# Adaptive PIV with variable interrogation window size and shape

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 respect to adjust the shape and size parameter slower i.e. less sensitive than the displacement field calculation itself. Shape and size adjustment are useful to add extra accuracy once a close solution has been reached, but one should not rely on elongated windows to find such a solution in the first place. Interrogation Window Shape A variable shape is implemented by weighting all pixels of both interrogation windows with a round or elongated Gaussian elliptical function. The orientation of the ellipse is such that the major axis of the ellipse is minimizing the variation of the displacements dv taken from the previous iteration over all angles α (0-180 ): dv α = Σ ( v 0 v α ) (1) where v 0 is the displacement at the center of the interrogation window, summing over all displacements v α along the line through the center at a certain angle α. The absolute difference of the displacements - effectively being an and/or combination of the first and second derivative - is considered to be more robust than the second derivative alone previously suggested (Scarano, 2003), In principle the first derivative is taken care of by the usual iterative window deformation, but the second derivative alone is quite sensitive to local noises, which lead Theunissen et.al. (2009) to conclude that a stable window shape computation is better done on (ensemble-)averaged vector fields. The present method aims at variable shape and size for each instantaneous vector field. The length of the line is chosen to be somewhat larger than the interrogation window. Here a factor of 2 has been selected. This again makes the procedure more robust since gradients are averaged over a larger range assuming that e.g. shear zones are larger than a single interrogation window. The eccentricity ε of the ellipse, i.e. the aspect ratio of major to minor axis, is computed from dvα and the value perpendicular to this direction dv α +90 : ε = (2) The eccentricity is limited to a range of 1:1 (dv α = dv α+90 ) to 4:1 (dv α << dv α+90 ) to prevent extremely long ellipsesγ is an additional parameter to change the sensitivity of the shape calculation. A value γ = 1 has been found appropriate so far; a value of 2 or 4 already provides too many 4:1 ellipses changing direction rapidly from window to window. Given interrogation windows as small as 16 2 this can lead to windows as thin as 8 x 32 pixel at 1/e weighting factor. Note that the Gaussian pixel weighting reduces the effect of particle truncation at the window borders. So far the Gaussian weighting has been implemented by taking a square window of double the size (e.g. 32x32) and applying the weighting function on all pixels with subsequent FFT processing. Shorter processing times can be reached by taking tilted windows of appropriate smaller size and thinning out overlapping windows to ensure similar overlap in all directions (Theunissen et.al., 2009). Interrogation Window Size The size of the interrogation window should be large enough to ensure enough matching particles for robustness and accuracy. Previously the local rms of the displacement field in combination with the local density of seeding particles has been used successfully for both synthetic and real data to - 2 -

5 Constant square windows are slightly worse than round windows probably due to truncation errors. Clearly 75% overlap outperforms 50% overlap since more vector positions are available to fit the strong gradients. The adaptive method can be further improved by using 75% overlap everywhere. Right now for 4:1 elliptical windows the overlap is only 50% in the direction of the minor axis and 87.5% in the direction of the major axis. Fig. 4 PIV-Challenge 2003 case B10, color = correlation value For the thicker shear zone of about 20 pixel width the overall errors are much lower. Since the gradient is already so small there is little difference between all methods with 16x16 windows. Still with 32x32 or larger windows the advantage of shape adaptation is significant. From the curves it is also clear that one should use windows as small as possible since the effect of small windows is larger than using the window shape adaptivity. The performance of both shape and size adaptation has been checked with image 10 of Fig. 5 PIV-Challenge 2003 case B10, interrogation window size: red = 32 2, black = Fig. 6 PIV-Challenge 2003 case B10, close-up of shear region at lower image border with horizontally stretched windows (drawn factor 4 smaller), every second vector shown in x-direction, color = u-displacement in pixels. PIV-Challenge 2005 case B. This synthetic data has regions of strong out-of-plane motion with low correlation values at the top-left in Fig. 4 and at the same time a boundary shear flow at the lower border of the image. Using γ rms = γ corr = 1 and 32 2 pixel reference window size leads to largest windows with 32 2 pixel for the low correlation region and small 16 2 windows with strong 4:1 elongated windows at the boundary shear flow (Fig. 5 and 6). Without using the rms of the displacement for the size calculation (γ rms = 0) the shear flow still has elongated windows but with larger size. Without using the correlation (γ corr = 0) the region with low correlation values has smaller window sizes. Using both rms and correlation provides the best result

6 4. Experimental Results The size and shape adaption method has been tested successfully for various experimental data. Below is shown the performance of the adaptive method (Fig. 7 right) for part of the jet flow image 50 of PIV-Challenge 2003 case A. Comparing constant and adaptive 32x32 windows with a vector grid spacing of 8 pixel (75% overlap) one can notice slightly higher peak vorticity values for the adaptive method. When using 16x16 windows more details become visible but both constant and adaptive methods suffer from outliers. With 32x32 windows and 4 pixel vector spacing (87.5% overlap) the robustness is Fig. 7 PIV-Challenge 2003 case A50, processed with constant window size and shape (left) and adaptive method (right), color = vorticity. Top 32x32ov75%, middle 16x16ov75%, bottom 32x32ov87%. Left: constant round Gaussian windows, right: adaptive shape and size

7 regained except 2 small regions for the adaptive method - and small flow features become visible but at the expense of longer processing times. As shown in Fig. 7 bottom the adaptive method performs slightly better than the constant window method, visible by higher peak vorticity values and sharper flow details resolving smaller vorticies and shear zones not previously visible. Still the overall noise level remains low as can be deduced by the almost laminar flow region at the top which is without significant gradients. Here all small scale vorticity structures are due to vector noise. Ensemble Data Averaging As pointed out by Theunissen et. al. (2009) the adaptive method is particularly suited for correlation averaging (Meinhart et.al., 1999) where one is summing up the correlation maps at each vector position over all images and computing the vector field from the summed correlation map at the end. This method is often used for µpiv with laminar and only slightly varying flows. This method can easily be extended to the usual multi-pass scheme refining interrogation window size and shape. The added robustness from using multiple images simultaneously allows smaller final interrogation Fig. 8 Top 16x16ov75%, every 2 nd vector shown, color = V, middle 32x32ov75%, bottom 32x32ov75% adaptive window size and shape

8 windows than what would be possible processing single images. Fig. 8 shows a comparison of ensemble averaging over 56 images with 16x16 and 32x32 px windows with 75% overlap compared to adaptive window size (32x32 to 16x16) and shape. In the sharp bend the adaptive approach using smaller 16x16 windows can resolve some small flow feature which is not visible with standard 32x32 px processing, while in the bulk of flow the adaptive approach retains the lower error from using larger windows. Processing here with 16x16 still leaves considerable flow fluctuations due to residual noise. 5. Summary A size and shape adaption method has been developed which increases the ability of PIVprocessing to resolve small flow structures with high gradients. The spatial resolution is improving while maintaining robustness and accuracy. Using synthetic data of a thin shear flow it is shown that adaptive window shapes can significantly increase the accuracy of the displacement field. The method also performs reliably for experimental data with visible improvements. References Becker F, Wieneke B, Yuan J, Schnörr C (2008) Variational correlation approach to flow measurement with window adaptation, 14th Int.Symp. Laser Appl Fl. Mech., Lisbon, Portugal, July Meinhart CD, Wereley ST, Santiago JG (1999), A PIV Algorithm For Estimating Time-Averaged Velocity Fields, Proceedings of Optical Methods and Image Processing in Fluid Flow, 3rd ASME/JSME Fluids Engineering Conference, San Francisco. Scarano F (2003) Theory of non-isotropic spatial resolution in PIV, Exp Fluids 35: Stanislas M, Okamoto K, Kähler CJ, Westerweel J, Scarano F (2008) Main results of the third international PIV Challenge, Exp Fluids 45: Theunissen R, Scarano F, Riethmuller ML, (2007) An adaptive sampling and windowing interrogation method in PIV, Meas Sc Techn 18: Theunissen R, Scarano F and Riethmuller ML (2008) On improvement of PIV interrogation near stationary interfaces, Exp Fluids 45: Theunissen R, Scarano F, Riethmuller ML (2009) Spatially adaptive PIV interrogation based on data ensemble, Exp Fluids 48:

### Introduction of Particle Image Velocimetry

Introduction of Particle Image Velocimetry Ken Kiger Burgers Program For Fluid Dynamics Turbulence School College Park, Maryland, May 24-27 Slides largely generated by J. Westerweel & C. Poelma of Technical

### Evaluation of the Cross Correlation Method by Using PIV Standard Images

1998 The Visualization Society of Japan and Ohmsha, Ltd. Journal of Visualization, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1998) 87-94 Evaluation of the Cross Correlation ethod by Using PIV Standard Images Hu, H.* 1, Saga, T.*

### Analysis of Vortex Shedding Mechanism through PIV Measurement of Flow past a Rotating Circular Cylinder

Analysis of Vortex Shedding Mechanism through PIV Measurement of Flow past a Rotating Circular Cylinder Linh Duong *, Siao Chung Luo, Yong Tian Chew Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University

### Visualization and Feature Extraction, FLOW Spring School 2016 Prof. Dr. Tino Weinkauf. Flow Visualization. Image-Based Methods (integration-based)

Visualization and Feature Extraction, FLOW Spring School 2016 Prof. Dr. Tino Weinkauf Flow Visualization Image-Based Methods (integration-based) Spot Noise (Jarke van Wijk, Siggraph 1991) Flow Visualization:

### Single Image 3D Reconstruction of Ball Motion and Spin From Motion Blur

Single Image 3D Reconstruction of Ball Motion and Spin From Motion Blur An Experiment in Motion from Blur Giacomo Boracchi, Vincenzo Caglioti, Alessandro Giusti Objective From a single image, reconstruct:

### TopHat StableTop Beamshaper

TopHat StableTop Beamshaper The top-hat beam shaper is a diffractive optical element (DOE) used to transform a near-gaussian incident laser beam into a uniform-intensity spot of either round, rectangular,

### CFD Based Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Circular Journal Bearing

International Journal of Advanced Mechanical Engineering. ISSN 2250-3234 Volume 4, Number 5 (2014), pp. 475-482 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com CFD Based Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis

### Adaptation of General Purpose CFD Code for Fusion MHD Applications*

Adaptation of General Purpose CFD Code for Fusion MHD Applications* Andrei Khodak Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ, 08540 USA akhodak@pppl.gov Abstract Analysis of many fusion

### Introduction of LDA. Last Class: 1. Matlab Programming 2. An example of PIV in Matlab code 3. EDPIV 4. PIV plugin for ImageJ 5.

Introduction of LDA Last Class: 1. Matlab Programming 2. An example of PIV in Matlab code 3. EDPIV 4. PIV plugin for ImageJ 5. JPIV Today s Contents: 1. Fundamentals of LDA 2. Turbulent Flow Properties

### When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid.

Fluid Statics When the fluid velocity is zero, called the hydrostatic condition, the pressure variation is due only to the weight of the fluid. Consider a small wedge of fluid at rest of size Δx, Δz, Δs

### Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems

Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems J. R. Gibson, a) S. Taylor, and J. H. Leck Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool,

### Lab 7: Rotational Motion

Lab 7: Rotational Motion Equipment: DataStudio, rotary motion sensor mounted on 80 cm rod and heavy duty bench clamp (PASCO ME-9472), string with loop at one end and small white bead at the other end (125

### Commercial CFD Software Modelling

Commercial CFD Software Modelling Dr. Nor Azwadi bin Che Sidik Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS 1 CFD Modeling CFD modeling can be

### Galaxy Morphological Classification

Galaxy Morphological Classification Jordan Duprey and James Kolano Abstract To solve the issue of galaxy morphological classification according to a classification scheme modelled off of the Hubble Sequence,

### Problem definition: optical flow

Motion Estimation http://www.sandlotscience.com/distortions/breathing_objects.htm http://www.sandlotscience.com/ambiguous/barberpole.htm Why estimate motion? Lots of uses Track object behavior Correct

### HIGH ACCURACY MATCHING OF PLANETARY IMAGES

1 HIGH ACCURACY MATCHING OF PLANETARY IMAGES Giuseppe Vacanti and Ernst-Jan Buis cosine Science & Computing BV, Niels Bohrweg 11, 2333 CA, Leiden, The Netherlands ABSTRACT 2. PATTERN MATCHING We address

### k u (t) = k b + k s t

Chapter 2 Stripe domains in thin films 2.1 Films with perpendicular anisotropy In the first part of this chapter, we discuss the magnetization of films with perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy. The easy

### Supplementary Information: Visualizing the entire DNA from a chromosome in a single frame

Supplementary Information: Visualizing the entire DNA from a chromosome in a single frame C. Freitag, C. Noble, J. Fritzsche, F.Persson, M. Reiter-Schad, A. N. Nilsson, A. Graneli, T. Ambjörnsson, K. U.

### Chapter 8 Steady Incompressible Flow in Pressure Conduits

Chapter 8 Steady Incompressible Flow in Pressure Conduits Outline 8.1 Laminar Flow and turbulent flow Reynolds Experiment 8.2 Reynolds number 8.3 Hydraulic Radius 8.4 Friction Head Loss in Conduits of

### OBJECT TRACKING USING LOG-POLAR TRANSFORMATION

OBJECT TRACKING USING LOG-POLAR TRANSFORMATION A Thesis Submitted to the Gradual Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements

### Grafisk produktion och Tryckkvalitet

Grafisk produktion och Tryckkvalitet Rastrering och objektiva kvalitetsmått Sasan Gooran (VT 2007) Why halftoning? Original Halftoned Prepress Halftoning Print Digital Image Image Conventional Halftoning

### Output Format for Laser Engraved

Output Format for Laser Engraved 1 Line Output 1.1 Concept: Based on density of the horizontal area to calculate the gap distance between lines. 1.2 Setting: 1.2.1 General: 1.2.1.1 Format: DXF only. 1.2.1.2

### Part-Based Recognition

Part-Based Recognition Benedict Brown CS597D, Fall 2003 Princeton University CS 597D, Part-Based Recognition p. 1/32 Introduction Many objects are made up of parts It s presumably easier to identify simple

### Model-based Chart Image Recognition

Model-based Chart Image Recognition Weihua Huang, Chew Lim Tan and Wee Kheng Leow SOC, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 E-mail: {huangwh,tancl, leowwk@comp.nus.edu.sg}

### ANALYTICAL VELOCITY PROFILE IN TUBE FOR LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW

Engineering MECHANICS, Vol. 21, 2014, No. 6, p. 371 379 371 ANALYTICAL VELOCITY PROFILE IN TUBE FOR LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW Jaroslav Štigler* A new analytical formula of the velocity profile for both

### Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003

MAS450/854 Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003 March 9th 2003 Introduction Spherical lens with no astigmatism Crossed cylindrical lenses with astigmatism Horizontal focus Vertical focus Plane of sharpest

### Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems

Fluid Mechanics Prof. T. I. Eldho Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Lecture No. # 36 Pipe Flow Systems Welcome back to the video course on Fluid Mechanics. In today

### Transmission through the quadrupole mass spectrometer mass filter: The effect of aperture and harmonics

Transmission through the quadrupole mass spectrometer mass filter: The effect of aperture and harmonics A. C. C. Voo, R. Ng, a) J. J. Tunstall, b) and S. Taylor Department of Electrical and Electronic

### Plate waves in phononic crystals slabs

Acoustics 8 Paris Plate waves in phononic crystals slabs J.-J. Chen and B. Bonello CNRS and Paris VI University, INSP - 14 rue de Lourmel, 7515 Paris, France chen99nju@gmail.com 41 Acoustics 8 Paris We

### ScienceDirect. Pressure Based Eulerian Approach for Investigation of Sloshing in Rectangular Water Tank

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia Engineering 144 (2016 ) 1187 1194 12th International Conference on Vibration Problems, ICOVP 2015 Pressure Based Eulerian Approach for Investigation

### Application Note Top-Hat

Application Note Top-Hat Contents Introduction Operating Principal Typical Set-Up (De) Magnification of the Spot Characteristics Design Considerations Typical Performance various types Selected Standard

### (Refer Slide Time: 00:01:23 min)

Computer Aided Design Prof. Anoop Chalwa Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Lecture No. # 02 Input Output Devices, Raster Graphics Today we will be talking about

### MRI Composing for Whole Body Imaging

MRI Composing for Whole Body Imaging B. Glocker 1,3, C. Wachinger 1, J. Zeltner 2, N. Paragios 3, N. Komodakis 4, M. Hansen 5, N. Navab 1 1 Computer Aided Medical Procedures (CAMP), TU München, Germany

### How to compute thermal lensing and laser power output for an Yb:YAG thin disk laser?

Tutorial 3: How to compute thermal lensing and laser power output for an Yb:YAG thin disk laser? Revised June 10, 2007 Copyright 2006 LAS-CAD GmbH Table of Contents 1. Starting LASCAD and Defining Pump

### NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES

Vol. XX 2012 No. 4 28 34 J. ŠIMIČEK O. HUBOVÁ NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF WIND ON BUILDING STRUCTURES Jozef ŠIMIČEK email: jozef.simicek@stuba.sk Research field: Statics and Dynamics Fluids mechanics

### A Study of the Cutting Performance in Abrasive Waterjet Contouring of Alumina Ceramics and Associated Jet Dynamic Characteristics

A Study of the Cutting Performance in Abrasive Waterjet Contouring of Alumina Ceramics and Associated Jet Dynamic Characteristics By Hua Liu B. Eng. (Mech.) A thesis submitted to the Queensland University

### CH-205: Fluid Dynamics

CH-05: Fluid Dynamics nd Year, B.Tech. & Integrated Dual Degree (Chemical Engineering) Solutions of Mid Semester Examination Data Given: Density of water, ρ = 1000 kg/m 3, gravitational acceleration, g

Image Segmentation Preview Segmentation subdivides an image to regions or objects Two basic properties of intensity values Discontinuity Edge detection Similarity Thresholding Region growing/splitting/merging

### Freehand Sketching. Sections

3 Freehand Sketching Sections 3.1 Why Freehand Sketches? 3.2 Freehand Sketching Fundamentals 3.3 Basic Freehand Sketching 3.4 Advanced Freehand Sketching Key Terms Objectives Explain why freehand sketching

### PNI White Paper Written in collaboration with Miami University. Accurate Position Tracking Using Inertial Measurement Units

PNI White Paper Written in collaboration with Miami University Accurate Position Tracking Using Inertial Measurement Units David Vincent February This white paper presents an overview of inertial position

### PIV Uncertainty Methodologies for CFD Code Validation at the MIR Facility

INL/EXT-12-27728 PIV Uncertainty Methodologies for CFD Code Validation at the MIR Facility Piyush Sabharwall Thomas Conder Richard Skifton Carl Stoots Eung Soo Kim December 2013 The INL is a U.S. Department

### Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer

Refractive Index and Dispersion: Prism Spectrometer OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this experiment is to study the phenomenon of dispersion i.e. to determine the variation of refractive index of the glass

### FLOW PATTERNS AND EXCHANGE PROCESSES IN DEAD ZONES OF RIVERS VOLKER WEITBRECHT & GERHARD H. JIRKA

FLOW PATTERNS AND EXCHANGE PROCESSES IN DEAD ZONES OF RIVERS VOLKER WEITBRECHT & GERHARD H. JIRKA Institute for Hydromechanics, University of Karlsruhe 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany weitbrecht@ifh.uni-karlsruhe.de

### FLOW ANALYSIS IN DIFFERENT PELTON BUCKET SECTION USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY (PIV) 7 April 2013

FLOW ANALYSIS IN DIFFERENT PELTON BUCKET SECTION USING PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY (PIV) Supervisors: Prof Dr. Bhola Thapa Dr. Hari Prasad Neopane Department of Mechanical Engineering Kathmandu University

### Deinterlacing/interpolation of TV signals. Elham Shahinfard Advisors: Prof. M. Ahmadi Prof. M. Sid-Ahmed

Deinterlacing/interpolation of TV signals Elham Shahinfard Advisors: Prof. M. Ahmadi Prof. M. Sid-Ahmed Outline A Review of some terminologies Converting from NTSC to HDTV; What changes need to be considered?

### Algorithm (DCABES 2009)

People Tracking via a Modified CAMSHIFT Algorithm (DCABES 2009) Fahad Fazal Elahi Guraya, Pierre-Yves Bayle and Faouzi Alaya Cheikh Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, Gjovik University

### Copyright 2011 Casa Software Ltd. www.casaxps.com. Centre of Mass

Centre of Mass A central theme in mathematical modelling is that of reducing complex problems to simpler, and hopefully, equivalent problems for which mathematical analysis is possible. The concept of

### Whitepaper. Image stabilization improving camera usability

Whitepaper Image stabilization improving camera usability Table of contents 1. Introduction 3 2. Vibration Impact on Video Output 3 3. Image Stabilization Techniques 3 3.1 Optical Image Stabilization 3

### SilverFast Resolution Target (USAF 1951)

SilverFast Resolution Target (USAF 1951) Content 1. Introduction 2 2. Resolution of a Scanner 2.1 dpi, what exactly is that? 2 2.2 How a scanner is structured 2 2.3 Sharpness at high Resolution 3 2.4 Higher

### 7. DYNAMIC LIGHT SCATTERING 7.1 First order temporal autocorrelation function.

7. DYNAMIC LIGHT SCATTERING 7. First order temporal autocorrelation function. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies the properties of inhomogeneous and dynamic media. A generic situation is illustrated

### Feature Tracking and Optical Flow

02/09/12 Feature Tracking and Optical Flow Computer Vision CS 543 / ECE 549 University of Illinois Derek Hoiem Many slides adapted from Lana Lazebnik, Silvio Saverse, who in turn adapted slides from Steve

### Centroid Distance Function and the Fourier Descriptor with Applications to Cancer Cell Clustering

Centroid Distance Function and the Fourier Descriptor with Applications to Cancer Cell Clustering By, Swati Bhonsle Alissa Klinzmann Mentors Fred Park Department of Mathematics Ernie Esser Department of

### Blasius solution. Chapter 19. 19.1 Boundary layer over a semi-infinite flat plate

Chapter 19 Blasius solution 191 Boundary layer over a semi-infinite flat plate Let us consider a uniform and stationary flow impinging tangentially upon a vertical flat plate of semi-infinite length Fig

### Cinema Projection Distortion

This paper was presented at: The 141st SMPTE Technical Conference and Exhibition Displays for the Theater and Home Session November 20, 1999 Cinema Projection Distortion Ronald A. Petrozzo Stuart W. Singer

### Strain and deformation

Outline Strain and deformation a global overview Mark van Kraaij Seminar on Continuum Mechanics Outline Continuum mechanics Continuum mechanics Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics concerned with

### Automated Sudoku Solver. Marty Otzenberger EGGN 510 December 4, 2012

Automated Sudoku Solver Marty Otzenberger EGGN 510 December 4, 2012 Outline Goal Problem Elements Initial Testing Test Images Approaches Final Algorithm Results/Statistics Conclusions Problems/Limits Future

### Experimental Question 1: Levitation of Conductors in an Oscillating Magnetic Field SOLUTION ( )

a. Using Faraday s law: Experimental Question 1: Levitation of Conductors in an Oscillating Magnetic Field SOLUTION The overall sign will not be graded. For the current, we use the extensive hints in the

### New trends of laser processing within the process chain of hotforming

11.04.2013 Hannover Messe New trends of laser processing within the process chain of hotforming TRUMPF Laser- und Systemtechnik GmbH Johannes Bührle Industry Management Automotive Introduction We are a

### Structural Integrity Analysis

Structural Integrity Analysis 1. STRESS CONCENTRATION Igor Kokcharov 1.1 STRESSES AND CONCENTRATORS 1.1.1 Stress An applied external force F causes inner forces in the carrying structure. Inner forces

### How to blend projection images on a curved screen using the Warp Generator

How to blend projection images on a curved screen using the Warp Generator version 2.1 Introduction The guide describes how to blend two projection images accurately onto a curved screen using the Calibre

### Theory From the diffraction pattern to the distribution size

Theory From the diffraction pattern to the distribution size 1- Principle This method is based on diffraction and diffusion phenomenon. To obtain the particle size Fraunhofer and Mie theory are used. When

### Introduction to acoustic imaging

Introduction to acoustic imaging Contents 1 Propagation of acoustic waves 3 1.1 Wave types.......................................... 3 1.2 Mathematical formulation.................................. 4 1.3

### 104 6 Validation and Applications. In the Vasicek model the movement of the short-term interest rate is given by

104 6 Validation and Applications 6.1 Interest Rates Derivatives In this section, we consider the pricing of collateralized mortgage obligations and the valuation of zero coupon bonds. Both applications

### The accurate calibration of all detectors is crucial for the subsequent data

Chapter 4 Calibration The accurate calibration of all detectors is crucial for the subsequent data analysis. The stability of the gain and offset for energy and time calibration of all detectors involved

### A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPRAOCH FOR AUTOMATIC TRAFFIC ASSESSMENT USING CONVENTIONAL CCTV CAMERA

A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPRAOCH FOR AUTOMATIC TRAFFIC ASSESSMENT USING CONVENTIONAL CCTV CAMERA N. Zarrinpanjeh a, F. Dadrassjavan b, H. Fattahi c * a Islamic Azad University of Qazvin - nzarrin@qiau.ac.ir

### THEORY OF JETS. 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Overview of Jet Flows. Contents

2 Contents THEORY OF JETS 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Introduction Overview of Jet Flows Structure and Development of a Free Jet Factors Influencing Jet Spread Conclusion 2.1 Introduction In this chapter, the

### CAD and Finite Element Analysis

CAD and Finite Element Analysis Most ME CAD applications require a FEA in one or more areas: Stress Analysis Thermal Analysis Structural Dynamics Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Electromagnetics Analysis...

### Position Sensors MicroSense, LLC

Understanding Capacitive Position Sensors 2011 MicroSense, LLC Table of Contents 1. Introduction to Capacitive Sensors... 3 1.1 Characteristics of Capacitive Sensors... 3 1.1.1 Non Contact... 3 1.1.2 High

### 11. THE STABILITY OF SLOPES

11-1 11. THE STABILITY OF SLOPES 11.1 INTRODUCTION The quantitative determination of the stability of slopes is necessary in a number of engineering activities, such as: (a) (b) (c) (d) the design of earth

### People s Physics book 3e Ch 25-1

The Big Idea: In most realistic situations forces and accelerations are not fixed quantities but vary with time or displacement. In these situations algebraic formulas cannot do better than approximate

### Acoustic Velocity, Impedance, Reflection, Transmission, Attenuation, and Acoustic Etalons

Acoustic Velocity, Impedance, Reflection, Transmission, Attenuation, and Acoustic Etalons Acoustic Velocity The equation of motion in a solid is (1) T = ρ 2 u t 2 (1) where T is the stress tensor, ρ is

### Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties

Chapter (1) Fluids and their Properties Fluids (Liquids or gases) which a substance deforms continuously, or flows, when subjected to shearing forces. If a fluid is at rest, there are no shearing forces

### SL-Rigidity and Caliber: Camera Localization and Calibration Using Rigidity Constraints

Self-archival version SL-Rigidity and Caliber: Camera Localization and Calibration Using Rigidity Constraints Supplemental Material Albert Liu Steve Marschner Noah Snavely 30 October 2015 1 Experiment

### Template-based Eye and Mouth Detection for 3D Video Conferencing

Template-based Eye and Mouth Detection for 3D Video Conferencing Jürgen Rurainsky and Peter Eisert Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications - Heinrich-Hertz-Institute, Image Processing Department, Einsteinufer

### Applied Fluid Mechanics

Applied Fluid Mechanics 1. The Nature of Fluid and the Study of Fluid Mechanics 2. Viscosity of Fluid 3. Pressure Measurement 4. Forces Due to Static Fluid 5. Buoyancy and Stability 6. Flow of Fluid and

### Chapter 9 Rotation of Rigid Bodies

Chapter 9 Rotation of Rigid Bodies 1 Angular Velocity and Acceleration θ = s r (angular displacement) The natural units of θ is radians. Angular Velocity 1 rad = 360o 2π = 57.3o Usually we pick the z-axis

### Structural Matching of 2D Electrophoresis Gels using Graph Models

Structural Matching of 2D Electrophoresis Gels using Graph Models Alexandre Noma 1, Alvaro Pardo 2, Roberto M. Cesar-Jr 1 1 IME-USP, Department of Computer Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil 2 DIE,

### 5-Axis Test-Piece Influence of Machining Position

5-Axis Test-Piece Influence of Machining Position Michael Gebhardt, Wolfgang Knapp, Konrad Wegener Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing (IWF), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich,

### Blend Times in Stirred Tanks. Reacting Flows - Lecture 9

Blend Times in Stirred Tanks Reacting Flows - Lecture 9 Instructor: André Bakker http://www.bakker.org André Bakker (2006) 1 Evaluation of mixing performance Methods to evaluate mixing performance: Characterization

### Energy and material efficient non-circular bore Bitter magnets. A. Akhmeteli 1, A.V. Gavrilin 2

Energy and material efficient non-circular bore Bitter magnets A. Akhmeteli 1, A.V. Gavrilin 2 Abstract There exist a number of experiments/applications where the second dimension of the bore of Bitter

### Types of Elements

chapter : Modeling and Simulation 439 142 20 600 Then from the first equation, P 1 = 140(0.0714) = 9.996 kn. 280 = MPa =, psi The structure pushes on the wall with a force of 9.996 kn. (Note: we could

### Fluent Software Training TRN Boundary Conditions. Fluent Inc. 2/20/01

Boundary Conditions C1 Overview Inlet and Outlet Boundaries Velocity Outline Profiles Turbulence Parameters Pressure Boundaries and others... Wall, Symmetry, Periodic and Axis Boundaries Internal Cell

### Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide

Name: Planetary Orbit Simulator Student Guide Background Material Answer the following questions after reviewing the Kepler's Laws and Planetary Motion and Newton and Planetary Motion background pages.

### 3-D Dynamics of Rigid Bodies

3-D Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Introduction of third dimension :: Third component of vectors representing force, linear velocity, linear acceleration, and linear momentum :: Two additional components for

### NUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOW AND TURBULENCE THROUGH SUBMERGED VEGETATION

NUMERICAL STUDY OF FLOW AND TURBULENCE THROUGH SUBMERGED VEGETATION HYUNG SUK KIM (1), MOONHYEONG PARK (2), MOHAMED NABI (3) & ICHIRO KIMURA (4) (1) Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology,

### Vibrations of a Free-Free Beam

Vibrations of a Free-Free Beam he bending vibrations of a beam are described by the following equation: y EI x y t 4 2 + ρ A 4 2 (1) y x L E, I, ρ, A are respectively the Young Modulus, second moment of

### Face detection is a process of localizing and extracting the face region from the

Chapter 4 FACE NORMALIZATION 4.1 INTRODUCTION Face detection is a process of localizing and extracting the face region from the background. The detected face varies in rotation, brightness, size, etc.

### ME 111: Engineering Drawing

ME 111: Engineering Drawing Lecture # 14 (10/10/2011) Development of Surfaces http://www.iitg.ernet.in/arindam.dey/me111.htm http://www.iitg.ernet.in/rkbc/me111.htm http://shilloi.iitg.ernet.in/~psr/ Indian

### The Influence of Magnetic Forces on the Stability Behavior of Large Electrical Machines

The Influence of Magnetic Forces on the Stability Behavior of Large Electrical Machines Dr. H. Sprysl, Dr. H. Vögele, ABB Kraftwerke AG, CH-5242 Birr Dr. G. Ebi, SENSOPLAN GmbH, D-79801 Hohentengen a.h.

### Elasticity and Equations of State

Elasticity and Equations of State The way planets deform depends primarily upon the elastic properties of the constituent polycrystalline materials. In particular, the speed of body waves passing through

### Enhancing the SNR of the Fiber Optic Rotation Sensor using the LMS Algorithm

1 Enhancing the SNR of the Fiber Optic Rotation Sensor using the LMS Algorithm Hani Mehrpouyan, Student Member, IEEE, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Queen s University, Kingston, Ontario,

### Chess Vision. Chua Huiyan Le Vinh Wong Lai Kuan

Chess Vision Chua Huiyan Le Vinh Wong Lai Kuan Outline Introduction Background Studies 2D Chess Vision Real-time Board Detection Extraction and Undistortion of Board Board Configuration Recognition 3D

### 7 Centrifugal loads and angular accelerations

7 Centrifugal loads and angular accelerations 7.1 Introduction This example will look at essentially planar objects subjected to centrifugal loads. That is, loads due to angular velocity and/or angular

### Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

### Path Tracking for a Miniature Robot

Path Tracking for a Miniature Robot By Martin Lundgren Excerpt from Master s thesis 003 Supervisor: Thomas Hellström Department of Computing Science Umeå University Sweden 1 Path Tracking Path tracking

### PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge

Chapter 27 Solutions PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge Description: Knight Problem-Solving Strategy 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge is illustrated.

### A New Robust Algorithm for Video Text Extraction

A New Robust Algorithm for Video Text Extraction Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, no. 6, June 2003 Edward K. Wong and Minya Chen School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Kyungpook National Univ.