X-ray Production. Target Interactions. Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) X-ray Production & Emission

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "X-ray Production. Target Interactions. Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) X-ray Production & Emission"

Transcription

1 Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) X-ray Production & Emission X-ray Production X-rays are produced inside the x-ray tube when high energy projectile electrons from the filament interact with the atoms of the anode Conditions necessary: Source of electrons Target (anode) High potential difference Sudden deceleration of projectile electrons Target Interactions All occur within 0.25 to 0.5 mm of target surface Heat production Bremsstrahlung interactions Braking or slowed-down Characteristic interaction Target material 1

2 Heat Production 99.8 percent of incident electrons kinetic energy converted to heat Incident electrons transfer kinetic energy to outer shell electrons of target atoms Causes them to emit infrared radiation Heat (heat units = joules) X-ray Production Most of the kinetic energy of projectile electrons is converted to heat by interactions with outer-shell electrons of target atoms. These interactions are primarily excitations rather than ionizations Bremsstrahlung Radiation Projectile electron enters an atom in the metal of the anode and does not strike any of the electrons It may continue toward the center of the atom and come near the nucleus due to the electrostatic attraction. This attraction slows the electron down as it passes the nucleus and alters the direction of the projectile electron. 2

3 Bremsstrahlung As incident electrons get closer to nucleus, the following occurs: Photon energy increases Photon energy dependent on how close electron comes to nucleus Due to larger deflection of incident electron Bremsstrahlung Direct interaction between nucleus and incident electron Possible, but not probable Maximum energy photon Bremsstrahlung Radiation 3

4 Video Characteristic Radiation Characteristic of the target element Projectile electron strikes an atom and knocks a K shell electron out of its orbit. This leaves the atom in an unstable state Tube potential must be at least 70 kvp to eject a tungsten K shell electron K shell binding energy is 69 kev Only electron that drops into K-shell will contribute to beam Characteristic Radiation An electron from a higher orbit moves down to the hole Called a K characteristic x-ray X-ray photons are produced when the electron changes orbital shells. Cascade effect 4

5 Characteristic Radiation Characteristic x-rays are produced after the ionization of a K-shell electron. When an outershell electron fills the vacancy in the K shell, an x- ray is emitted. The energy is calculated by the difference between the electron orbits Video Characteristic Radiation Calculate the the energy of a K characteristic photon with the transition from the L shell. M shell? Calculate the energy of an L characteristic photon with the transition from the M shell. N shell? Graphed as discrete spectrum (measurable) 5

6 X-ray Production (Mostly Brems) First, only a high-energy projectile electron has enough energy to knock a K-shell electron out of its orbit to produce a characteristic x-ray. At kvp settings lower than 70, all brems.. Second, the projectile electron is more likely to miss the K-shell electron of the target atom than it is to hit it due to atom s open space Off-Focus Radiation Effect on Image Emission Spectrum General form of an x-ray emission spectrum. Characteristic radiation Bremsstrahlung radiation 6

7 Emission Spectrum Graphical representation of characteristic (discrete) and bremsstrahlung radiation (continuous) Y axis = x-ray quantity Height of the curve or bar graph Change in amplitude = change in quantity X axis = x-ray quality (kev) Shown on horizontal axis Change in position horizontal axis = change in quality Emission Spectrum: Brems Radiation Tube potential based on manufacturer specs kvp range < Graphed as continuous spectrum (wide range of energies) Selected kvp will determine maximum kev possible for any photon Minimum kev could be just above zero Factors Affecting the Emission Spectrum Milliamperage (ma) Quantity, number of photons Amplitude of continuous and discrete spectra are affected No change in position Milliamperage-seconds (mas) ma X time Change in ma results in a proportionate change in the amplitude of the x- ray emission spectrum at all energies. 7

8 Factors Affecting the Emission Spectrum Kilovoltage (kvp) Quality, penetrability Amplitude and position of continuous spectrum are affected Amplitude of discrete spectrum is affected Change in kvp results in an increase in the amplitude of the emission spectrum at all energies, but a greater increase at high energies than at low energies. Therefore, the spectrum is shifted to the right or highenergy side. Emission Spectrum Factors Affecting the Emission Spectrum Anode atomic number Slight change in Amplitude of continuous spectrum Amplitude and position of discrete spectrum is affected Discrete emission spectrum shifts to the right with an increase in the atomic number of the target material. The continuous spectrum increases slightly in amplitude, particularly to the high-energy side, with an increase in target atomic number. 8

9 Factors Affecting the Emission Spectrum Voltage Waveform Amplitude and position of continuous spectrum is affected Amplitude of discrete spectrum is affected Three-phase and high-frequency operation are considerably more efficient than single-phase operation. Both the x- ray intensity (area under the curve) and the effective energy (relative shift to the right) are increased. Shown are representative spectra for 92-kVp operations. Filtration Process of eliminating undesirable low-energy x-ray photons by insertion of absorbing materials into primary beam Allows radiographer to shape emission spectrum Factors Affecting the Emission Spectrum Filtration Inherent Window of x-ray tube O.5 mm Al equivalent Added Aluminum added between tube housing and collimator 1.0 mm Al equivalent Total Filtration = Inherent + Added 2.5 mm Al equivalent 9

10 Filtration Filtration Hardening of beam Removes low energy soft photons Increases average beam energy Soft tissue penetration requires approximately kiloelectronvolt (kev) photons Filtration Low energy photons cannot penetrate the part Only contribute to patient dose 10

11 Factors Affecting the Emission Spectrum Purpose of added filtration is to remove low energy, long wavelength photons Amplitude and position of continuous spectrum is affected Amplitude of discrete spectrum is affected Adding filtration to an x-ray tube results in reduced x-ray intensity but increased effective energy. The emission spectra represented here resulted from operation at the same ma and kvp but with different filtration. Measurement Aluminum Standard filtering material Filtration expressed as Al/Eq Half-value layer (HVL) Filtration needed to reduce beam to one half of its original intensity Types of Filtration Inherent filtration Added filtration Compound filtration Compensating filtration Total filtration 11

12 Filtration Types Inherent 0.5 mm Al equivalent X-ray tube design Added 1.0 mm Al equivalent Any filtration outside x-ray tube and housing Silver on collimator mirror Thin layers of aluminum or copper permanently added between the collimator and protective housing Filters may be changed Glass or metal envelope Dielectric oil bath Glass window of housing Inherent Filtration Inherent Filtration Tube aging increases inherent filtration Vaporized tungsten coats tube window HVL testing important 12

13 Total Filtration = Inherent + Added Filtration Does not take into account any compound or compensating filtration Effect on Tube Output Ideally, filtration would only remove lowenergy photons Some high energy photons are removed Results in decrease in radiographic density that must be compensated for with increase in technique Compound Filtration K-edge filters Two or more materials Each layer absorbs characteristic photons created in previous layer 13

14 Compensation Filtration Evens radiographic density with parts that have uneven tissue thickness or densities E.g., wedge for foot or T-spine, trough for CXR Compensating Filters Compensation Filtration Applications 14

Production of X-rays and Interactions of X-rays with Matter

Production of X-rays and Interactions of X-rays with Matter Production of X-rays and Interactions of X-rays with Matter Goaz and Pharoah. Pages 11-20. Neill Serman Electrons traveling from the filament ( cathode) to the target (anode) convert a small percentage

More information

Production of X-rays. Radiation Safety Training for Analytical X-Ray Devices Module 9

Production of X-rays. Radiation Safety Training for Analytical X-Ray Devices Module 9 Module 9 This module presents information on what X-rays are and how they are produced. Introduction Module 9, Page 2 X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation. Other types of electromagnetic radiation

More information

Chapter 16 Physics of Diagnostic X-Rays

Chapter 16 Physics of Diagnostic X-Rays 1895, W. C. Roentgen Discovery of x-ray The first x-ray image: Fig.16.1 Radiology Diagnostic radiology (radiologist) Radiation therapy (therapeutic radiologist) Nuclear medicine 1. Production of X-Ray

More information

Production of X-Rays. Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612) MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester

Production of X-Rays. Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612) MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester Production of X-Rays Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612)626-6708 watan016@umn.edu MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester Contents 1) Physics of X-ray production 2) The X-ray tube 3)

More information

Diagnostic X-rays and CT Scans - X-ray vision

Diagnostic X-rays and CT Scans - X-ray vision - X-ray vision http://www.uab.edu/surgonc/cases/gi/case2/ctscanof.htm http://www.museumboerhaave.nl/aacollection/aajpegs/m22/9955.jpg - motivation and outline X-rays have been known for over 110 years.

More information

Chapter 5 X-ray imaging 5.1 The physics of diagnostic X-rays

Chapter 5 X-ray imaging 5.1 The physics of diagnostic X-rays Chapter 5 X-ray imaging 5.1 The physics of diagnostic X-rays Learning objectives: How are X-rays produced in an X-ray tube? How is the energy of the photons from an X-ray tube controlled? Why are photons

More information

Radiology Physics. Just take a deep breath. Books to Consider. Why worry about physics? The Game Plan. 1 st Period

Radiology Physics. Just take a deep breath. Books to Consider. Why worry about physics? The Game Plan. 1 st Period Radiology Physics Just take a deep breath OR: I DIDN T SIGN UP TO LEARN THIS STUFF Chris Ober, DVM, PhD, DACVR 7 February 2011 Why worry about physics? Know what the system can give you Know what the system

More information

CHAPTER 5 QC Test For Radiographic Equipment. Prepared by:- Kamarul Amin bin Abdullah @ Abu Bakar School of Medical Imaging KLMUC

CHAPTER 5 QC Test For Radiographic Equipment. Prepared by:- Kamarul Amin bin Abdullah @ Abu Bakar School of Medical Imaging KLMUC CHAPTER 5 QC Test For Radiographic Equipment Prepared by:- Kamarul Amin bin Abdullah @ Abu Bakar School of Medical Imaging KLMUC Lesson Outcomes Describe the objectives of each QC test done.(importance)

More information

X-rays Images. Prof. Dr. Lucas Ferrari de Oliveira UFPR Informatics Department

X-rays Images. Prof. Dr. Lucas Ferrari de Oliveira UFPR Informatics Department Prof. Dr. Lucas Ferrari de Oliveira UFPR Informatics Department Discovery: German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in 1895; "X-rays" signify an unknown quantity; X-rays were found emanating from Crookes tubes

More information

X-ray Imaging Systems

X-ray Imaging Systems Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD 119) X-ray Tube & Equipment X-ray Imaging Systems Medical X-ray Equipment Classified by purpose or energy/current levels kvp, ma Radiographic Non-dynamic procedures

More information

On the Use of a Diagnostic X-Ray Machine for Calibrating Personal Dosimeters

On the Use of a Diagnostic X-Ray Machine for Calibrating Personal Dosimeters On the Use of a Diagnostic X-Ray Machine for Calibrating Personal Dosimeters A. T. Baptista Neto, T. A. Da Silva Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Rua

More information

X-ray Imaging Systems

X-ray Imaging Systems Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD 119) X-ray Tube & Equipment X-ray Imaging Systems Medical X-ray Equipment Classified by purpose or energy/current levels kvp, ma Radiographic Non-dynamic procedures

More information

What does DXA mean and why is it important? Principles of operation of DXA systems. How can we measure bone mineral density? What is radiation?

What does DXA mean and why is it important? Principles of operation of DXA systems. How can we measure bone mineral density? What is radiation? What does DXA mean and why is it important? Principles of operation of DXA systems Dr Wil Evans Head of Medical Physics University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff DXA stands for Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry

More information

Radiographic Testing. Basic Principles

Radiographic Testing. Basic Principles Radiographic Testing Radiography is used in a very wide range of aplications including medicine, engineering, forensics, security, etc. In NDT, radiography is one of the most important and widely used

More information

Diagnostic X-ray Tube. Producing a radiograph(1) Overview - Equipment found in a general X- ray room

Diagnostic X-ray Tube. Producing a radiograph(1) Overview - Equipment found in a general X- ray room Radiographic Science Basic Overview of diagnostic radiography Marc Griffiths Overview - Equipment found in a general X- ray room Diagnostic X-ray tube Tube support Mechanism Diagnostic Table Upright stands

More information

Activitity (of a radioisotope): The number of nuclei in a sample undergoing radioactive decay in each second. It is commonly expressed in curies

Activitity (of a radioisotope): The number of nuclei in a sample undergoing radioactive decay in each second. It is commonly expressed in curies Activitity (of a radioisotope): The number of nuclei in a sample undergoing radioactive decay in each second. It is commonly expressed in curies (Ci), where 1 Ci = 3.7x10 10 disintegrations per second.

More information

CHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom

CHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom CHAPTER 4 Structure of the Atom 4.1 The Atomic Models of Thomson and Rutherford 4.2 Rutherford Scattering 4.3 The Classic Atomic Model 4.4 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 4.5 Successes and Failures

More information

Radiology. Floron C. Faries, Jr. DVM, MS

Radiology. Floron C. Faries, Jr. DVM, MS Radiology Floron C. Faries, Jr. DVM, MS Objectives Determine the appropriate machine settings for making a radiograph Describe essential radiograph accessories Describe the positions used to perform radiographs

More information

Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory (Physics 4780)

Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory (Physics 4780) Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Week of September 27, 2010 Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory (Physics 4780) The University of Toledo Instructor: Randy Ellingson Gamma Ray Production: Co 60 60 60 27Co28Ni *

More information

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): Understanding Characteristic X-Rays

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): Understanding Characteristic X-Rays X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF): Understanding Characteristic X-Rays What is XRF? X-Ray Fluorescence is defined as The emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been

More information

WAVES AND PARTICLES. (v) i.e (vi) The potential difference required to bring an electron of wavelength to rest

WAVES AND PARTICLES. (v) i.e (vi) The potential difference required to bring an electron of wavelength to rest WAVES AND PARTICLES 1. De Broglie wavelength associated with the charges particles (i) The energy of a charged particle accelerated through potential difference q = charge on the particel (ii) Momentum

More information

X-ray Imaging System. X-Ray Circuit. Principles of Imaging Science II (RAD 120) X-ray Imaging System Circuitry

X-ray Imaging System. X-Ray Circuit. Principles of Imaging Science II (RAD 120) X-ray Imaging System Circuitry Principles of Imaging Science II (RAD 120) X-ray Imaging System Circuitry X-ray Imaging System Operating console Set x-ray tube current (quantity) and voltage (quality) Controls line compensation, kvp,

More information

Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Radiation and the Electronic Structure of the Atom

Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Radiation and the Electronic Structure of the Atom Chapter 6 In This Chapter Physical and chemical properties of compounds are influenced by the structure of the molecules that they consist of. Chemical structure depends, in turn, on how electrons are

More information

In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the

In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the discussion on the major components of the x-ray machine. Today

More information

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions

More information

EDS system. CRF Oxford Instruments INCA CRF EDAX Genesis EVEX- NanoAnalysis Table top system

EDS system. CRF Oxford Instruments INCA CRF EDAX Genesis EVEX- NanoAnalysis Table top system EDS system Most common X-Ray measurement system in the SEM lab. Major elements (10 wt% or greater) identified in ~10 secs. Minor elements identifiable in ~100 secs. Rapid qualitative and accurate quantitative

More information

No Brain Too Small PHYSICS ATOMS: PHOTONS AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT QUESTIONS

No Brain Too Small PHYSICS ATOMS: PHOTONS AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT QUESTIONS ATOMS: PHOTONS AND THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT QUESTIONS SODIUM LAMPS (2012;2) Low pressure sodium lamps are widely used in street lighting. The lamps produce light when an electric current is passed through

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra POGIL

Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra POGIL Name _Key AP Chemistry Electromagnetic Radiation and Atomic Spectra POGIL Electromagnetic Radiation Model 1: Characteristics of Waves The figure above represents part of a wave. The entire wave can be

More information

AS Revision questions Quantum Phenomena and Electricity

AS Revision questions Quantum Phenomena and Electricity Q1. (a) State what happens in an atom when line spectra are produced. Electrons move from one energy level (or orbit) to a higher one (1 mark) when they absorb energy from an incoming photon or interact

More information

The structure of atoms

The structure of atoms The structure of atoms Atomic models The Rutherford experiment Bohr's theory of the hidrogen atom The Frank-Hertz experiment Atomic models arly ideas One of the most intriguing questions, to which already

More information

Radiographic Grid. Principles of Imaging Science II (RAD 120) Image-Forming X-Rays. Radiographic Grids

Radiographic Grid. Principles of Imaging Science II (RAD 120) Image-Forming X-Rays. Radiographic Grids Principles of Imaging Science II (RAD 120) Radiographic Grids 1 Image-Forming X-Rays Four X-ray paths a. X-rays interact with patient and scatter away from the receptor b. X-rays interact and are absorbed

More information

5.2 ASSESSMENT OF X-RAY TUBE LEAKAGE RADIATION AND X-RAY TUBE OUTPUT TOTAL FILTRATION

5.2 ASSESSMENT OF X-RAY TUBE LEAKAGE RADIATION AND X-RAY TUBE OUTPUT TOTAL FILTRATION 5.2 ASSESSMENT OF X-RAY TUBE LEAKAGE RADIATION AND X-RAY TUBE OUTPUT TOTAL FILTRATION 5.2.1 Task The bremsstrahlung produced by the X-ray tube has a continuous spectrum, limited by the set and spreads

More information

Physics 221 Lab 14 Transformers & Atomic Spectra

Physics 221 Lab 14 Transformers & Atomic Spectra Physics 221 Lab 14 Transformers & Atomic Spectra Transformers An application of Inductance The point of a transformer is to increase or decrease the voltage. We will investigate a simple transformer consisting

More information

COLLEGE PHYSICS. Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS

COLLEGE PHYSICS. Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS Quantization: Planck s Hypothesis An ideal blackbody absorbs all incoming radiation and re-emits it in a spectrum that depends only on temperature.

More information

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION X-rays are electromagnetic radiations that originate outside the nucleus. There are two major processes for X-ray production which are quite different and which lead to different

More information

X-ray Photography Scientific/Technological fact sheet

X-ray Photography Scientific/Technological fact sheet Students material Medical Imaging The Glass Patient X-ray Photography Scientific/Technological fact sheet Introduction In 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845-1923) discovered that when electrons were accelerated

More information

Application Note # AP0102 Mar 2011 X-ray Dose and System Efficiency (including -ray and ß Efficiencies) in the Carestream DXS Digital X-ray System

Application Note # AP0102 Mar 2011 X-ray Dose and System Efficiency (including -ray and ß Efficiencies) in the Carestream DXS Digital X-ray System Application Note # AP0102 Mar 2011 X-ray Dose and System Efficiency (including -ray and ß Efficiencies) in the Carestream DXS Digital X-ray System Douglas Vizard Author Information: Bruker BioSpin, 15

More information

Advanced Physics Laboratory. XRF X-Ray Fluorescence: Energy-Dispersive analysis (EDXRF)

Advanced Physics Laboratory. XRF X-Ray Fluorescence: Energy-Dispersive analysis (EDXRF) Advanced Physics Laboratory XRF X-Ray Fluorescence: Energy-Dispersive analysis (EDXRF) Bahia Arezki Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 2 2. FUNDAMENTALS... 2 2.1 X-RAY PRODUCTION... 2 2. 1. 1 Continuous radiation...

More information

Image Quality and Radiation Dose for Intraoral Radiography: Hand-Held Held (Nomad), Battery Powered

Image Quality and Radiation Dose for Intraoral Radiography: Hand-Held Held (Nomad), Battery Powered Image Quality and Radiation Dose for Intraoral Radiography: Hand-Held Held (Nomad), Battery Powered vs. Wall-Mount X-Ray X Systems Edgar Bailey*, MSEHE, CHP Consultant Joel Gray*, PhD, FAAPM DIQUAD, LLC

More information

Instrumentation. (Figure 2)

Instrumentation. (Figure 2) X-Ray Fluorescence Lab Report Nydia Esparza Victoria Rangel Physics of XRF XRF is a non destructive analytical technique that is used for elemental and chemical analysis. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy

More information

Radiographic Quality. Factors Affecting Optical Density: Optimum film/screen image density: 0.25 to 2.5 Milliamperage or ma (primary beam quantity)

Radiographic Quality. Factors Affecting Optical Density: Optimum film/screen image density: 0.25 to 2.5 Milliamperage or ma (primary beam quantity) The Density Unit: Factors Affecting Optical Density: Optimum film/screen image density: 0.25 to 2.5 Milliamperage or ma (primary beam quantity) Primary controlling factor for density Direct and proportional

More information

1. Orthovoltage vs. megavoltage x-rays. (AL) External beam radiation sources: Orthovoltage radiotherapy: 200-500 kv range

1. Orthovoltage vs. megavoltage x-rays. (AL) External beam radiation sources: Orthovoltage radiotherapy: 200-500 kv range 1. Orthovoltage vs. megavoltage x-rays. (AL) External beam radiation sources: Orthovoltage radiotherapy: 200-500 kv range The radiation from orthovoltage units is referred to as x-rays, generated by bombarding

More information

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

More information

X-Ray is an electromagnetic waves the same as light, radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet and ɣ-ray.

X-Ray is an electromagnetic waves the same as light, radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet and ɣ-ray. X-Ray X-Ray is an electromagnetic waves the same as light, radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet and ɣ-ray. These electromagnetic waves are different by their energy for example ultraviolet has higher energy

More information

NIU Radiation Safety Research X-ray Safety Fundamentals

NIU Radiation Safety Research X-ray Safety Fundamentals NIU Radiation Safety Research X-ray Safety Fundamentals Goals of this training presentation: 1. Explain what are X-rays. 2. Explain the hazards of X-ray devices used in NIU research. 3. Explain NIU requirements

More information

Photons. ConcepTest 27.1. 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy. Which has more energy, a photon of:

Photons. ConcepTest 27.1. 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy. Which has more energy, a photon of: ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which has more energy, a photon of: 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which

More information

MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY

MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY MASS DEFECT AND BINDING ENERGY The separate laws of Conservation of Mass and Conservation of Energy are not applied strictly on the nuclear level. It is possible to convert between mass and energy. Instead

More information

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

More information

Introduction to Geiger Counters

Introduction to Geiger Counters Introduction to Geiger Counters A Geiger counter (Geiger-Muller tube) is a device used for the detection and measurement of all types of radiation: alpha, beta and gamma radiation. Basically it consists

More information

Introduction to Nuclear Radiation 9/04. Purpose of the Experiment

Introduction to Nuclear Radiation 9/04. Purpose of the Experiment Modern Physics Lab Introduction to Nuclear Radiation 9/04 Purpose of the Experiment - become familiar with detectors for radioactive decay products - apply statistical analysis techniques to data - understand

More information

XRF - X Ray Fluorescence

XRF - X Ray Fluorescence XRF - X Ray Fluorescence X-ray fluorescence is a method to determine the qualitative and quantitative element composition of solids, liquids and powders using X-rays. It is based on X-rays hitting atoms,

More information

Chapter 2 Basic Discussion on Electromagnetic Radiation: Gamma Radiation in Relation to SPECT Imaging

Chapter 2 Basic Discussion on Electromagnetic Radiation: Gamma Radiation in Relation to SPECT Imaging Chapter 2 Basic Discussion on Electromagnetic Radiation: Gamma Radiation in Relation to SPECT Imaging Richard S. Lawson 2.1 The Atom All materials are made up of atoms, which at one time were thought to

More information

The number of scatters per unit volume n is estimated as the molar mass times Avogadro s #. n = (! A )N A. ! di I

The number of scatters per unit volume n is estimated as the molar mass times Avogadro s #. n = (! A )N A. ! di I The Energy Loss of Particles in Matter I. Cross Section As a particle traverses a matter it has a probability to react by scattering, absorption, or to interaction in the material. The reaction probability

More information

Vacuum Evaporation Recap

Vacuum Evaporation Recap Sputtering Vacuum Evaporation Recap Use high temperatures at high vacuum to evaporate (eject) atoms or molecules off a material surface. Use ballistic flow to transport them to a substrate and deposit.

More information

Diagnostic x-ray imaging relies on the attenuation of

Diagnostic x-ray imaging relies on the attenuation of X-Ray Imaging Physics for Nuclear Medicine Technologists. Part 2: X-Ray Interactions and Image Formation* J. Anthony Seibert, PhD; and John M. Boone, PhD Department of Radiology, University of California

More information

The Nature of Light. As a particle

The Nature of Light. As a particle The Nature of Light Light is radiant energy. Travels very fast 300,000 km/sec! Can be described either as a wave or as a particle traveling through space. As a wave A small disturbance in an electric field

More information

Lectures about XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)

Lectures about XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) 1 / 38 Lectures about XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) Advanced Physics Laboratory Laurea Magistrale in Fisica year 2013 - Camerino 2 / 38 X-ray Fluorescence XRF is an acronym for X-Ray Fluorescence. The XRF technique

More information

emission of light from atoms discrete line spectra - energy levels, Franck-Hertz experiment

emission of light from atoms discrete line spectra - energy levels, Franck-Hertz experiment Introduction Until the early 20 th century physicists used to explain the phenomena in the physical world around them using theories such a mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics and statistical physics

More information

Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Safety. Module 1. Radiation Safety Fundamentals

Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Safety. Module 1. Radiation Safety Fundamentals Environmental Health and Safety Radiation Safety Module 1 Radiation Safety Fundamentals Atomic Structure Atoms are composed of a variety of subatomic particles. The three of interest to Health Physics

More information

Amptek Application Note XRF-1: XRF Spectra and Spectra Analysis Software By R.Redus, Chief Scientist, Amptek Inc, 2008.

Amptek Application Note XRF-1: XRF Spectra and Spectra Analysis Software By R.Redus, Chief Scientist, Amptek Inc, 2008. Amptek Application Note XRF-1: XRF Spectra and Spectra Analysis Software By R.Redus, Chief Scientist, Amptek Inc, 2008. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a very simple analytical technique: X-rays excite atoms

More information

Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure A problem arose in Rutherford s nuclear model. A nucleus and electron attract each other; to remain apart the electron must move. The energy of the electron

More information

Phys 234H Practice Final Exam (Note: this practice exam contains more questions than will the final, which will have 25 multiple-choice questions.

Phys 234H Practice Final Exam (Note: this practice exam contains more questions than will the final, which will have 25 multiple-choice questions. Phys 234H Practice Final Exam (Note: this practice exam contains more questions than will the final, which will have 25 multiple-choice questions. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best

More information

3 Atomic Structure 15

3 Atomic Structure 15 3 Atomic Structure 15 3.1 Atoms You need to be familiar with the terms in italics The diameter of the nucleus is approximately 10-15 m and an atom 10-10 m. All matter consists of atoms. An atom can be

More information

X-Rays were discovered accidentally in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

X-Rays were discovered accidentally in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen X-Rays were discovered accidentally in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Due to their short wavelength, on the order of magnitude of cells, and their high energy, they can penetrate skin and other soft tissue.

More information

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.

More information

AP CHEMISTRY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

AP CHEMISTRY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) AP CHEMISTRY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 7 7. Account for each of the following observations in terms of atomic theory and/or quantum theory. (a) Atomic size decreases from Na to Cl in the

More information

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION All waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency and speed. Wavelength (lambda, ): the distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs. Frequency (nu,):

More information

Figure 1. Mercury energy level diagram

Figure 1. Mercury energy level diagram ATOMIC EXCITATION POTENTIALS PURPOSE In this lab you will study the excitation of mercury atoms by colliding electrons with the atoms, and confirm that this excitation requires a specific quantity of energy.

More information

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS 1. Photons 2. Photoelectric Effect 3. Experimental Set-up to study Photoelectric Effect 4. Effect of Intensity, Frequency, Potential on P.E.

More information

Chapter 11 Atoms, Energy and Electron Configurations Objectives

Chapter 11 Atoms, Energy and Electron Configurations Objectives Objectives 1. To review Rutherford s model of the atom 2. To explore the nature of electromagnetic radiation 3. To see how atoms emit light A. Rutherford s Atom.but there is a problem here!! Using Rutherford

More information

Energy Dispersive X-ray X Analysis in the TEM. Lecture 19

Energy Dispersive X-ray X Analysis in the TEM. Lecture 19 Energy Dispersive X-ray X Analysis in the TEM Lecture 19 Example x-ray x spectra (EDS) Several examples of EDS spectra Note: Relative # of counts Energy range of each spectrum Pure Ge Al film on Si Silica

More information

Basic Quantification of XPS Spectra

Basic Quantification of XPS Spectra Basic Quantification of XPS Spectra XPS counts electrons ejected from a sample surface when irradiated by x-rays. A spectrum representing the number of electrons recorded at a sequence of energies includes

More information

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY)

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) (Three hours) (Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review

Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Energy and Energy Transformations Test Review Completion: 1. Mass 13. Kinetic 2. Four 14. thermal 3. Kinetic 15. Thermal energy (heat) 4. Electromagnetic/Radiant 16. Thermal energy (heat) 5. Thermal 17.

More information

Basic Concepts of X-ray X Fluorescence by Miguel Santiago, Scientific Instrumentation Specialist

Basic Concepts of X-ray X Fluorescence by Miguel Santiago, Scientific Instrumentation Specialist Basic Concepts of X-ray X Fluorescence by Miguel Santiago, Scientific Instrumentation Specialist University of Puerto Rico Mayagüez Campus Department of Geology X-ray / Microanalysis Laboratory F - 304

More information

Part 1. X-RAY DIFFRACTION MICROSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS

Part 1. X-RAY DIFFRACTION MICROSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS 5 Part 1. X-RAY DIFFRACTION MICROSTRUCTURE ANALYSIS 1.1. INTERACTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES WITH MATTER The different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum have very different effects upon interaction

More information

Radiation Strip Thickness Measurement Systems

Radiation Strip Thickness Measurement Systems Radiation Strip Thickness Measurement Systems During the past years we have increased our sales of radiometric Vollmer strip thickness measurement systems, i.e. X-ray or isotope gauges, dramatically. Now,

More information

SH1009, Modern Fysik. X-Ray Diffraction Muhammad Yasir, Lway al Maeeni, Joakim Wahlström

SH1009, Modern Fysik. X-Ray Diffraction Muhammad Yasir, Lway al Maeeni, Joakim Wahlström SH1009, Modern Fysik X-Ray Diffraction Muhammad Yasir, Lway al Maeeni, Joakim Wahlström 24 th april, 2009 Introduction In this lab we study the x-rays and their ability to penetrate materials. We also

More information

Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions

Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions 2000-2010 2000 Q30. A drawing of the core of a nuclear reactor is shown below. The fuel rods contain uranium-235. (a) Describe what happens when a slow

More information

How lasers work. The laser medium. Population Inversion. L 36 Modern Physics [2] Spontaneous vs Stimulated Emission.

How lasers work. The laser medium. Population Inversion. L 36 Modern Physics [2] Spontaneous vs Stimulated Emission. L 36 Modern Physics [2] How lasers work Medical applications of lasers Applications of high power lasers Medical imaging techniques CAT scans MRI s How lasers work First we must understand the difference

More information

EFFICIENCY FOR CLOSE GEOMETRIES AND EXTENDED SOURCES OF A P-TYPE GERMANIUM DETECTOR WITH LOW-ENERGY SENSITIVITY.

EFFICIENCY FOR CLOSE GEOMETRIES AND EXTENDED SOURCES OF A P-TYPE GERMANIUM DETECTOR WITH LOW-ENERGY SENSITIVITY. Abstract EFFICIENCY FOR CLOSE GEOMETRIES AND EXTENDED SOURCES OF A P-TYPE GERMANIUM DETECTOR WITH LOW-ENERGY SENSITIVITY R.M. Keyser (1) and T.R. Twomey (1) (1) ORTEC, 801 South Illinois Avenue, Oak Ridge,

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A photo cathode whose work function is 2.4 ev, is illuminated with white light that has

More information

Chapter 4 Scintillation Detectors

Chapter 4 Scintillation Detectors Med Phys 4R06/6R03 Radioisotopes and Radiation Methodology Page 4-1 4.1. Basic principle of the scintillator Chapter 4 Scintillation Detectors Scintillator Light sensor Ionizing radiation Light (visible,

More information

THEORY OF XRF. Getting acquainted with the principles. Peter Brouwer

THEORY OF XRF. Getting acquainted with the principles. Peter Brouwer THEORY OF XRF Getting acquainted with the principles Peter Brouwer THEORY OF XRF Getting acquainted with the principles Peter Brouwer First published in The Netherlands under the title Theory of XRF. Copyright

More information

Irradiation Field Size: 5cmX5cm 10cmX10cm 15cmX15cm 20cmX20cm. Focus-Surface Distance: 100cm. 20cm Volume of Ion Chamber : 1cmX1cmX1cm

Irradiation Field Size: 5cmX5cm 10cmX10cm 15cmX15cm 20cmX20cm. Focus-Surface Distance: 100cm. 20cm Volume of Ion Chamber : 1cmX1cmX1cm Proceedings of the Ninth EGS4 Users' Meeting in Japan, KEK Proceedings 200-22, p.5-8 MONTE CARLO SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF BACKSCATTER FACTOR FOR LOW-ENERGY X-RAY K. Shimizu, K. Koshida and T. Miyati Department

More information

Laboratory 15: Spectroscopy

Laboratory 15: Spectroscopy Spectroscopy 1 aboratory 15: Spectroscopy A transmission diffraction grating consists of a large number of closely spaced parallel lines ruled on some transparent material such as glass. The ruled lines

More information

STANDARD FOR RADIATION APPARATUS -

STANDARD FOR RADIATION APPARATUS - Department of Health and Human Services Population Health Radiation Protection Act 2005 Section 17 CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE: STANDARD FOR RADIATION APPARATUS - X-RAY DENTAL DIAGNOSTIC (INTRAORAL) SECTION

More information

Micromachining with UV Laser Markers

Micromachining with UV Laser Markers White Paper Micromachining with UV Laser Markers David Gillen, Blueacre Technology David Gillen, Blueacre Technology Laser Marking technology has come a long way from simply identifying parts with logos

More information

Radiation Transmission-based Thickness Measurement Systems - Theory and Applications to Flat Rolled Strip Products

Radiation Transmission-based Thickness Measurement Systems - Theory and Applications to Flat Rolled Strip Products Radiation Transmission-based Thickness Measurement Systems - Theory and Applications to Flat Rolled Strip Products 105 X 5 Radiation Transmission-based Thickness Measurement Systems - Theory and Applications

More information

Quantum Mechanics I Physics 325. Importance of Hydrogen Atom

Quantum Mechanics I Physics 325. Importance of Hydrogen Atom Quantum Mechanics I Physics 35 Atomic spectra and Atom Models Importance of Hydrogen Atom Hydrogen is the simplest atom The quantum numbers used to characterize the allowed states of hydrogen can also

More information

Radioactivity. [ particles ] [second] [area] [ I ] =

Radioactivity. [ particles ] [second] [area] [ I ] = 1 Radioactivity The term radiation literally means "that which moves radially." This means that radiation usually emanates from a point and moves away along a radius of the sphere which has its center

More information

AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE

AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE AP CHEMISTRY CHAPTER REVIEW CHAPTER 6: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE You should be familiar with the wavelike properties of light: frequency ( ), wavelength ( ), and energy (E) as well as

More information

Light is a type of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, and light has energy. Many kinds of light exist. Ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin to tan or burn.

Light is a type of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, and light has energy. Many kinds of light exist. Ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin to tan or burn. Light and radiation Light is a type of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, and light has energy. Many kinds of light exist. Ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin to tan or burn. Infrared (IR) light is used in

More information

GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA REFERENCES

GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA REFERENCES GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA REFERENCES 1. K. Siegbahn, Alpha, Beta and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Vol. I, particularly Chapts. 5, 8A. 2. Nucleonics Data Sheets, Nos. 1-45 (available from the Resource Centre) 3. H.E.

More information

Study the Quality Assurance of Conventional X-ray Machines Using Non Invasive KV meter

Study the Quality Assurance of Conventional X-ray Machines Using Non Invasive KV meter Study the Quality Assurance of Conventional X-ray Machines Using Non Invasive KV meter T.M.Taha Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo.P.O.13759 Egypt.

More information

Chapter 5 TREATMENT MACHINES FOR EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY

Chapter 5 TREATMENT MACHINES FOR EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY Chapter 5 TREATMENT MACHINES FOR EXTERNAL BEAM RADIOTHERAPY E.B. PODGORSAK Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 5.1. INTRODUCTION Since the inception

More information

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle Introduction The Cathode Ray Tube or Braun s Tube was invented by the German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun in 897 and is today used in computer monitors, TV sets and oscilloscope tubes. The path of the

More information

Aesthetic Plus LASER TRAINING MANUAL FOR MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS. presents

Aesthetic Plus LASER TRAINING MANUAL FOR MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS. presents Aesthetic Plus presents LASER TRAINING MANUAL FOR MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS INTRODUCTION More than ever before, people are turning to laser esthetics for cosmetic purposes. This is because lasers offer a number

More information

RAD 216 ADVANCED IMAGING MODALITIES THOMAS A. EDISON EARLY FLUOROSCOPY IMAGE INTENSIFICATION AND TV IMAGING SYSTEMS

RAD 216 ADVANCED IMAGING MODALITIES THOMAS A. EDISON EARLY FLUOROSCOPY IMAGE INTENSIFICATION AND TV IMAGING SYSTEMS RAD 216 ADVANCED IMAGING MODALITIES IMAGE INTENSIFICATION AND TV IMAGING SYSTEMS THOMAS A. EDISON is credited with the development of fluoroscopy. His work enabled physicians to see DYNAMIC or moving images

More information