Minerals & Rocks Review Qs

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1 Base your answers to questions 1 through 3 on the drawings of six sedimentary rocks labeled A through F. 1. Most of the rocks shown were formed by (1) compaction and/or cementation (3) heat and pressure (2) melting and/or solidification (4) volcanic eruptions and crystallization 2. Which two rocks are composed primarily of quartz, feldspar, and clay minerals? (1) rock salt and breccia (3) sandstone and limestone (2) rock salt and conglomerate (4) sandstone and shale 3. Which table shows the rocks correctly classified by texture? (1) (3) (2) (4) 4. Most rock gypsum is formed by the (1) heating of previously existing foliated bedrock (2) compaction and cementation of shells and skeletal remains (3) chemical precipitation of minerals from seawater (4) cooling and solidification of lava 5. Which mineral can be found in granite, andesite, gneiss, and hornfels? (1) olivine (3) biotite mica (2) pyroxene (4) quartz Page 1

2 Base your answers to questions 6 through 8 on the table below which provides information about the crystal sizes and the mineral compositions of four igneous rocks, A, B, C, and D. 6. Rock B most likely is (1) conglomerate (2) schist (3) obsidian (4) peridotite 7. Which characteristic of rock B could be caused by the minerals pyroxene and olivine? (1) folded layers (2) green color (3) metallic luster (4) felsic composition 8. The mineral quartz in rock A is composed of the two most abundant elements by mass in Earth's crust. These two elements are oxygen and (1) magnesium (2) lead (3) iron (4) silicon 9. Base your answer to the following question on the rock sample shown below. 11. Although more than 2,000 minerals have been identified, 90% of Earth's lithosphere is composed of the 12 minerals listed below. The average size of the pebbles in the sample is approximately (1) 1.2 cm (3) 0.2 cm (2) 13.2 cm (4) 6.4 cm 10. Which type of rock most likely contains fossils? (1) shale (3) scoria (2) gabbro (4) schist The best explanation for this fact is that most rocks (1) have a 10% nonmineral composition (2) have a number of minerals in common (3) are composed only of recrystallized minerals (4) are monomineralic Page 2

3 12. Which rock is usually composed of several different minerals? (1) gneiss (3) rock gypsum (2) chemical limestone (4) quartzite 13. The table below shows the hardness of four common materials. Which statement best describes the hardness of the mineral dolomite? (1) Dolomite can scratch a copper penny, but cannot be scratched by a steel nail. (2) Dolomite can scratch window glass, but can not be scratched by a steel nail. (3) Dolomite can scratch window glass, but can not be scratched by a fingernail. (4) Dolomite can scratch a copper penny, but cannot be scratched by a fingernail. 14. The table below shows some observed physical properties of a mineral. Based on these observations, the elements that make up this mineral's composition are (1) oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and iron (2) sulfur, oxygen, and hydrogen (3) oxygen, silicon, hydrogen, and magnesium (4) sulfur and lead Page 3

4 15. The diagram below shows four mineral samples, each having approximately the same mass. If all four samples are placed together in a closed, dry container and shaken vigorously for 10 minutes, which mineral sample would experience the most abrasion? (1) pyroxene (2) amphibole (3) galena (4) quartz 16. Base your answer to the following question on the photograph below. The photograph shows several broken samples of the same colorless mineral. 19. The internal atomic structure of a mineral most likely determines the mineral's (1) hardness, cleavage, and crystal shape (2) origin, exposure, and fracture (3) color, streak, and age (4) size, location, and luster 20. How are the minerals biotite mica and muscovite mica different? (1) Muscovite mica scratches quartz, but biotite mica does not. (2) Muscovite mica cleaves into thin sheets, but biotite mica does not. (3) Biotite mica contains iron and/or magnesium, but muscovite mica does not. (4) Biotite mica is colorless, but muscovite mica is not. Which physical property of this mineral is most easily seen in the photograph? (1) cleavage (3) hardness (2) fracture (4) streak 17. Which home-building material is made mostly from the mineral gypsum? (1) drywall panels (3) iron nails (2) window glass (4) plastic pipes 18. A human fingernail has a hardness of approximately 2.5. Which two minerals are softer than a human fingernail? (1) graphite and talc (3) pyrite and magnetite (2) sulfur and fluorite (4) calcite and halite 21. Which of the following elements is not found in Plagioclase Feldspar? (1) Na (3) Si (2) Pb (4) Al 22. Which mineral is composed of Calcium and Flourine? (1) Hematite (3) Calcite (2) Amphiboles (4) Fluorite 23. Which property of the mineral diamond allows diamond powder to be used to shape gems for jewelry? (1) luster (3) cleavage (2) crystal shape (4) hardness Page 4

5 24. The data table below shows the composition of six common rock-forming minerals. The data table provides evidence that (1) all elements are found in all minerals (2) a few elements are found in many minerals (3) all elements are found in only a few minerals (4) the same elements are found in all minerals 25. The diagram below shows how a sample of the mineral mica breaks when hit with a rock hammer. This mineral breaks in smooth, flat surfaces because it (1) has a regular arrangement of atoms (2) contains large amounts of iron (3) is very hard (4) is very dense 26. The cleavage or fracture of a mineral is normally determined by the mineral's (1) position among surrounding minerals (2) oxygen content (3) internal arrangement of atoms (4) density Page 5

6 Base your answers to questions 27 through 29 on the two tables below and on your knowledge of Earth science. Table 1 shows the composition, hardness, and average density of four minerals often used as gemstones. Table 2 lists the minerals in Moh s Scale of Hardness from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest). 27. The hardness and density of each gemstone is based primarily on the gemstone s (1) geologic time of formation (3) oxygen content (2) natural abundance (4) internal arrangement of atoms 28. Sapphire is a gemstone variety of which mineral on Moh s scale of hardness? (1) topaz (2) diamond (3) fluorite (4) corundum 29. Part of a gemstone s value is based on the way the gemstone shines in reflected light. The way a mineral reflects light is described as the mineral s (1) luster (2) hardness (3) streak (4) fracture 30. The diagram below represents top and side views of a model of the silicate tetrahedron. This tetrahedron is found in large amounts in the Earth's (1) hydrosphere (3) troposphere (2) stratosphere (4) lithosphere Page 6

7 31. The diagram below represents a part of the crystal structure of the mineral kaolinite. An arrangement of atoms such as the one shown in the diagram determines a mineral s (1) temperature of formation (3) physical properties (2) infiltration rate (4) age of formation 32. Which diagram best represents the siliconoxygen tetrahedron of which talc, feldspar, and quartz are composed? (1) (3) (4) (2) 33. Which element combines with silicon to form the tetrahedral unit of structure of the silicate minerals? (1) oxygen (3) hydrogen (2) nitrogen (4) potassium Page 7

8 34. Which model best represents the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron? Minerals & Rocks Review Qs 37. The diagram below represents a basic atomic structure that forms when oxygen and silicon unite. (1) (2) (3) (4) This structure is called a (1) sphere (3) tetrahedron (2) cube (4) cylinder 38. Two mineral samples have different physical properties, but each contains silicate tetrahedrons as its basic structural unit. Which statement about the two mineral samples must be true? (1) They have the same density. (2) They are similar in appearance. (3) They contain silicon and oxygen. (4) They are the same mineral. 39. Which object is the best model of the shape of a silicon-oxygen structural unit? 35. Two minerals made of pure carbon are diamond and graphite. Which statement best explains why diamond is so much more resistant to scratching than graphite? (1) The atoms are lighter in graphite than in diamond. (2) The atoms are heavier in graphite than in diamond. (3) The atoms are bonded together more strongly in diamond than in graphite. (4) The atoms are smaller in graphite than in diamond. 36. Fossils would most likely be found in a sample of (1) granite (3) metaconglomerate (2) limestone (4) quartzite (1) (2) (3) (4) 40. A student obtains a cup of quartz sand from a beach. A saltwater solution is poured into the sand and allowed to evaporate. The mineral residue from the saltwater solution cements the sand grains together, forming a material that is most similar in origin to (1) a clastic sedimentary rock (2) a foliated metamorphic rock (3) an intrusive igneous rock (4) an extrusive igneous rock Page 8

9 41. The diagram below shows a drill core of sediment that was taken from the bottom of a lake. Which types of rock would most likely form from compaction and cementation of these sediments? (1) sandstone and limestone (2) shale and coal (3) breccia and rock salt (4) conglomerate and siltstone 42. Particles of sediment collected from a lake bottom averaged 1.2 centimeters in diameter. If left on the lake bottom to become buried by more sediment and compressed into rock, these particles would form (1) sandstone (3) quartzite (2) conglomerate (4) granite 43. A rock is composed of several large, rounded pebbles and sand grains cemented together. Which inference about the rock is best supported by this description? (1) The rock is igneous. (2) The rock is sedimentary. (3) The rock resulted from evaporation of sea water. (4) The rock is older than the pebbles. 44. Which feature is characteristic of sedimentary rocks? (1) distorted structure (3) glassy texture (2) layering (4) foliation Page 9

10 45. The profile below shows the average diameter of sediment that was sorted and deposited in specific areas A, B, C, and D by a stream entering an ocean. As compaction and cementation of these sediments eventually occur, which area will become sandstone? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 46. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents a rock sample containing fossilized Coelophysis footprints. The siltstone layer containing the dinosaur footprints was turned into rock by (1) folding and faulting (2) burial and cementation (3) deformation and melting (4) weathering and erosion 47. Which sedimentary rocks are clastic and consist of particles that have diameters smaller than centimeter? (1) siltstone and shale (2) conglomerate and sandstone (3) fossil limestone and chemical limestone (4) bituminous coal and breccia 48. Which sedimentary rock is formed by compaction and cementation of land-derived sediments? (1) siltstone (3) rock salt (2) dolostone (4) rock gypsum Page 10

11 Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the diagram below, which represents a cross section of rock layers that have not been overturned. 49. The breccia layer is composed mostly of (1) cemented, rounded rock fragments (3) cemented, angular rock fragments (2) intergrown, fine-textured crystals (4) microscopic shells 50. Within which rock type would a fossil most likely be found? (1) (2) (3) (4) 51. The diagram below shows a sedimentary rock drawn actual size. This rock is classified as having a (1) clastic texture consisting of mixed grain sizes (2) elastic texture consisting of sand-size particles (3) nonclastic texture with mixed grain sizes (4) nonclastic texture with coarse-grained particles 52. Which statement about the formation of a rock is best supported by geologic evidence? (1) Sedimentary rock must melt before it can change to metamorphic rock. (2) Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock. (3) Metamorphic rock must melt before it can change to sedimentary rock. (4) Magma must be weathered before it can change to metamorphic rock. 53. Which bedrock would be most likely to contain fossils? (1) Cambrian shale (2) Pleistocene basalt (3) Precambrian granite (4) Middle-Proterozoic quartzite Page 11

12 54. Which symbol represents the sedimentary rock with the smallest grain size? (1) (3) (2) (4) 55. Which land-derived sedimentary rock could have formed by the compaction and cementation of particles smaller than centimeter in diameter? (1) limestone (3) shale (2) sandstone (4) siltstone 56. Which processes most often cause fossil evidence to be preserved in rock? (1) folding and metamorphism (2) weathering and erosion (3) melting and faulting (4) deposition and cementation 57. Which group lists rocks in order by grain size from smallest to largest? (1) conglomerate, sandstone, shale (2) sandstone, shale, conglomerate (3) shale, conglomerate, sandstone (4) shale, sandstone, conglomerate 58. Dolostone is classified as which type of rock? (1) nonfoliated metamorphic rock (2) foliated metamorphic rock (3) land-derived sedimentary rock (4) chemically formed sedimentary rock 59. Which process most likely formed a layer of the sedimentary rock, gypsum? (1) melting of sand-sized particles (2) precipitation from seawater (3) folding of clay-sized particles (4) solidification of magma Page 12

13 60. Base your answer to the following question on the maps below, which show changes in the distribution of land and water in the Mediterranean Sea region that scientists believe took place over a period of 6 million years. Which type of rock was precipitated from seawater as the Mediterranean Sea evaporated between million years ago and 5.5 million years ago? (1) rock salt (2) sandstone (3) metaconglomerate (4) basalt 61. Large deposits of rock gypsum and rock salt usually form in areas of (1) shallow evaporating seas (2) fault zones in the crust (3) active volcanoes (4) continental ice sheets 62. The chemical precipitation of dissolved minerals from ocean water results in the formation of (1) coarse-grained igneous rock (2) sedimentary rock (3) fine-grained igneous rock (4) metamorphic rock 63. Which type of rock is represented by the map symbol below? (1) regional metamorphic rock with block like foliation (2) chemically formed sedimentary rock that consists mainly of the mineral calcite (3) clastic sedimentary rock formed from organic substances (4) contact metamorphic rock that results from the alteration of limestone by contact with an igneous intrusion Page 13

14 Base your answers to questions 64 and 65 on the block diagram below which shows a cross section of Earth's crust. Letter A identifies a lake, and letters B through G represent different types of bedrock. 64. Rock C most likely resulted from the (1) precipitation of minerals from evaporating water (2) rapid cooling of lava from volcanic eruptions. (3) compaction and cementation of angular quartz fragments (4) regional metamorphism of a previously existing rock 65. The rock produced at point H is most likely (1) quartzite (2) gneiss (3) slate (4) marble 66. The presence of brachiopod, nautiloid, and coral fossils in the surface bedrock of a certain area indicates the area was once covered by (1) volcanic ash (3) ocean water (2) tropical vegetation (4) glacial deposits 67. Which rock was organically formed and sometimes contains fossilized plant impressions? (1) breccia (3) rock gypsum (2) phyllite (4) coal 68. Which igneous rock has a vesicular texture and contains the minerals potassium feldspar and quartz? (1) pumice (3) andesite (2) scoria (4) pegmatite Page 14

15 69. The sequence of diagrams below represents the gradual geologic changes in layer X, located just below Earth s surface. Which type of sedimentary rock was formed at layer X? (1) shale (2) coal (3) rock salt (4) conglomerate 70. Which intrusive igneous rock could be composed of approximately 60% pyroxene, 25% plagioclase feldspar, 10% olivine, and 5% amphibole? (1) gabbro (3) basalt (2) rhyolite (4) granite 71. Biotite mica and muscovite mica have different chemical compositions. Compared to the magma from which biotite mica forms, the magma from which muscovite mica forms is usually (1) more felsic and more dense (2) more mafic and less dense (3) more felsic and less dense (4) more mafic and more dense 72. Which igneous rock, when weathered, could produce sediment composed of the minerals potassium feldspar, quartz, and amphibole? (1) basalt (3) granite (2) andesite (4) gabbro Page 15

16 73. The diagram below represents the fossils found in a bedrock formation located in central Rhode Island. Minerals & Rocks Review Qs 76. Base your answer to the following question on the map below. The black triangle represents Mt. Hekla, a volcano in Iceland. The isolines represent the thickness of ash, in centimeters, that settled on Earth s surface after a volcanic eruption of Mt. Hekla on March 29, Point X is a location on the surface of the ash. In which type of rock were the fossils most likely found? (1) igneous rock that formed in a land environment (2) igneous rock that formed in an ocean environment (3) sedimentary rock that formed in a land environment (4) sedimentary rock that formed in an ocean environment 74. Which process could lead directly to the formation of pumice rock? (1) precipitation of minerals from evaporating seawater (2) metamorphism of unmelted rock material (3) explosive eruption of lava from a volcano (4) deposition of quartz sand 75. Which three minerals are most commonly found in the igneous rock granite? (1) plagioclase feldspar, potassium feldspar, and quartz (2) amphibole, biotite mica, and gypsum (3) plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and olivine (4) amphibole, calcite, and hematite In addition to the ash, solid rock formed on Mt. Hekla from the lava extruded during this eruption. This rock is most likely (1) fine-grained igneous (2) light-colored metamorphic (3) coarse-grained igneous (4) dark-colored metamorphic 77. When granite melts and then solidifies, it becomes (1) a sedimentary rock (3) sediments (2) an igneous rock (4) a metamorphic rock Page 16

17 78. The photograph below shows the intergrown crystals of a pegmatite rock. Which characteristic provides the best evidence that this pegmatite solidified deep underground? (1) felsic composition (3) very coarse texture (2) light color (4) low density 79. Which rock most probably formed directly from lava cooling quickly at Earth s surface? (1) (3) (2) (4) 80. Which common rock is formed from the solidification of molten material? (1) rhyolite (3) rock gypsum (2) slate (4) coal Page 17

18 81. The graph below shows the relationship between the cooling time of magma and the size of the crystals produced. Which graph correctly shows the relative positions of the igneous rocks granite, rhyolite, and pumice? (1) (2) (3) (4) 82. The photograph below shows actual crystal sizes in a light-colored igneous rock that contains several minerals, including potassium feldspar, quartz, and biotite mica. 83. Compared to felsic igneous rocks, mafic igneous rocks contain greater amounts of (1) iron (3) aluminum (2) white quartz (4) pink feldspar 84. An extrusive igneous rock with a mineral composition of 35% quartz, 35% potassium feldspar, 15% plagioclase feldspar, 10% biotite, and 5% amphibole is called (1) rhyolite (3) gabbro (2) granite (4) basaltic glass 85. Which process is necessary for the formation of igneous rocks? (1) deposition (3) solidification (2) erosion (4) metamorphism The rock should be identified as (1) granite (3) rhyolite (2) gabbro (4) basalt 86. For an igneous rock to be classified as rhyolite, it must be light colored, be fine grained, and contain (1) quartz (3) calcite (2) pyroxene (4) olivine Page 18

19 87. Wavy bands of light and dark minerals visible in gneiss bedrock probably formed from the (1) cooling and crystallization of magma (2) evaporation of an ancient ocean (3) cementing together of individual miner grains (4) heat and pressure during metamorphism 88. The rock shown below has a foliated texture and contains the minerals amphibole, quartz, and feldspar arranged in coarse-grained bands. Minerals & Rocks Review Qs 93. Which rock is foliated, shows mineral alignment but not banding, and contains medium-sized grains of quartz and pyroxene? (1) phyllite (3) schist (2) quartzite (4) gneiss 94. Which two kinds of adjoining bedrock would most likely have a zone of contact metamorphism between them? (1) limestone and sandstone (2) shale and conglomerate (3) limestone and granite (4) shale and sandstone Which rock is shown? (1) quartzite (3) gneiss (2) dunite (4) slate 89. Which physical characteristic best describes the rock phyllite? (1) bioclastic texture with cemented shell fragments (2) glassy texture with gas pockets (3) foliated texture with microscopic mica crystals (4) clastic texture with angular fragments 90. During the Permian Period, sedimentary bedrock in the Appalachian Region was subjected to high temperature and pressure. Calcite deposits that had existed in this environment would most likely have formed (1) gabbro (3) marble (2) schist (4) gneiss 91. Which nonfoliated rock forms only in a zone of contact metamorphism? (1) hornfels (3) quartzite (2) pegmatite (4) conglomerate 95. Which sedimentary rock is most likely to be changed to slate during regional metamorphism? (1) breccia (3) shale (2) conglomerate (4) dolostone 96. Which diagram represents a landscape where fine-grained igneous bedrock is most likely to be found? (1) (2) (3) (4) 92. During the intrusion of the Palisades Sill, contact metamorphism changed sandstone and shale into (1) marble (3) hornfels (2) diorite (4) limestone Page 19

20 97. The diagram below shows four rock samples. Which sample best shows the physical properties normally associated with regional metamorphism? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 98. Rocks are classified as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic based primarily on their (1) method of formation (3) crystal or grain size (2) texture (4) mineral composition 99. Rocks can be classified as sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic based primarily upon differences in their (1) color (3) age (2) density (4) origin 100. The diagram below represents a sample of a rock Which rocks form relatively thin layers, compared to the thickness of the continent, over large areas of the continents? (1) intrusive igneous rocks (2) granite and gabbro (3) sandstone and shale (4) metamorphic rocks 103. Base your answer to the following question on the geologic cross section shown below. This rock would be classified as metamorphic because it shows (1) distorted banding (2) crystals from precipitation (3) an organic composition (4) a mixture of minerals 101. Which characteristic of an igneous rock would provide the most information about the environment in which the rock solidified? (1) streak (3) color (2) texture (4) hardness At which location is metamorphic rock most likely to be found? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D Page 20

21 Base your answers to questions 104 and 105 on the hardness of the minerals talc, quartz, halite, sulfur, and fluorite. Minerals & Rocks Review Qs 105. Which mineral shown on the grid would be the best abrasive? State one reason for your choice On the grid above, construct a bar graph to represent the hardness of these minerals. Page 21

22 Answer Key

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