1 Scientifically Based Reading Programs Marcia L. Kosanovich, Ph.D. Florida Center for Reading Research SLP Academy Fall, 2005
2 Goals for Today 1. Understand the big picture of an effective reading program. 2. Learn important characteristics of reading programs that are aligned with current research. 3. Learn about the purpose, content, and process of FCRR Reports. 4. Learn how to access FCRR Reports and related resources. 5. Discuss opportunities for SLPs to help every child become an independent, fluent reader.
3 ii + iii = NCLB 5 Five skills on which early reading instruction should focus 3 Three types of assessment to guide instruction Screening Progress monitoring Diagnosis ii iii High quality initial instruction is critical Immediate intensive interventions for children lagging behind in the growth of critical reading skills
4 Initial Instruction (ii) The goal of ii is to implement consistent high quality instruction in K-3 classrooms. The instructional tool used for ii is a core reading program that is aligned with Reading First guidelines.
5 What is a Core Reading Program (CRP)? A reading program that is used to help guide both initial and differentiated instruction in the regular classroom. It supports instruction in the broad range of reading skills (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension) required to become a skilled reader. It contains teacher s manuals with explicit lesson plans, and provides reading and practice materials for students.
6 Immediate Intensive Intervention (iii) iii should be implemented with children as soon as we notice they are falling behind in the development of critical reading skills. iii involves children in receiving instruction in reading that is more intensive than what they have been receiving. This can be accomplished by: reducing the student/teacher ratio providing more instructional time Both include providing more supports (instructional opportunity, time, resources, materials and/or personnel)
7 Resources to Implement iii 1. Intervention program that accompanies the core reading program 2. Research based program that targets specific skills, is implemented explicitly and systematically, is coordinated and consistent with the work that is being done during initial instruction.
8 Reading Coaches Responsibilities An important part of the Coaches responsibility is to help teachers use assessment data to navigate, organize, and plan for ii and iii.
9 Classroom Teacher Responsibilities Uninterrupted 90 minute block of reading instruction (this is a minimum) Implement high quality initial instruction differentiated instruction immediate intensive intervention
10 Classroom Organization Whole Group Instruction Teacher-Led Center - Small (flexible) group instruction Independent Student Centers - Academically engaged - Accountability - Group, Pair, Cooperative, Individual
11 Flexible Groups Keep high risk group sizes small (5-7 as a maximum). For students not making adequate progress in a group of 5-7, it is critical to reduce the group size. Monitor high risk student progress more frequently in order to make instructional changes, small group changes, and to accelerate learning. It is important to work with each small group differently based on instructional need. Consider attitudes, behaviors, and work ethics when forming and modifying groups.
12 Model for Student Success Continuous Assessment Instruction Data-Based Instructional Planning
13 Florida s Formula 5 Components 3 Types of Assessment Initial Instruction Immediate Intensive Intervention Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Screening Progress Monitoring Diagnostic Whole Group Differentiated
14 Goals for Today 1. Understand the big picture of an effective reading program. 2. Learn important characteristics of reading programs that are aligned with current research. 3. Learn about the purpose, content, and process of FCRR Reports. 4. Learn how to access FCRR Reports and related resources. 5. Discuss opportunities for SLPs to help every child become an independent, fluent reader.
15 Why be concerned with selecting programs? We have evidence that curriculum matters. Instruction that s guided by a systematic and explicit curriculum is more effective, particularly with at-risk learners, than instruction that does not have these features.
16 Characteristics of Scientifically Based Reading Programs Instructional Content Empirical Evidence Instructional Design
17 Instructional Content = Ingredients
18 Instructional Content Core elements of scientifically based reading programs include explicit and systematic instruction in the following: phonemic awareness phonics fluency vocabulary comprehension strategies
19 Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words (Torgesen, 1998).
20 PA Research & Instruction PA improves word reading, spelling, and comprehension Poor readers who enter first grade with weak PA are most likely to be the poor readers in fourth grade Auditory Activities Needs to follow the developmental hierarchy of phonological awareness
22 Phonics An understanding of the alphabetic principle the relationship between phonemes and graphemes.
23 Phonics Research Systematic and explicit phonics instruction is more effective than non-systematic or no phonics instruction significantly improves children s reading comprehension
24 Phonics Instruction Systematic pre-specified sequence of letter sound correspondences taught in a logical order (e.g., most common sounds taught first; progresses from simple to more complex; once a few letter sounds are learned, students are taught a decoding strategy; students apply recently learned phonics to reading connected text) Explicit taught directly (teacher modeling, providing guided practice, and independent practice)
25 Fluency The ability to read text quickly accurately with proper expression
26 Fluency Research Repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement.
27 Fluency Instruction Articulate the importance & provide modeling Determine Reading Levels Oral reading with feedback Variety of research based strategies Repeated Readings, Timed, Partner Monitor fluency progress
28 Vocabulary The knowledge of the meanings and pronunciation of words that are used in oral and written language.
29 Vocabulary Research Can be developed Directly (teach important, difficult, and useful words) Indirectly Vocabulary knowledge is strongly related to overall reading comprehension. The relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension gets stronger as reading material becomes more complex and the vocabulary becomes more extensive.
30 Vocabulary Instruction Selection of words to teach Unknown, critical to understanding the text, likely to encounter in the future Teach word learning strategies How to use word parts to determine meaning of words Provide multiple exposures to words Encourage independent wide reading
31 Comprehension The ability to make sense of text and to monitor for understanding.
32 Comprehension Research Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that is explicit, or direct helps readers use specific comprehension strategies
33 Comprehension Instruction Monitoring comprehension (promoting metacognition) Using graphic and semantic organizers e.g., teaching the use of a Venn diagram to compare and contrast 2 characters from a story Main Idea Summarizing Text Structure
34 Instructional Content = Ingredients
35 Characteristics of Scientifically Based Reading Programs Instructional Content Empirical Evidence Instructional Design
36 Instructional Design = Recipe
37 Instructional Design Features of well-designed programs include: explicit instructional strategies coordinated instructional sequences ample practice opportunities aligned student materials
38 Explicit Instruction 1. Teacher Models and Explains 2. Teacher provides Guided Practice Students practice what the teacher modeled and the teacher provides prompts and feedback 3. Teacher provides Supported Application Students apply the skill as the teacher scaffolds instruction 4. Independent Practice
40 Coordinated Instructional Sequences Phonemic Awareness: Students practice orally segmenting and blending words with /m/ Phonics: Students learn to connect /m/ with the letter m Fluency & Comprehension: reading word lists that include words that have /m/ and other previously learned letter sounds reading decodable passages (using repeated readings) that include many words with /m/ Spelling spelling words that include /m/ and other letter sounds previously learned
41 Ample Practice Opportunities Practice should follow in a logical relationship with what has just been taught in the program. Once skills are internalized, students are provided with opportunities to independently apply previously learned information (e.g., at student learning centers).
42 Aligned Student Materials The content of student materials (texts, activities, homework, manipulatives, etc.) work coherently with classroom instruction to reinforce the acquisition of specific skills in reading. Student aligned materials include a rich selection of coordinated student materials at various readability levels to help build skills through practice.
43 Example of Aligned Student Materials If students are taught specific vocabulary words, they should have the opportunity to read materials containing those words, or engage in writing activities that apply those words in sentences or paragraphs.
45 Programs PLUS Programs can make a valuable contribution to raising the reading achievement of at-risk students, however
46 Reading Programs PLUS LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION ASSESSMENT PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT SCIENTIFICALLY BASED INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS
49 Characteristics of Scientifically Based Reading Programs Instructional Content Empirical Evidence Instructional Design
50 What does research-based :mean? There is a substantial difference between saying something is: Research-derived: CONTENT and METHODS are supported by previous empirical work, theory, and general knowledge vs. Research-supported: THIS VERSION has empirical support via appropriate studies
51 Factors to Consider when Reviewing Articles Reporting of Results: Peer-reviewed journals Reviews, empirical, special issues Not all journals created equal Third Party Investigator Publisher Materials
52 Research? Experimental Design Random Assignment Control Group Quasi-Experimental Design Control Group (participants not randomly assigned) Participants should be matched on variables such as SES. Pre-Post, Single Group Design (this is NOT research)
53 Method Described in detail in order for other researchers to replicate Described so readers are not left with relevant questions
54 Assessment Reliable Valid Match the questions being asked
55 Factors to Consider when Reviewing Articles Was the sample appropriate Population Sample size Fidelity
56 Goals for Today 1. Understand the big picture of an effective reading program. 2. Learn important characteristics of reading programs that are aligned with current research. 3. Learn about the purpose, content, and process of FCRR Reports. 4. Learn how to access FCRR Reports and related resources. 5. Discuss opportunities for SLPs to help every child become an independent, fluent reader.
57 Purpose of FCRR Reports To be a reliable resource for school districts as they make decisions about instructional materials To report the alignment of instructional materials to current reading research
58 Types of FCRR Reports Reading Programs Core Supplemental/Intervention Middle and High School Professional Development
59 Content of FCRR Reports 1. Description 2. Alignment with Current Research 3. Review of Empirical Research 4. Strengths and Weaknesses 5. Florida districts that implement the program 6. Program s website link 7. References
60 Content of FCRR Reports 1. Description Type of program: who, what, where, why Materials Instructional Design Lesson Format Assessment
61 Content of FCRR Reports 2. Alignment with Current Research How each component is addressed Explicit and Systematic Ample practice opportunities Professional development Use this as a teaching tool for our readers Describe specific weaknesses or concerns
62 Content of FCRR Reports 3. Review of Research Empirical Research Summaries 4. Strengths and Weaknesses 5. Florida districts that implement the program 6. Program s website link 7. References
63 Content of FCRR Reports Is Informational Should NOT be construed as an Advertisement Endorsement Approved product
64 Process for FCRR Reports Florida School districts request a review. A comprehensive review of teacher and student materials is conducted. A thorough literature review is conducted and all available research is gathered. This research is analyzed and succinctly summarized.
65 Process for FCRR Reports More information is gathered through observations of the program in classrooms. conference calls with principals and teachers who use the program. meetings with the author/publisher. the program s website.
66 Process for FCRR Reports Collaborative effort by a review team with one team member taking the lead for each program. Report is written Team feedback Dr. Torgesen s feedback Author/Publisher feedback Revisions Posted
67 Curriculum Review Team Members Former classroom teachers with Doctoral or Master s Degree in Education. Experience teaching struggling readers, teaching reading methods courses at the university level, and developing reading curriculum.
68 Goals for Today 1. Understand the big picture of an effective reading program. 2. Learn important characteristics of reading programs that are aligned with current research. 3. Learn about the purpose, content, and process of FCRR Reports. 4. Learn how to access FCRR Reports and related resources. 5. Discuss opportunities for SLPs to help every child become an independent, fluent reader.
72 Key: Summary Table for FCRR Reports Type of Program 1 = Core Reading Program 2 = Supplemental or Intervention Program 3 = Technology-Based Program 4 = Program that may be implemented by a tutor or mentor 5 = Intervention or Remedial Program for students above third grade Reading Component (PA = Phonemic Awareness, P = Phonics, F = Fluency, V = Vocabulary, C = Comprehension) + = some aspects of this component taught and/or practiced ++ = most aspects of this component taught and/or practiced +++ = all aspects of this component taught and/or practiced n/a = Not Addressed in this program. In other words, this element of reading is not a goal of this program. Special Considerations a. explicit b. systematic c. student materials aligned d. ample practice opportunities provided e. practice only f. oral language only g. phonemic awareness and phonics program h. phonics program i. fluency program j. vocabulary program k. comprehension program l. extensive professional development required m. expertise required to make informed curriculum decisions n. extensive organization of materials required o. school-wide implementation required
75 Curriculum & Instructional Projects Team Joe Torgesen, Ph.D. Michelle Wahl, M.S. Mary VanSciver, M.S. Georgia Jordan, M.S. Lila Rissman, M.S. Elissa Arndt, M.S., CCC-SLP Director of Professional Development: Jane Granger, M.S. Research Consultant: Beth Phillips, Ph.D.
76 Goals for Today 1. Understand the big picture of an effective reading program. 2. Learn important characteristics of reading programs that are aligned with current research. 3. Learn about the purpose, content, and process of FCRR Reports. 4. Learn how to access FCRR Reports and related resources. 5. Discuss opportunities for SLPs to help every child become an independent, fluent reader.
77 Opportunities for SLPs Intervention Familiarize yourself with the CRP used at your school FCRR Resources Collaboration with Reading Coach and Teachers
79 Most Commonly Used CRPs Trophies published by Harcourt (Beck et al., 2003) A Legacy of Literacy published by Houghton Mifflin (Cooper et al., 2003) Open Court published by SRA (Bereiter, et al., 2002) Reading Mastery Plus published by SRA (Englemenn & Brunder, 2002) Scott Foresman Reading (Afflerbach, et al., 2002) Al Otaiba S., Kosanovich, M.L., Torgesen J.K., Hassler, L. & Wahl, M. (2005). Reviewing core kindergarten and first-grade reading programs in light of no child left behind: an exploratory study. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 21,
80 FCRR Resources FCRR Reports The Science of Reading Articles Presentations Assessment Instruction Student Center Activities Progress Monitoring and Reporting Network
81 Student Center Activities Activity Plans and Activity Masters Phonological Awareness & Phonics (Book 1) Fluency, Vocabulary, and Comprehension (Book 2) Teacher Resource Guide (Book 3) Professional Development on a DVD
87 Goals for Today 1. Understand the big picture of an effective reading program. 2. Learn important characteristics of reading programs that are aligned with current research. 3. Learn about the purpose, content, and process of FCRR Reports. 4. Learn how to access FCRR Reports and related resources. 5. Discuss opportunities for SLPs to help every child become an independent, fluent reader.
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