1 Instructional Design: Objectives, Curriculum and Lesson Plans for Reading Sylvia Linan-Thompson, The University of Texas at Austin Haitham Taha, Sakhnin College December xx, 2013
2 Topics The importance of reading Reading in Arabic A systems approach The importance of vertical alignment Objectives Curriculum Lesson Plans
3 The importance of early grade reading Children enter school with discrepant language and literacy experiences. Research shows that if students do not develop reading skills early, they are likely to continue to lag behind their peers. Therefore, it is necessary to provide reading instruction early and strategically with a focus on skills that are critical at each grade level.
4 READING IN ARABIC
5 Research: Reading in Arabic Diglossia and phonological representations (Saiegh-Haddad, 2003, 2004) Orthographic complexity and visual recognition (Ibrahim et al., 2002 Taha et al., 2013, Taha & Khateb, 2013). Morphological awareness and the contribution to reading and spelling in Arabic (Taha & Saiegh-Haddad, submitted) Preschool intervention program for enhancing reading (Abu Rabia, 2000; Levin, Saiegh-Haddad, Hende, & Ziv, 2008)
6 Key Concepts Linguistic systems that impact learning to read: Phonological System Representation of sounds used in the oral and writing system of a language. Orthographic system Representation of the visual symbols used in the writing system of a language and the mapping of these symbols onto speech and meaning Morphological system Representation of meaningful units in the oral and written system of a language.
7 Participants 289 children in three age-group and an equal number of normal and dyslexic readers 2nd grade (N= 96) 4th grade (N=98) 6th grade (N=95) Three experimental conditions: phonological intervention morphological intervention control Taha & Saiegh-Haddad (Submitted)
8 Intervention 45-minutes twice a week six months. small groups of 4-5 participants A total of sessions Between hours of training
9 Morphological Intervention Focused on: morphological awareness: root versus patterns the non-concatenated root-pattern morphological structure of Arabic words The concatenated structure of morphologically dense words ببيتي clitics) (including stem and The morpho-syntactic information encoded in the concatenated and non-concatenated morphological structure of words. Explicit learning about Morpho-orthographic connections, e.g., استقبل,تقدم Pseudowords spelling training for establishing morpho-orthographic > >حبتوا< < تقا فل< إست ب رج< knowledge and representations
10 Materials Linguistic awareness tasks: Phonological awareness (phoneme segmentation: words and pseudo words; initial phoneme isolation, : words and pseudo words) Morphological awareness (word relatedness according to root and pattern; morphological decomposition of concatenated complex words; morphological production fluency; morphological structure recognition) Word-level reading tasks
11 Reading a voweled words
12 The interaction of the intervention by time within the second grade
13 The interaction of the intervention by time within the fourth grade
14 The interaction of the intervention by time within the sixth grade
15 The interaction of the intervention by time within Normal readers group
16 The interaction of the intervention by time within Dyslexic readers group
17 Conclusions - Both linguistic interventions contribute to word reading among NR and DR - Explicit morpho-orthographic training is important to the development of lexical knowledge especially for older readers - Intensive and repeated phoneme-grapheme training among beginning readers (including syllables and pseudowords decoding & spelling)
18 Systems Approach To improve student reading you have to change students learning experience. Three changes you can make that impact teaching and learning are: the focus of instruction; the quality of instruction; or the amount of instruction.
19 Systems Approach Objectives Framework which outlines specific knowledge and skills students must acquire Curriculum A specific learning program that operationalizes the objectives Lesson Plans The daily routines that support the acquisition of the knowledge and skills identified in the curriculum
20 Systems Approach 1 st -3 rd grade Language and Concept Knowledge Academic Vocabulary Phonemic Awareness Letter-Sound Recognition Word Reading and Spelling Automatic Word Recognition Sentence Reading Listening Comprehension Connected Text Reading Reading Comprehension
22 Objectives Framework which outlines specific knowledge and skills students must acquire in each grade level and across grade levels
23 Criteria Objectives: are clearly defined at each grade level. are anchored to research. are prioritized and dedicated to the main components of reading. guide instructional and curricular decisions. are commonly understood by all stakeholders and consistently used by teachers and administrations to communicate student learning and improve practice.
24 Phonics Progression 1 st Grade: Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. 2 nd Grade: Identify and write the diacritic mark shaddah with fathah. 3 rd Grade: Decode multisyllabic words.
25 Comprehension Progression 1 st grade: Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text. 2 nd grade: Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. 3rd grade: Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author of a text.
27 Criteria 1. An effective curriculum has a strong focus on the components of reading instruction. 2. Each of the objective is mapped from easiest to more difficult. 3. The skills and knowledge are distributed within and across the grade levels. 4. It has as a foundation a systematic instructional design 5. Ensures that an adequate amount of time is allocated to reading instruction.
28 An effective curriculum is comprehensive; explicitly and systematically builds Arabic language skills during reading instruction; explicitly teaches Arabic letter/sound correspondences and spelling rules; introduces skills in isolation and practice in context; builds vocabulary and emphasizes the relationships between and among words to build oral language skills; and includes reading and discussion of text that targets comprehension and language development
29 Systematic Instruction Systematic instruction is defined as instruction that is carefully sequenced and provides sufficient practice to master content, and judicious review to retain learning over time (Carnine, Silbert, Kame enui & Tarver, 2010). Introduce a manageable amount of information and objectives within a lesson. Structure adequate practice and review for mastery of the new skill or strategy. Why? Well-delivered and supported instruction helps to create a safe environment in which students can acquire new knowledge.
30 Systematic Instruction Component Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Letter alif alif be be Phonemic Awareness Recognition Identification Recognition Identification Blending Segmenting Letter Knowledge Name/soun d/ write Name/sound /write Name/sound /write Name/sound /write Name/sound /write Syllable Read/write Read/write Read/write Word Read/write Read/write Passage
31 Components of Reading Code Emphasis Meaning Emphasis Decoding Comprehension Alphabetic principle Phonemic awareness Vocabulary Fluency
32 Curriculum Phonemic awareness is an early and essential skill. Letter sound knowledge is necessary to develop alphabetic principle. The alphabetic principle is necessary for reading words and spelling. The ability to read words automatically is needed for fluent reading. Adequate reading comprehension depends on a person already knowing 90-95% of the words in a text (Nagy & Scott, 2000). Reading fluency and vocabulary impact comprehension.
33 Curriculum Identify scope and sequence for each component What will be taught and when? Determine lesson cycle Model, guided practice, independent practice Determine evaluation component How often? What type of mastery check will be used? Materials How will learning be supported?
34 LESSON PLANS
35 Lesson Plans Support teaching and learning in two ways: The content provides what is taught The format guides delivery of the content
36 Teaching Routines Teaching routines systematically introduce skills, using a model, guided practice, and independent practice instructional sequence. They also provide multiple opportunities to practice and apply new skills, and use mastery checks to determine whether or not children are learning.
37 Lesson Plan Advance Organizer T: We are going to learn to read a letter with the diacritic. The letter with the fath a has the same sound regardless of the position in the word. We will use the sound of the syllable to read and spell words. Model Point to the letter as it appears at the beginning of the word with the fath a and say, T: This letter with the fath a is. T : I read the syllable.
38 Lesson Plans Students answer in unison to maximize practice time. Teacher monitors responses and corrects or scaffolds as needed with all students participating. Practice until students master the skills.
39 Lesson Plans Task Share of Responsibility Explicit description of strategy Teacher modeling Guided practice Independent practice Independent use by student (application) Student responsibility
40 Lesson Plans Practice greatly increases the likelihood that students will permanently remember new information that they encounter by transferring it into their knowledge base. Practice increases student facility. Automaticity is usually only achieved through extensive rehearsal and repetition. Cognitive gains from practice often bring about motivation for more learning (Kalchman, Moss, & Case, 2001).
41 Teaching Routines The characteristics found in teaching routines Clear, precise, consistent language, pacing, and practice ensure that students are developing and mastering necessary skills in a timely manner.
42 Effective lesson plans Provide sufficient modeled examples prior to learner practice Include sufficient opportunities for student responses Provide specific guidance for corrective feedback Provide specific recommendations or guidance for re-teaching
43 For Discussion Do you have appropriate reading objectives? Do they focus on the most critical skills at each grade level? Are they aligned across the grade levels? How are they communicated to teachers and parents? Is the curriculum aligned with the objectives? Is it comprehensive and systematic? Are there standard lesson plans for teachers? Are they explicit and systematic?
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