OMEGA EP OPAL: A Path to a 75-PW Laser System

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1 OMEGA EP OPAL: A Path to a 75-PW Laser System Ultra-broadband front end (NOPA1 to 4) 0.25 J, 2.5 ns, 160 nm OMEGA EP Beamline 4 Beamline kj 2.5 ns 6.3 kj 2.5 ns Noncollinear optical parametric amplifier EP-OPAL beamline OPCPA in DKDP Beamline 2 Beamline 1 ps (IR) + ns (UV) pulses to EP TC 1.6 kj, 20 fs OMEGA EP target chamber (EP TC) ~75 PW or ~10 24 W/cm 2 D. D. Meyerhofer University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics 56th Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics New Orleans, LA October 2014

2 Summary The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is exploring the possibility of using OMEGA EP to pump an ultrahighintensity (10 24 W/cm 2 ) laser beamline Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA)* makes it possible for solid-state lasers to pump ultrahigh-intensity lasers (tens of fs) Two OMEGA EP beams could be used to produce a 1.6-kJ, 20-fs (75-PW) OPCPA beamline EP-OPAL (optical parametric amplifier line) the two remaining beams would be available as ps or ns beams for target conditioning and pump probe experiments EP-OPAL would extend the high-intensity frontier by two orders of magnitude EP-OPAL s combination of high-energy fs, ps, and ns beams would provide a unique research environment. E23510 *A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, Opt. Commun. 88, 437 (1992). **I. N. Ross et al., Opt. Commun. 144, 125 (1997).

3 Collaborators S.-W. Bahk, J. Bromage, D. H. Froula, M. J. Guardalben, D. Haberberger, S. X. Hu, B. E. Kruschwitz, J. F. Myatt, P. M. Nilson, J. B. Oliver, C. Robillard, M. J. Shoup III, C. Stoeckl, W. Theobald, L. J. Waxer, B. Yaakobi, and J. D. Zuegel University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics

4 An ultra-intense OPCPA extension to OMEGA EP would reach focused intensities approaching W/cm 2 Protons relativistic above W/cm 2 Laser Monoenergetic c for nuclear science Electron beam Gamma photons Laser pulse Electrons accelerated to &1 GeV Ez Trapped electrons Laser pulse Instantaneous electron m p - plasma wavelength density Attosecond pulse Ez Ez Filter Incident pulse Ionization front Attosecond pulses from relativistic mirrors for quantum electrodynamic studies Plasma E20943d This laser would be a world-class tool for fundamental science at new intensity regimes.

5 Noncollinear optical parametric amplifiers (NOPA s) use a three-wave process Signal Nonlinear crystal (2) X Idler (Angles exaggerate for clarity) Pump Energy conservation: Momentum conservation: (use crystal birefringence) ' ~ " ' ~ + ' ~ P S ' k " ' k + ' k I P S Amplified signal I phase matching Signal bandwidth E20591g

6 The OMEGA EP Laser System could be used to pump a 75-PW, 20-fs OPCPA beamline: EP-OPAL OMEGA EP Beamline 4 Beamline 3 Beamline 2 Beamline 1 Ultra-broadband front end (NOPA1 to 4) NOPA5 pump 100-J KDP ps (IR) + ns (UV) pulses to EP TC 6.3 kj 2.5 ns 6.3 kj 2.5 ns 0.25 J, 2.5 ns, 160 nm NOPA5 25 J NOPA kj NOPA7 2.5 kj Compressor 1.6 kj, 20 fs EP-OPAL beamline OPCPA in DKDP OMEGA EP target chamber (EP TC) ~75 PW or ~10 24 W/cm 2 E23393 Two OMEGA EP beamlines would be used, leaving two ns/ps beamlines for pump probe and other experiments.

7 There is room in the OMEGA EP Laser Bay for EP-OPAL OMEGA EP Laser Bay EP-OPAL beamline (NOPA5 to NOPA7 + beam transport) Ultra-broadband front end (located in Capacitor Bay 3N below the OMEGA EP Laser Bay) EP-OPAL compressor Short-pulse transport and focusing There are technical challenges gratings: size and damage large KDP crystals fs optics damage threshold dispersion management OMEGA EP Laser Bay EP-OPAL beamline Short-pulse transport and focusing LLE is developing a 7-J, 15-fs beamline to address these challenges Ultra-broadband front end EP-OPAL compressor Existing technologies would allow for 10 PW. E23394a

8 EP-OPAL will use a two-element focusing system to provide experimental flexibility E23395 f/4.6 off-axis parabola outside the target chamber Elliptical plasma mirror inside the target chamber* part of the experimental design/target disposable could be concave or convex to tune the f/# t: defocal length tl: focal length i: incident angle Laser a Minor axis (2b) Ellipsoid mirror Major axis (2a) b Refocusing plasma mirror/target Fold mirror Intensity enhancement factor Target chamber OAP Elliptical plasma mirror concept and demonstration* (Minor axis length)/(major axis length) *A. Kon et al., J. Phys., Conf. Ser. 244, (2010).

9 EP-OPAL will provide a variety of beams for high-energy-density-physics research EP-OPAL should be able to generate a wide array of photon/particle beams, many with unprecedented fluences THz intense x rays up 100 kev gamma ray >10-GeV electron beams multi-gev proton beams (and other ions) The two remaining OMEGA EP beamlines can provide 1- to 10-ns UV beams with up to 6.5 kj 1- to 100-ps IR beams with up to 2.5 kj E23396a

10 EP-OPAL should extend K-shell extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements to high-z materials Implosion-based continuum EXAFS sources* are not available above ~20 kev researchers are developing more complicated L-shell EXAFS** Betatron sources show promise to produce tens of kev quasicontinuum x-ray sources A spatially coherent quasi-continuum 10-keV x-ray source with a 2-J, 30-fs laser was recently demonstrated d 2 I/d~dS (arbitrary units) Experimental betatron x-ray spectrum Model Experimental mean Sixfold filter Experimental standard deviation X-ray energy (kev) E23397a *B. Yaakobi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, (2005). **Y. Ping et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, (2013). E. Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, (2002). S. Kneip et al., Nat. Phys. 6, 980 (2010).

11 Summary/Conclusions The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) is exploring the possibility of using OMEGA EP to pump an ultrahighintensity (10 24 W/cm 2 ) laser beamline Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA)* makes it possible for solid-state lasers to pump ultrahigh-intensity lasers (tens of fs) Two OMEGA EP beams could be used to produce a 1.6-kJ, 20-fs (75-PW) OPCPA beamline EP-OPAL (optical parametric amplifier line) the two remaining beams would be available as ps or ns beams for target conditioning and pump probe experiments EP-OPAL would extend the high-intensity frontier by two orders of magnitude EP-OPAL s combination of high-energy fs, ps, and ns beams would provide a unique research environment. E23510 *A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, Opt. Commun. 88, 437 (1992). **I. N. Ross et al., Opt. Commun. 144, 125 (1997).

12 EXAFS EXAFS is modulations in x-ray absorption caused by interference of the ejected electron wave function with reflections from neighboring atoms Absorbed x-ray photon [E ph > E K ] Electron wave packet R Atomic site Reflected electron wave ' 2 k 2 e 2m = E ph E K, phase is k e R If the two electron waves are in phase: maximum absorption out of phase: minimum absorption E13958d X-ray spectrometer (incident) 57-beam implosion Continuum emission Plastic shell Three stacked beams (shock) CH radiation 10 nm Ti shield overcoated with 17 nm CH 4.5 mm 21.5 mm X-ray spectrometer (EXAFS)

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