bernhardt, V.L. (2005). Data tools for school improvement. Educational Leadership, 62(5), Brozo, W.G. & Hargis, C. (2003). Using low-stakes reading assessment. Educational Leadership, 61(3), Guskey, T. R. (2003). How classroom assessments improve learning. Educational Leadership, 6(5), Pedulla, J.J. (2003). State-mandated testing: What do teachers think? Educational Leadership, 61(3), Safer, N. & Fleischman, S. (2005). How student progress monitoring improves instruction. Educational Leadership, 62(5), Sharkey, N.S. & Murnane, R. J. (2003). Learning from student assessment results. Educational Leadership, 61(3),
3 Large-Scale Assessments Large scale assessments are designed for a specific purpose. Those used in most states are designed to rank-order schools and students for the purposes of accountability. Assessments designed for ranking are generally not good instruments for helping teachers improve instruction or modify their approach to individual students for the following reasons: Assessments typically are given to students when instructional activities are near completion. Teachers don t receive the results until two or three months later by that time students have moved on to new teachers. Results that teachers receive usually lack the level of detail needed to target specific improvements.
4 Teachers who develop useful assessments, provide corrective instruction and give students second chances to demonstrate success can improve their instruction and help students learn. Thomas R. Guskey
5 Make Assessments Useful For Students When students are given assessments that fail to align with the experiences in the classroom they are often left to feel like their hard work and efforts don t pay off in school because the time and effort that they spent studying had little or no influence on the results and they also lose trust in their teacher. Classroom assessments that serve as meaningful pieces of information don t surprise students. Instead, it allows for reflection of the concepts and skills that the teacher emphasized in class. Teachers can help students understand important feedback for learning.
6 Make Assessments Useful For Teachers Classroom assessments should serve as a meaningful source of information for teachers, helping them identify what was taught well and what they need to work on. Teachers must be able to determine whether the assessment(s) adequately addresses the knowledge, understanding, or skill that they were intended to measure (Guskey, 2003). If teachers find no obvious problems with the assessment, then they must turn their attention to their own teaching.
7 Follow Assessments with Corrective Instruction Assessments can be meaningful for students and teachers, but they don t mark the end of teaching. Assessments must be followed by high-quality, corrective instruction designed to remedy whatever learning errors the assessment identified. Teachers must use approaches that accommodate differences in students learning styles and intelligences. Teachers need to see their assessments as an integral part of the instruction process and as crucial for helping students learn.
8 Second Chances to Demonstrate Success Assessments cannot be a one-shot, do-or-die experience for students. A second chance helps determine the effectiveness of the corrective instruction and offers students another opportunity to experience success in learning. Some teachers have expressed concerns that giving students a second chance might be unfair and that life isn t like that. However, all educators strive to have their students become lifelong learners and develop learning-to-learn skills. What better learning-to-learn skill is there than learning from one s mistakes?
9 Assessment for Learning Stiggins (2002) complains that standardized assessments of learning are increasingly being used to place blame, dole out punishment and rewards, and threaten students and teachers to increase effort. By contrast, assessment for learning is designed to help teachers craft more responsive curriculums that facilitate progress for all students. Using tests to determine students reading ability levels and match them with the most appropriate instructional and recreational reading materials is more likely to promote learning than is using assessment to make placement and grouping decisions, establish a school or district performance rating, or index a teacher merit pay to student achievement.
10 Student Progress Monitoring In today s education climate, school success is defined as ensuring achievement for every student. To reach this goal, educators need tools to help them identify students who are at risk academically and adjust instructional strategies to better meet these students needs. Nancy Safer and Steve Fleischman
11 What is Progress Monitoring? Student progress monitoring is a practice that helps teachers use student performance data to continually evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching and make more informed instructional decisions. The teacher determines a students current performance level on skills that the student will be learning, identifies achievement goals that the student needs to reach by the end of the year, and establishes the rate of progress the student must make to meet those goals. The teacher then measures the student s academic progress regularly (weekly, biweekly, or monthly) using probes. Each probe samples the entire range of skills that the student must learn by the end of the year, rather than just the particular skills a teacher may be teaching that week or month.
12 Mastery Measurement vs. Progress Monitoring Mastery Measurement Tells teachers whether the student has learned the particular skills covered in a unit. Progress Monitoring Tells teacher whether the student is learning at a pace that will allow him or her to meet learning goals by the end of the year. If the rate at which a particular student is learning seems insufficient, the teacher can adjust instruction.
13 Tracking Student Progress The teacher graphs a trajectory line between the student s initial level of performance on a specific skill and the end-year goal. Then the student plots the level of performance as each probe is administered. After noting the pattern of progress, the teacher can adjust instruction to improve student learning. If a student s performance falls below the line, the teacher may use more intense instruction (in small groups or one-onone), re-teach the material, or provide additional opportunities for the student to practice certain skills.
14 Tracking Student Progress Developing probes for frequent measurement for each grade level can be a daunting task for schools. Many schools turn to commercially available products, which are web-based and can automatically graph the progress of individual students. Information about resources and tools can be found at
15 DIBELS Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills The Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) are a set of standardized, individually administered measures of early literacy skills. Designed to be one minute fluency measures used to monitor the development of early reading skills. The measures were developed upon the essential early literacy domains discussed in both the National Reading Panel (2000) and National Research Council (1998) reports to assess student development of: Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principle Reading Fluency The following is a graphical representation of the measures that are assessed in first grade. PSF NWF ORF PSF Beginning of Year Week 3-6 PSF<10 10<=PSF<35 PSF>=35 NWF<13 13<=NWF<24 NWF>=2 4 Not Assessed Yet Middle 1 of Year Week PSF<10 10<=PSF<35 PSF>=35 NWF<24 24<=NWF<41 NWF>=4 1 ORF<4 4<=ORF<13 ORF>=1 3 Phoneme Segmentation Fluency NWF Non-Sense Word Fluency ORF Deficit Emerging Established Oral Reading Fluency Middle 2 of Year Week PSF<10 10<=PSF<35 PSF>=35 NWF<30 30<=NWF<50 NWF>=5 0 ORF<11 11<=ORF<25 ORF>=2 5 End of Year Week PSF<10 10<=PSF<35 PSF>=35 NWF<30 30<=NWF<50 NWF>=5 0 ORF<20 20<=ORF<40 ORF>=4 0
16 Individual Student Graph Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) This graph is a sample of a student s individual graph for Phoneme Segmentation Fluency. The child s first score is in yellow. A trajectory line is drawn from their initial score to where they need to be by the end of the year. The end-year score for PSF is 35. The child colors their score after each progress monitoring and attempts to stay above the trajectory line. This particular student was able to stay above the trajectory line after each progress monitoring. By January this child was even above graph bounds.
17 Individual Student Graph Non-Sense Word Fluency (NWF) This graph shows a student s progress from the beginning of the year until the end of the year. Although this child stayed above the trajectory line during the first half of the year, scores were inconsistent. From to this child made tremendous growth. However, from to the child went down. At this point the teacher can determine if a child requires additional instruction or change of instruction.
18 Individual Student Graph Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Oral Reading Fluency in First Grade is not officially assessed until the beginning of January. By the end of the year, a student should be able to read at least 40 words per minute. This student s initial score was a 8. During the following progress monitoring, the child was unable to stay above the trajectory line. This lets the teacher know that instruction and/or intensity needs to change. Teachers can provide additional support one-on-one or in small groups with similar or differing abilities.
19 Benefits of Progress Monitoring Using student progress monitoring with the whole class requires extra effort. However, many educators will find this strategy worth the effort because it provides a powerful tool that can help teachers adjust instruction to ensure that all students reach high standards.
20 Viewing Whole-Class Data to Guide Instruction Not only is it beneficial to chart students progress using individual graphs, but to collect class data as a whole. After each progress monitoring, class scores are displayed collectively. This data can provide the teacher will much information to guide instruction. The following slides represent my first grade class profile for the school year. Teaching implications from the data demonstrate how data is used to guide my instructional decisions in the classroom.
21 Progress Monitoring October 12-13, 16 October 12, 13, 16 Phoneme Segmentation Non-Sense Word Oral Reading Absent Absent INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS Phoneme Segmentation Looking at my class profile all but one student has met the end year goal. This let me know that instruction needed to change for that particular child. Non-Sense Word Many of my students needed instruction in identifying letter sounds quickly. Whole class instruction should be increased and well as intensity. Oral Reading Although this is not expected at this time of the year, I felt these students would be successful readers based upon classroom observations and other various assessments.
22 Progress Monitoring November November 20, 21, 22 Phoneme Segmentation Non-Sense Word Oral Reading INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS Phoneme Segmentation All students are at/above the end-year goal. Progress monitoring will occur to ensure students remain where they need to be. Non-Sense Word Progress made since last progress monitor is inadequate. Instruction and intensity need to be increased. Red and yellow students will be grouped according to needs. Oral Reading Additional students have been assessed. Green students will begin to focus on comprehension and extended fluency practice.
23 Progress Monitoring December December 15, 16 Phoneme Segmentation Non-Sense Word Oral Reading INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS Phoneme Segmentation All students are above end-year goal. Focus will now be spent on skills to increase NWF and ORF, but frequent progress monitoring will take place to ensure students remain on track. Non-Sense Word Instruction change that occurred since last progress monitor has helped. Yellow students should be given additional time with teacher. Green students will also be paired with yellow students for additional support. Oral Reading Fluency Students that are yellow and red are not making growth as expected. Progress will be monitored and changes about instruction will be made next progress monitoring.
24 Progress Monitoring January 4-5, January 4-5, Phoneme Segmentation Non-Sense Word Oral Reading 55 37/15 20/ /21 66/ /0 7/ /18 7/ /15 29/ /18 60/ /38 100/ /11 11/ /0 10/ /17 58/ /17 22/ /50 110/ /15 11/ /13 8/ /12 50/ /4 46/ /28 121/ /19 67/ /18 21/ /19 39/ /0 33/10 INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS Non-Sense Word Yellow student have become green. Current yellows will receive a change of instruction and increased intensity. Oral Reading This is the official time in which reading fluency is benchmarked. Green students will begin/continue to increase comprehension and fluency. Yellow students will be grouped and continue to work on advanced decoding skills. Red students will have additional instruction with high frequency words.
25 Progress Monitoring February 23 February 23 Phoneme Segmentation Non-Sense Word Oral Reading INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS Non-Sense Word Instruction will remain the same until next progress monitoring. Instruction will change if needed. Many days off school could be the factor for lack of growth/improvement. Oral Reading Red students will partner with green students in addition to teacher s instruction. Green students will be given the DRA to measure comprehension and reading accuracy.
26 Progress Monitoring April Phoneme Segmentation Non-Sense Word Oral Reading * 0* 0* * New Student April INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS Non-Sense Word New student in the classroom needs intense instruction in phonemic awareness, alphabetic principal, and reading fluency. Oral Reading Many students went down since the last progress monitoring. The reading passage could have been difficult. Refer to the errors made between all yellow students and use it to guide whole class instruction.
27 End-Year Benchmark May 25 May 25 Phoneme Segmentation Non-Sense Word Oral Reading END OF THE YEAR Two students didn t end where they needed to be for first grade. However, their growth is documented on their individual student graphs that show they have made over a years growth. (The student with two yellows and one red entered the classroom in April). Second grade teachers will be given individual student graphs and I will discuss the instructional strategies used. Parents will be given additional resources to use with their child over the summer.
28 When teachers use systematic progress monitoring to track their students progress in reading, mathematics, or spelling, they are better able to identify students in need of additional or different forms of instruction, they design stronger instructional programs, and their students achieve better. L.S. Fuchs and D. Fuchs
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