OPERATION: WORLD WAR TWO

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1 OPERATION: WORLD WAR TWO By Massimo Torriani Version /04/07 Operation: World War Two Page 1 of 185

2 I would like to thank Valentino Del Castello, Andrew Carless, Umberto Bonomi, Il Presidente, Giacomo Gixx Peroni, and Dennis Peroni. We would also like to thank the playtesters from all over the world and on the forum for their excellent and constant support. Copyright 2007 All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced by any means, be it mechanical or electronic, without prior written permission from the author. You may download and print the document for personal use. For updates: (English) or (Italian) Operation: World War Two Page 2 of 185

3 INTRODUCTION OPERATION: World War Two is a wargame for two players set during the Second World War that allows you to simulate skirmish level battles using model infantry and tanks. Dice introduce that element of luck which in real-life is the difference between success and a terrible failure. But luck is not enough to win; every bit of information in the tables is the result of careful study and is as realistic as any game will allow. Remember that some terms will be clarified later on in the rules, so we advise you to start by reading the rules for infantry battles, play a few games, and then read the part that covers vehicles. More expert players are advised to read the whole rulebook at least once before playing. Game Philosophy Unlike other wargames, the game-mechanics of Operation: World War Two are based on the use of Order Cards rather than the players choices. In real-life, the perfect soldier that always obeys all of his orders to the letter does not exist... If you read battle accounts you will discover that even the best trained troops hesitate when facing the enemy and sometimes they refuse to obey orders. For the same reason a good number of shots fired never had a clear target, but mostly they were fired at a presumed presence - noise and nervousness had a big impact on the number of shots fired In an attempt to recreate this aspect of war we invented the Order Card system. You will only be able to move, fire or assault if you have the right Order Card. The use of Order Cards also gives the game some other advantages. In many games the turns alternate from one player to the other in the so-called IGOUGO (I go, You go) system, when first Player A moves then Player B and so on. This method seriously limits the action and prevents us from recreating that imponderable factor called chance. Will my squad get across that stretch of road before the enemy machine gun interrupts their movement and cuts them down? In a classic game the result is fairly predictable. With the Order Card system there is no way of knowing for sure until you try to cross that road. Each order also has a value called its Priority that defines the speed with which that order is applied. The lower the order number, the faster it is implemented. When assigning orders you must also take this variable into account as the enemy has the possibility of INTERRUPTING or ANTICIPATING the action by playing an Order Card with a lower priority. Obviously the deck does not only contain Priority 1 cards (the fastest) and so you will have to manage your army with the cards that you have available and construct a winning strategy. The last difference between this game and the more classic ones is the concept of Awareness. Too often it is assumed that what the player can see is what the models can see. This is obviously unrealistic. For example you know, as a player, that there are no enemy soldiers behind that wall but in real-life your men may not be aware of all the enemy s movements. In order to avoid the use of too many markers that would represent the units that have been spotted, we have developed a system based on the type of unit and the last action that they performed. It is easy to see a tank that is advancing and firing, but not as easy to see an infantry unit that is moving slowly through a house. A simple table has solved the problem. While playing your first few games you may be surprised by the fact that every turn you MUST play an order for every unit. Sometimes this will force a hidden unit to fire, (thus giving away their position in terms of awareness), even without a target. Maybe they are nervous, maybe a trigger-finger slipped As you will have guessed, this may be frustrating but it creates realistic situations. Try to put yourself in their shoes... are you certain that there are no enemy troops in those woods, in that house, behind that wall? Are they your friends? There is no doubt that the rule shoot first, ask questions later was fairly common. From game to game you will find out how to minimise these situations and with time you will manage to build an army that satisfies your strategic requirements. Remember that this simple game is a simulation of war, and so nothing is left to chance. Even with the worst luck in the world the best player will always win. Compatibility with Operation Overlord These rules are the result of four years of comments and suggestions received from players all over the world; in these pages we have collected the basic rules as well as those contained in Paratrooper Attack, Upgrade Vehicle and Berlin 1945, which have all been thoroughly revised and corrected. Even seasoned players of the original game should read through these rules at least once to discover all the new additions. Considering that the mechanisms are very similar, the scenarios that have already been published are perfectly compatible with this edition but you should use the values and characteristics indicated in this new version when using the new tables. Operation: World War Two Page 3 of 185

4 GAME COMPONENTS Apart from this rulebook you will need some other game components to play Operation: World War Two. They are described below. Dice: The only dice used is a ten-sided dice where the 0 is considered a 10. During play you will often be required to roll a dice to see what happens. Mostly the result that you have to roll must be equal to, or greater than, the number shown. If the Training number is 3+ you have to roll at least 3 (or more) to avoid your unit panicking; a roll of 1 or 2 will be a failure. Sometimes you will apply some modifiers to the result and in this case you should add or subtract them to obtain the final result. This ten-sided dice will also be used to define the deviation of indirect fire that misses the target; the new point of impact will be decided by the direction that the dice is pointing in and the number rolled. Tape measure: All measurements in the game are made in centimetres. Movement, weapons range and burst areas are all measured with a simple tape measure. Remember that you are allowed to measure before performing any action and before making any declaration whatsoever. Checking whether you re within close range, within the awareness distance of the enemy, whether your unit is in cohesion and much more will always require a quick measurement Order Card Deck: This game includes two identical decks of 40 cards each: one for the Axis player and one for the Allies. Each player will give orders to his units who will act faster or slower depending on the priority of the Order Card. These cards are divided into 5 types: FIRE, MOVEMENT, ASSAULT, AMBUSH and SUPPRESSION FIRE. Further on in the rules you will find a detailed explanation of each type of order. Tables: We have grouped all the tables together in a separate booklet to ease their consultation. Models: Plastic or metal miniatures of men and vehicles allow you to represent the army that you will move around the table and lead into action. Every man must be based on a 2cm diameter disc. The bases of the models cannot overlap for any reason whatsoever during the game. No bases are required for the vehicles. You should ensure that each model is armed as shown in the Army Lists and is identified by a letter and number (e.g. A1). This will help you identify the units and ensure that they don t get mixed up when playing with large armies (Unit A, Unit B, Model 1, Model 2, etc. ) Markers: During play you will use various markers to show the state of some units in special situations. These markers will be explained in full in the various paragraphs that follow. Templates: The game uses four types of circular templates with different diameters; 3, 5, 8 and 10cm. Flamethrowers require the use of a triangular template. Generally if the base of an infantry model or part of a vehicle is within the borders of the template then that model has been hit. Vehicle template: To help you identify the front, rear and sides of a vehicle we have also included a vehicle template that also shows 22 and 45 firing angles. Use this when you have any doubts. Wargames table: This is a wargame so you will play your games on a specially made table that simulates a battlefield. The number of scenery elements that you should use will depend on the type of scenario that you want to recreate. For a countryside setting just a few houses, some walls and a few woods will suffice, while you will need lots of buildings for urban combat. Generally the battlefield should be balanced and should not favour either of the two players. A good system is to allow one player to set up the table and then allow the other player to choose the side he will deploy his troops on. You can play on a table measuring 120cm x 120cm but we suggest bigger tables (at least 160cm x 120cm) for games using 4,000 point armies. There are various scenarios based on historical events to help you out and which can be downloaded from our web-site at Operation: World War Two Page 4 of 185

5 DEFINITION OF UNITS AND MODELS When reading these rules and during the description of the various phases of the game you will often find the terms infantry and vehicle together with the terms model and unit. For game purposes infantry, artillery and stationary motorbikes are considered to be infantry. For game purposes a tank, an armoured car, a half-track, a truck, a car and a moving motorbike are considered to be vehicles. Model: This term identifies a single man, a tank, a vehicle, a gun. Unit: This term identifies the basic formation that can perform an order. Specifically it can consist of a single model, such as a tank, or more than one model in the case of infantry units. When an order is given the entire unit performs that same order even if it comprises more than one model. Going into detail, the models can be subdivided into the following categories: Infantry: Men in general, unloaded vehicle crew, gun crew, mortar crew, etc. Artillery: Guns in general from anti-tank to anti-aircraft guns, from howitzers to rocket-launchers (for awareness purposes artillery counts as infantry). Motorbike: Vehicles with 2 or 3 wheels, including special vehicles such as the German Kettenkrad and the Sidecar. Car: Four-wheeled vehicles that can carry up to 4 men. Truck: Vehicles that can carry infantry units, they can have 4, 6 or 8 wheels and sometimes even have tracks. Half-track: Vehicles with two front-wheels and rear tracks. These vehicles are classified as armoured vehicles. Some can transport infantry units. Armoured Car: Vehicles with 4, 6 or 8 wheels. These vehicles are classified as armoured vehicles. Tanks: Tracked vehicles. These vehicles are armoured vehicles and are sub-divided into light tanks, medium tanks and heavy tanks. Assault guns, motorised artillery, self-propelled guns and other classifications have been included in the categories above to simplify the tables, but their specific nature has been maintained with the use of the characteristics. Characteristics Both models and units may have particular specifications that influence various aspects of the game (movement, fire, awareness, etc.) In the unit description you will see the characteristics section if your unit has any special abilities or penalties. Check the Characteristics Table to find out what they mean. Training The troop s training, their value, their tenacity and their bravery are all summed up in one number: Training. All tests (Panic, Driving, Assault, etc.) are made using this number. Given that to pass a test you need to get equal to or better than this number, this implies that the lower it is, the better the Training. A unit of American paratroopers, with Training 3, is better trained than a unit of American Riflemen with Training 4. Operation: World War Two Page 5 of 185

6 THE GAME TURN In order to rationalise the various actions that occur during the battle it is sub-divided into a series of turns which are, in turn, sub-divided into a series of phases. Normally a battle will last 6 turns during which the units follow the orders given to them. In every full game turn all units that are not panicking MUST be assigned an order. BASIC TURN SEQUENCE 1) Order Card Re-fill 2) Panic Recovery 3) Initiative 4) Order Sequence A) Order assignment and declaration of intents of the player that won the initiative B) Reactions C) Counter-reactions D) Execution of Orders according to their Priority The other player then repeats the sequence 5) Turn ends and so on until all the units have received and executed an order. When both players units have performed an action then the turn is over and a new one can begin. Draw Order Cards At the start of the first turn the player must draw 5 cards + 1 card for every friendly unit in the game. This means that if the army consists of 10 units then the player will draw 15 cards (5+10). These cards represent the different orders that can be given that turn. To simulate the varying efficiency of the chain of command the following variants apply: German Army: Draws 7 cards (instead of 5) + 1 for each friendly unit. American Army: Draws 5 cards + 1 for each friendly unit. Every turn after drawing his cards the player can replace one card by discarding one and drawing a new one. Russian Army: Draws 5 cards + 1 for each friendly unit. British Army: Draws 5 cards + 1 for each friendly unit. Once per game, after the re-fill, you can replace up to 3 cards, discarding the unwanted ones and taking 3 new ones. Order Card Re-fill At the start of each new turn the player must have 5 cards for his basic hand (7 for the Germans) + 1 card for each of the un-panicked units he has on the table; draw a number of cards depending on the number of units you have. At the end of each turn the cards that have been played or discarded are shuffled back into the deck. Un-played cards that are left in your hand are carried forward to the next turn and count towards the new hand. Mario has a German Army and at the start of the second turn he has 5 cards left in his hand. During the re-fill phase he will draw 2 cards to complete his basic hand (7-5=2) + 1 card for each of the un-panicked units he has on the table. Panic Recovery phase From the second turn onwards you may have to recover panicked units. In this phase all panicked units that are in the open must move as fast as possible towards the closest cover without moving closer to the enemy. When they reach cover they throw themselves to the ground and are Pinned! Panicked units that are already Pinned! and in cover can try to recover by taking a Morale Test. If they pass the test then they are no longer in panic; stand all the models up. They may not do anything else this turn, so place a Unit has Moved marker next to the unit (whatever the distance they have covered) making sure it s the right colour (white for even turns, black for odd turns). If they were already in cover the turn before, place a Unit was Stationary marker next to them (white for even turns, black for odd turns). These markers help when defining awareness of the unit (see the rules below). If the unit is reduced to only one man after losses, even if he is not Panicked, he must perform a Morale Test every turn. If the model passes the test then he can carry on fighting, but if he fails the test remove the model. Operation: World War Two Page 6 of 185

7 Initiative The player that wins the initiative for the turn will play the first Order Card. To decide the initiative both players choose a card and place it face-down on the table. They turn them over at the same time and compare the priority numbers. Whoever has played the lowest priority number has won the initiative; the Order type has no relevance here. The cards used to bid for the initiative are discarded and cannot be used to give orders this turn. If the priority numbers are the same then it is a draw, and both players must play another card. If it is still a draw after the fifth card then both players draw a card from the deck and compare numbers until a winner is found. Order Sequence The player that won the initiative chooses a unit and gives them an Order. Show the card to the other player and declare the intentions of the unit and the priority shown on the Order card. The opponent may react by giving one of his units an order with a lower priority, by declaring their intentions and the priority of their card. At this point the first player can counter-react by assigning another order to another unit, as long as that order has a lower priority than the last card played by his opponent, again declaring his intentions and the priority. This sequence continues until one of the players selects a Priority1 order or passes. In both cases now proceed to the Order Execution phase, starting with the lowest priority up to the highest. Mario won the initiative and gives a Fire5 order (Fire Order, Priority 5) to a Grenadier unit that fires at an American unit which is standing in the middle of the road. Massimo reacts by playing an Assault3 card on the threatened unit and declares that they will Assault the Grenadiers that want to fire at them. Mario counter-reacts and plays a Fire1 card on the machine gun squad on the other side of the road to block the assault. Given that Massimo can t counter-react (there aren t any cards less than 1 ) the players proceed to the Order Execution phase. First of all Mario fires with the machine gun. If the Americans survive both the enemy fire and any eventual Morale Test then Massimo can complete the assault and Mario, with any survivors, will be allowed to fire at the American squad with his Grenadiers. Once the orders have all been completed the units will be given the right marker, of the right colour, to indicate that they have performed an action that turn. Once this phase has been completed the player without the initiative (Massimo, in this example - no matter whether he reacted or counter-reacted) chooses a unit and gives them an order, declaring their intentions. Obviously it will be possible to react and counter-react just like the first example. When ALL units have performed an action and all units have a marker the colour of the current turn, the turn is over and the players start again from the card re-fill phase. Remember that once you have assigned an Order card and declared the intentions of a unit you cannot change your mind for any reason whatsoever. Operation: World War Two Page 7 of 185

8 ORDERS The Order Cards are the heart of this game system. When you give an order to a unit you must declare your intentions to the other player, i.e. explain precisely what actions you intend to perform. This declaration will allow your opponent to react, playing a card with a lower priority. In this case, too, the player must declare their intentions to allow a counter-reaction which, in turn, may provoke a further counter-reaction. This sequence is only interrupted when one of the players plays a Priority1 card (a card with a Priority of 1) or if he passes. DECLARATION OF INTENTS Depending on the order given, the declaration may include different elements; Movement: You must declare the direction, type of movement (slow or fast), destination and any eventual exposed models. Assault: You must declare the direction, type of movement (slow or fast), destination and any eventual exposed models. You must also declare your target, as well as any eventual close combat or ramming. Fast movement cannot exceed the distance shown in the Assault column of the movement table because normally during the Second World War weapons were used when stationary; you can assault while moving slowly. Fire: Declare the target unit and any eventual exposed models. If you intend to interrupt an enemy unit whilst it is moving then you must indicate the exact point when you will open fire. Ambush: Declare any eventual exposed models and, if you use the card to fire, the target unit. If you intend to interrupt an enemy unit whilst it is moving you must indicate the exact point when you will open fire. If you use the card to remain stationary without firing then you must only declare the unit that receives the order. Suppression Fire: You must declare the target and any eventual exposed models. ORDER EXECUTION You must now proceed to the Order Execution phase which must follow the increasing numerical priority order and which must respect the intentions declared beforehand. If there are Pinned! models in a unit then they can only stand up; the other members of the unit can act according to orders. Once the order has been performed, place a marker (the colour of the current turn) next to the unit that has acted: white for even turns, black for odd turns. This way it will always be possible to identify the units that still have to receive an order that turn. Remember that awareness will depend on the last action performed. Movement: Units that have received this order will move, slow or fast, to the destination that was declared and that must be within the maximum distance allowed for that unit. For awareness purposes, infantry units that move slowly are considered stationary. Vehicles with this order are always considered in movement for awareness purposes, even if they don t actually move. The engine noise has given their position away. Assault: Units that have received this order will move, slow or fast, up to the destination that was declared and that must be within the maximum distance allowed for that unit during an assault. If you have declared that you will fire at an enemy unit you can fire before or after moving as long as when you fire the target unit is in line of sight and you are aware of them. Apply a penalty of -1 to hit. If the target has moved thanks to a lower priority, you can ignore your original destination and try to follow them moving towards the enemy unit up to the maximum distance allowed during an assault. For awareness purposes you should consider this order as a combination of a Movement Order and a Fire Order. If you fire after moving then the unit is considered moving until it fires. Remember that the unit will fire even without a valid target; you can postpone fire but you cannot avoid firing. Imagine that a man has fired a shot accidentally, or that your men, who haven t got your view of the battlefield, have fired at a point on the battlefield where they think the enemy is to be found. If the order is played to react or counter-react YOU MAY NOT delay your fire to obtain better conditions by interrupting enemy movement. Fire: A unit that receives this order may fire at a target of which they are both aware and in line of sight. If played to react or counter-react you can delay fire and interrupt enemy movement waiting for the best conditions. Declare the point at which you will fire. You are allowed to react or counter-react by firing at a unit of which you were not aware or which was not in line of sight as long as both conditions are satisfied when you fire. For awareness Operation: World War Two Page 8 of 185

9 purposes the unit has fired even if it does not actually fire at a unit. Imagine that a man has fired a shot accidentally or that your men, who haven t got your view of the battlefield, have fired at a point on the battlefield where they think the enemy is to be found. Ambush: A unit that receives this order may fire at a target of which is aware and which is in line of sight. If the target is within the Close range of the weapon used then you have a +1 to hit. If this card is used to react or counterreact you may delay fire and interrupt the enemy s movement to obtain the best conditions possible. Declare the point at which you will fire. You are allowed to react or counter-react by firing at a unit of which you were not aware or which was not in line of sight as long as both conditions are satisfied when you fire. For awareness purposes units that receive this order are only considered to have fired if they actually fire at an enemy unit. If you decide not to fire then the unit is considered stationary (including vehicles) Suppression Fire: A unit that receives this order can fire at a unit that is in line of sight even if they are not aware of the target; for this reason you always have a -3 penalty on the Damage Table for any successful hits. For awareness purposes the unit has fired even if it does not actually fire at a unit. Imagine that a man has fired a shot accidentally or that your men, who haven t got your view of the battlefield, have fired at a point on the battlefield where they think the enemy is to be found. If the order is played to react or counter-react YOU MAY NOT delay your fire to obtain better conditions by interrupting enemy movement. TO ANTICIPATE OR TO INTERRUPT? In order to avoid any confusion we want to explain the difference between these two terms. You can Anticipate with any order, but you can only Interrupt with Fire and Ambush orders. In game terms, the player that anticipates wants to play their action before the opponent, while he who interrupts allows the opponent to perform part of his move before intervening. Mario won the initiative and plays an Assault 3. In the declaration of intents he states that the squad will jump over the wall that they were hiding behind and assault a Grenadier unit inside the house. Massimo is lucky and has two cards with a lower priority. He looks at his choices: a) He could play an Assault 2, anticipating Mario. In this case he would hit with an 8 (a basic 7 and a penalty of 1 for the Assault) and would kill with a 7+ due to the medium cover given by the wall. b) Or he could play an Ambush 2, interrupting the move. In this case logic suggests that he opens fire only once the unit has come over the wall. Being at Close range when firing, he would hit with a 6 (a basic 7, with a bonus of +1 for the Ambush) and would kill with a 3+, given that the models are out in the open without any cover. Obviously Massimo chooses the second option. Operation: World War Two Page 9 of 185

10 INFANTRY MOVEMENT Classification: Fast or slow Units move across the battlefield when given Movement or Assault Orders. In both cases consult the Movement Table to find the maximum distance allowed for that type of unit. There are two possible speeds: fast or slow. In the case of an Assault you can still choose the sort of movement that the unit will perform but part of the movement will be sacrificed when firing. A man with a Movement Order can move fast up to 20cm but in Assault he only moves 15cm. Note that 15cm is greater than the 10cm which would classify the movement as slow. The movement type is an attempt to recreate the situation on the battlefield: if a unit is moving slowly we assume that they are being careful, attentive to noise and ready to use all the cover available; a unit going fast is trying to cover the maximum distance possible in the least amount of time possible, and so is less careful about their surroundings. Cohesion Units from the same unit must stay in cohesion amongst themselves during play. Cohesion means that the maximum distance between two models must be 10cm. You can create a sort of chain or a compact group but you must always respect the limit of 10cm from base to base. If the distance becomes greater after losses then the unit must regroup and re-establish cohesion as soon as they receive a Movement or Assault Order. Units that are not in cohesion will have a penalty in their Morale Test. As we have already specified, the declarations must always indicate the destination; if the unit comprises more than one model then move the men one by one ensuring that, at the end of the turn, the unit is in cohesion and at least one model is standing at the declared destination. Terrain Table Some types of terrain may limit or prevent movement. The Terrain Table shows the limits or bonuses that should be applied. Key: -5/-10: The model must sacrifice 5/10cm to even partially move on this sort of terrain. In the case of hedges or walls, a model next to the obstacle can move over it by sacrificing 5cm for low hedges and walls, and 10cm for high ones; in these cases the model is placed on the other side of the obstacle after spending the extra cm required. +5: the model can move 5cm more than normally allowed as long as the entire movement is performed on this type of terrain. Slow: Only slow movement is allowed on this type of terrain Impassable: The model cannot move over this type of terrain. Bicycles Bicycles are anomalous infantry units and require some explanation. Like with vehicles, models spend 5cm movement to mount or dismount and this can only be done with slow movement. Even if models on bicycles move slowly they are not considered stationary, due to the fact that they have to keep a high profile to pedal. Weapons that need an assistant can only be fired if the firer and the assistant do not move and are next to each other when they fire. Slow movement: 15 Fast: 25 Assault: 20 If a model dismounts he must leave a bicycle model behind him; like transport vehicles, you can leave them somewhere and collect them later. If rider-less bicycles are in the burst area of an explosion then they are automatically destroyed. If you do not have models of bicycles without riders then once dismounted the bicycles are lost. This rule helps prevent un-sportsmanlike players from using bicycles in an improper way. Bicycles use the Terrain Table as if they were motorbikes. Operation: World War Two Page 10 of 185

11 FIRE! Valid targets In order to fire at an enemy unit, you must give a Fire, Ambush, Suppression Fire or Assault Order but that isn t enough. You must also fulfil another two requirements: line of sight and awareness. Without one of these two elements you cannot fire. There are two exceptions to this rule; Indirect fire and Suppression Fire. Both will be looked at below. When you have line of sight and awareness then the enemy unit is defined a valid target. Artillery (guns, howitzers etc.) must aim at the target, or line up their barrel in the direction of the enemy model. If they can t aim at the enemy unit then they can t fire. Infantry units can fire at a valid target even if not all the of its models can fire. Normally you cannot split your fire onto several targets but if the firing unit has a heavy weapon (rocket-launcher, etc) then you can choose two different targets: one for the small arms and another for the heavy weapons. The target for the heavy weapon must be a vehicle. Line of sight between infantry models Consider line of sight as a straight line that joins the firing model to the target model. If your model can completely see the target then the line of sight is considered free; if the target can be seen partially he is in cover. Models from the same unit do not block line of sight. When deciding the line of sight you must also take into account the properties of some scenery elements. Scenery Even the most detailed wargames table cannot reproduce every wall, piece of furniture or tree on the table; for this reason, strange situations can arise where concepts like line of sight are too dependent on the model s position. For this reason we have introduced some general rules. Low walls and hedges: Models at ground level can extend their line of sight up to a maximum of 10cm beyond low walls and hedges. Models ignore low walls and hedges that they are next to. High walls and hedges: Models at ground level may not extend their line of sight beyond high walls and hedges (over 2.5cm). Infantry models next to high walls can throw grenades over them if they are aware of enemy models within 5cm of the wall. With high hedges, infantry models next to the hedge can fire and throw grenades beyond the hedge if they are aware of enemy models within 5cm of the hedge. Woods: These elements limit the line of sight within their perimeter and are defined as areas of cover. The line of sight extends up to a maximum of 5cm into this element. Models beyond this distance cannot be considered valid targets as they are out of the line of sight. Single trees or portions of woods that are smaller than 5cm wide are considered small woods; the line of sight does not go further than the normal 5cm. Buildings and ruins: These elements limit the line of sight within their perimeter and are defined as areas of cover. The line of sight extends up to a maximum of 5cm from a window, gap or door on the side of the building that you are firing at. Models beyond this distance cannot be considered valid targets as they are out of the line of sight. Firing levels: Models in the upper floors of a house or on a hill can ignore low walls and hedges but not woods, buildings and ruins that are in the line of sight. In houses measure the vertical distance to move from one floor to another. For high hedges and walls use the real line of sight and common sense. If the players disagree, roll a dice to decide. Awareness A sniper in a bell-tower or a camouflaged gun are certainly more difficult to spot than a tank that is moving and firing and in the confusion of battle it is almost impossible to know the enemy s real position if they remain stationary but if they fire or run towards you, they are much easier to see. In game terms, and to ensure that the model that wants to fire is aware of the presence of the enemy model, you must take two factors into account: what the enemy model did last time they received an order and if they are in cover. The first condition depends on the last order received, and the second depends on its position on the battlefield compared to the firing unit. To decide whether you are aware of an enemy model you must measure the distance between your model and the target. Looking at the Awareness Table where you will find the minimum distance, in cm, at which you can see a model depending on the type, the conditions and the cover. If the distance between the two models is less than or equal to the distance shown then you are aware of them. In a unit with more than one model, it suffices that one model is aware to extend that awareness to the entire unit. Type of target: Infantry, Vehicle Target conditions: Stationary, Moved, Fired Cover: In the open, In cover Operation: World War Two Page 11 of 185

12 Cover When the line of sight between the firing model and the target model is partial (part of the model is hidden), the target model is considered to be in cover. This is a simulation and even the most realistic scenery does not correspond to real-life; to speed the game up and to avoid representing every brick or tree on the battlefield we consider that woods, buildings or ruins provide cover to any model within their boundary. These elements are called areas of cover. A model beyond a wall or hedge is in cover if this is on the line of sight. There are three types of cover: Light, Medium and Heavy. If they are hit, models will take different degrees of damage according to the level of cover they are in. Fire Sequence Once you have ascertained that the firing unit is in line of sight and is aware of the enemy model follow these phases: Positioning Range Rate of Fire Fire Damage Let s look at these phases one at a time. Positioning: Infantry models normally have a firing arc of 360. During this phase the men can be rotated on the spot so that they are pointing at the enemy model or unit. Models that do not have valid targets may not fire. Artillery (guns, howitzers, etc) can turn a total of 45 (22.5 right and 22.5 left) to aim at the target. The gunner, behind the gun carriage, must have a clear line of sight. For mortar units it is enough that one member of the unit sees the target and is in cohesion. Range: In this phase you must verify which, and how many, weapons are within range, referring to the corresponding Weapons Table. The table shows three range values in cm: Close range, Normal range and Extreme range. You cannot fire at a target beyond Extreme range (the third number). For infantry models the range is measured from base to base. Vehicles measure the distance from their weapon and it suffices to reach any part of the perimeter of a vehicle to fire at them. If the distance between the firing model and the target is less than or equal to the Close range and you are using an Ambush Order, then you get a +1 to your roll to hit. With an unit comprising more than one model it is enough that at least one be within Close range to get this bonus. A model armed with a Thompson gets the bonus if the enemy model is at 7cm or less. If the distance between the firing model and the target is less than or equal to the Normal range there are no modifiers (except in the case above or if they are within 5cm). If the distance between the firing model and the target is more than Normal range but within Extreme range you get a penalty of 2 to hit. A model armed with a Thompson M1 sub-machine gun can fire up to 28cm (Extreme range) but will only avoid the -2 penalty to hit if the target is within 14cm. Rate of Fire: In this phase you must check how many shots are fired at the target by checking the Weapons Table. Cross-reference the weapon and the Rate to find the number of dice you will roll. The American Thompson M1 sub-machine gun has a rate of 3 and so it rolls 3 dice we say it rolls 3d10. To speed the game up we suggest you roll all the dice for each sort of weapon at once. Fire: Once you have determined the number of dice that must be rolled you must check what value you need to roll. Cross-reference the weapon used with the type of target to find the minimum roll needed. Remember to apply all the modifiers to the Roll to Hit that apply to each single model (these can be found at the end of the book); models in the same unit may have different modifiers ( two models within 5cm of the target and the others further away). All rolls that are equal to or greater than the number needed are considered to be hits. Operation: World War Two Page 12 of 185

13 If an American solider armed with a Thompson M1 sub-machine gun fires at a German trooper he must roll a 7 or more to hit him. If, instead of a number, there is an NE (No Effect) then you cannot damage this target with this type of weapon. Damage: Roll 1d10 on the Damage Table for every hit. Here there are different modifiers that must be applied (again, they can be found at the end of the book). The hits are applied by the player that owns the target unit, starting with the worst results. Only models in line of sight can suffer the effects of a hit. If the number of hits is more than the number of models that can be hit then the excess hits are lost. The American player has rolled 5 hits on a German unit of 3 men. He rolls for Damage and gets 3 KIA and 2 Pinned! The German player removes the three models; the other results are lost. If a unit comprising several models that are already Pinned! is fired upon again, damage must first be assigned to standing models and only afterwards to the Pinned! ones. This may mean that you have to remove some support weapons such as machine guns, mortars, rocket-launchers etc; just assume that the weapon is jammed, has run out of ammunition or has even been damaged by a shot. If a unit of 12 Germans has 9 Pinned! men and 3 standing, and is hit and must remove 4 dead, the first 3 to die will be the standing models. If a unit of 12 Germans with 6 Pinned! and 6 standing is hit and takes 4 KIA and 4 Pinned!, he must choose the 4 KIA from the standing models and Pin the other 2 (the 2 excess Pinned! results are lost). If the firing unit also uses Burst Area Weapons, first resolve the burst area weapon damage and then resolve the Small Arms Fire. Mixed infantry models Sometimes during a battle the models from a player s different units can get mixed up. If there are less than 5cm between the models from two different infantry units, consider them as a single target for direct fire purposes. The player that is fired at will split the damage amongst models in his units respecting line of sight and awareness. Friendly infantry models in the firing line If the line of sight between the firing model and the target passes closer than 5cm from one or more friendly models that are not in the firing unit, they may be hit. Check each hit separately with a Precision Test (without modifiers). Precision Test (1d10) If the dice roll is equal to or more than the unit s Training number then the model has hit an enemy model. If the dice roll is lower than the unit s Training number then the model has hit a friend. Models in the firing unit cannot be hit. Losses are removed, as normal, by the player that has suffered them. Troops partially in cover or in mixed cover: differentiated targets If the target unit has some of its models in cover, it is in a situation where it is subdivided by different types of cover or partially inside a position or a bunker, the firing player must decide how many shots will be aimed at each section, applying modifiers separately. Obviously, hits in one section cannot be assigned to the other. A German unit is partially in woods (light cover) and partially behind a wall (medium cover). The American player decides to fire at them with an infantry squad; in this case he can split his 22 dice amongst the two sections as he wishes, but must declare it before rolling the dice. He must also roll the dice separately when rolling for damage as the result may be different depending on the cover in each of the two sections ; a man maybe Pinned! behind medium cover or die in light cover (with a roll of 6 on the Small Arms Damage table). Operation: World War Two Page 13 of 185

14 If the target unit was partially in a trench and partially outside, only the section in the trench will benefit from the -1 to be hit. You may not split the fire from the same weapon. The 7 dice from an Mg34 must all be aimed at the same section; this does not prevent other models from the same unit from firing at the other section. Line of sight through walls, doors, windows, gaps In order to trace a valid line of sight through the outer perimeter of a building there must be at least one window, gap or door between the firing unit and the target unit; in this case all models within 5cm of the opening can fire or be chosen as targets. You can only throw grenades through a door, a window or a gap. Operation: World War Two Page 14 of 185

15 THE WEAPONS TABLE The weapons tables are sub-divided into nationalities and provide statistics for all types of weapons. The weapons tables are also sub-divided into sections for Small Arms and Heavy Weapons. When you have to check for damage use the corresponding section of the Damage Table. A 75mm gun will roll on the Heavy Weapons section of the Damage Table. A rifle will roll on the Small Arms section of the Damage Table. Specific rules to be applied to certain weapons are mentioned on the table itself. The tables also specify if you are firing with direct or indirect fire. This classification defines the difference between a shot in a straight line and one with an arched trajectory. A direct shot means that the trajectory follows a straight line to the target. An indirect shot means the trajectory traces a curve that goes up into the air and then comes back down again. With the latter you can fire upon units that are not in line of sight as long as you receive a communication that tells you where to fire. We will look at this later. Cross reference the type of weapon with the type of target and you will see a number. That is the number you must roll (after applying any applicable modifiers) to hit the target. The range is in centimetres (cm) and shows three numbers: Close Normal Extreme. If the distance is equal to or less than the Close range and you are using an Ambush Order then you get a +1 to hit. If the target is beyond Normal range but within Extreme range then you can fire but you have a penalty of -2 to hit. You cannot fire at an enemy that is farther than the Extreme range (the third number). Grenades do not have a Close range as they can t be thrown less than 4cm. For shaped-charge weapons we have only shown normal range, as they do not apply the bonus for Close range nor the penalty for Extreme range. The rate indicates the number of dice that you roll to hit. Sometimes instead of a number there will be an A with a number in brackets or an L. In this case it is a Burst weapon. This will be looked at later on. THE DAMAGE TABLE This table shows the damage to be applied after any successful hits. Given that this section of the rules only treats infantry units let s look at the results you can obtain. The player that takes the damage can choose how to apply the damage, starting with the highest values. Excess hits are lost. KIA: One model is removed from play. Pinned! : A model is laid on his side. He has thrown himself to the ground to avoid being hit. The next time his unit is given an order, all he can do is stand up; he may do nothing else. Pinned! if LMH/KIA: If the model is in light, medium or heavy cover then he is Pinned!, otherwise he is KIA. Pinned! if MH/KIA: If the model is in medium or heavy cover then he is Pinned!, otherwise he is KIA. Pinned! if H/KIA: If the model is in heavy cover then he is Pinned!, otherwise he is KIA. NE: No effect. The shot bounces off a helmet, makes a hole in a uniform, whistles by, just a few millimetres from your model. Main weapon: The artillery has been destroyed. Modifiers Every roll may be subject to penalties or bonuses. Check the relevant section (at the back of the book) to see which will apply. After rolling the dice, add or subtract the modifiers to the result; if there is more than one modifier then apply one after the other to get the final result. An infantryman receives an Assault Order and moves to within 5cm of the enemy before firing. The modifiers to the roll to hit are: -1 for the Assault Order and +3 because he is 5cm from the enemy, for a total of +2 to the roll. Operation: World War Two Page 15 of 185

16 Suppression Fire One of the fundamental aspects of this game system is tied to the fact that in order to fire you must be in line of sight and aware. Historically however, sometimes large amounts of fire were aimed at an area to prevent any possible reaction, despite the fact that there was no certainty of the enemy actually being there at all. With the Suppression Fire Order you can fire at enemy units in line of sight but of which you are not aware. Considering that the fire is very vague and is used to saturate a general area, apply a 1 to hit (since the firers are not aware of the target) and a -3 on the Damage Table. WEAPONS WITH ASSISTANTS Some infantry support weapons require one or more assistants to use them properly. Light machine guns: Can only fire when moving if another model in the squad is in base contact with the machine-gunner when they fire. If there is no one in contact with the machine-gunner then the weapon rate is halved (rounded up) and the weapon can only fire if the model doesn t move. With a tripod it has a firing arc of 180 (90 right, 90 left), and it cannot move and fire in the same turn. Medium and Heavy machine guns: Can only fire if another model in the squad is in base contact with the machine-gunner. If there is no one in contact with the machine-gunner then the weapon rate is halved (rounded up). This weapon has a firing arc of 180 (90 right, 90 left), and it cannot move and fire in the same turn. Infantry rocket-launcher: Can only fire when moving if another model in the squad is in base contact with the model armed with the rocket-launcher when they fire. If no one is in contact with the model armed with the rocket-launcher, it fires in alternate turns and only if the model does not move. Light mortars: Can only fire if another model in the squad is in base contact with the man armed with the mortar. If no one is in contact with the model armed with the mortar then the weapon can only fire in alternate turns. This type of weapon cannot move and fire in the same turn. Mortars cannot fire from within an undamaged building. Medium and Heavy mortars: Can only fire if another two models in the squad are in base contact with the man armed with the mortar. If only one model is in contact with the model armed with the mortar then the weapon can only fire on alternate turns. If no one is in contact with the model armed with the mortar the weapon can only fire every three turns. This type of weapon cannot move and fire on the same turn. This weapon has a firing arc of 180 (90 right, 90 left) and cannot move and fire in the same turn. Mortars cannot fire from within an undamaged building. Artillery (guns, howitzers, multiple rocket-launchers): Can only fire if another two models in the squad are in base contact with the gunner. If only one model is in base contact with the gunner then the weapon can only fire on alternate turns. If no one is in contact with the gunner then the weapon fires every three turns. This weapon has a firing arc of 45 (22.5 right, 22.5 left), and it cannot move and fire on the same turn. During Order Execution, the assistants cannot do anything else if they are helping with the weapon. Pinned! models cannot act as assistants since all they are allowed to do is to stand up. If the weapon must fire in alternate turns, every three turns or has the slow re-load characteristic, place one or more reloading markers next to the model to remind you when the weapon will be ready to fire again. At the end of every turn that the weapon does not fire and the model stays stationary, remove a marker. German Mg34 and Mg42 machine guns The moderate weight and innovative characteristics of these machine guns allowed their use as either light or medium machine guns. If bought without a tripod they are considered light, and if bought with a tripod then they are medium. If no choice is given, like in machine gun platoons, they are always medium. This abstraction allows their use in a way that approaches reality in as much as their use as section support weapons had an impact on the amount of ammunition carried, the roles and the command structure. If mounted on a vehicle, despite the fact that they get the +3, they are never considered medium. Operation: World War Two Page 16 of 185

17 Artillery If you fire at a piece of artillery then the target will be the gun, the multiple rocket-launcher or the howitzer. In this case, if you hit, apply the effects by rolling on the artillery column. When using direct fire against an artillery unit, you must take the protection allowed by a possible shield into account. If the gun does not have a shield, then consider all the assistants to be in light cover. If the gun has the shield characteristic, then roll 1d10 for each hit on the assistants: 1-4: the shot has been deflected by the shield, No Effect; 5-10: consult the Infantry column of the Damage Table, considering medium cover but only if the shot comes from the front of the gun, otherwise consider light cover. If artillery assistants are behind a wall or in an area that gives better cover, then apply the better cover. The shield will in any case continue to deflect fire. A gun with a shield is in a bunker; apply heavy cover. If an assistant is hit roll 1d10 to see if the shots are deflected. If the crew is not in cohesion with their gun because they have voluntarily abandoned it, or after a failed Morale test, models roll for damage on the infantry column, without considering the cover given by an eventual shield. This rule also applies to the crew of destroyed guns. If the man that is armed with the artillery piece dies, another assistant can become the gunner. Unlike support weapons (machine guns, mortars etc), the artillery piece is only destroyed if the Main weapon result turns up on the Damage Table. BURST WEAPONS You may find a letter A with a number in brackets in the Rate column of the Weapons Tables; this means that it is a burst weapon. The Rate is 1 (i.e. you roll 1d10) but the effects are applied to all models (both enemy and friendly) whose base is even partially within the template that is placed over the point of impact. There are 4 types of template; A3 (radius 3cm); A5 (radius 5cm); A8 (radius 8cm) and A10 (radius 10cm). Unlike the standard procedure, when using a burst weapon you must declare the exact point of impact which is the point that you are aiming at. The point of impact must be a specific model. If it is a unit consisting of more than one model you must still choose one model who is within range and in line of sight. Each template shows the centre of the explosion that must be placed over the point of impact. Burst weapons apply all modifiers. When damage is caused, hits are applied by the player that suffers them and starting with the worst results, but are only shared amongst the models whose base is under the burst template (even partially). Artillery and burst weapons If you fire at a piece of artillery then the target will be the gun, the multiple rocket-launcher or the howitzer. If you hit then the centre of the burst area will be placed on the artillery piece itself: apply the effects by rolling on the Artillery column. If, after the deviation of indirect fire, the gun is only within the burst area, do not use the Artillery column. Obviously in both cases the gun-crew within the burst area may be hit normally using the damage shown on the infantry column in both cases. Consider the cover given by the shield only if the point of impact is in front of the gun, so the shield is between it and the assistants. Burst Weapons in buildings: Direct fire As already specified, line of sight penetrates up to 5cm inside buildings to simulate furniture, indoor walls and other furnishings that are not represented in the game. When firing a gun at a unit inside a building it is hard to aim through a window, but rather the building is aimed at. The explosion and debris from a successful hit occupy whole areas of the building, and sometimes even hit models that are not in sight. For this reason burst weapons apply their template starting from the outside wall closest to the target model. A 150mm shell, for example, will extend the explosion 10cm inside the building from the outside wall. Hand grenades are a different matter. This is the only case that the burst area inside a building is measured from the target model. Grenades can only be thrown through doors, windows and gaps. Light and Heavy Flamethrowers use their own template but can only fire through doors, windows and gaps. Burst Weapons in woods: Direct fire Line of sight extends 5cm into woods to simulate trunks and vegetation that are not shown in the game. When a shot hits a model in the woods the trees explode producing hundreds of lethal splinters; this is why burst weapons use their template from the target model. A 150mm shell, for example, will apply it s 10cm burst area inside the woods Operation: World War Two Page 17 of 185

18 starting from the target model; much more than the 5cm of visibility. Light and Heavy Flamethrowers use their template. Deviation of Direct Fire with Burst Weapons When a burst weapon uses direct fire against a target and misses, do not calculate the deviation but treat the shot as NE. This prevents strange situations where the shot may deviate in improbable directions compared to the line of sight. When using this rule imagine that the shell flies over the unit or explodes nearby without causing any damage. The only exception are grenades thrown by hand and satchel charges. Hand grenades In the Weapons Table you will have noticed that grenades are classified as direct fire (with an *) and also indirect fire. In game terms consider direct throws as indirect fire: if you miss, they deviate. This rule simulates the fact that a hand grenade can be deviated back onto the model that threw it. Treat this as if the enemy had picked the grenade up and thrown it back, or as if it had slipped from the thrower s hand in the midst of the battle. Interrupting movement to fire with a Burst Weapon If you interrupt the movement of an enemy unit to fire with a Fire or Ambush order, identify the point at which you will fire. If you use a grenade or another burst weapon to interrupt the movement and then hit, you will have hit 1d10 models (remember to apply the modifiers below). If the number obtained is greater than the number of models in the unit then the excess is lost. If the burst weapon misses, consider the result as NE and do not apply deviation. If some models are Pinned!, place at least one model on the exact point where movement was interrupted and the other Pinned! men in cohesion with the first Pinned! man. Remember that this rule only applies if you interrupt movement. It would be difficult to define the exact position of each model at the time the explosion occurs so it is easier to trust to a dice roll to establish the number of models involved. Modifiers to the d10 roll If the burst weapon is an A(3), then subtract -5 from the roll (a minimum of 1 model is hit in any case). If the weapon is an A(5) then apply the result without modifiers. If the weapon is an A(8) then add +3 to the roll. If the weapon is an A(10) then add +5 to the roll. Light and Heavy Flamethrowers When using a light or heavy flamethrower, instead of placing the template over the target model place the flamethrower template with the point next to the firing model to show the area that has been affected. This way it will be easy to see who is caught in the template and who is not. Unlike other burst weapons, roll 1d10 for every model touched by the template to see if they are hit; then check for damage on the models that have been hit by looking at the Small Arms Damage Table (for the light flamethrower) or the Heavy Weapons Damage Table (for the heavy flamethrower) and ignoring all cover. Operation: World War Two Page 18 of 185

19 Satchel charges Engineer units often carried satchel charges to destroy buildings, bridges, anti-tank obstacles, barbed wire and even enemy vehicles. These weapons can be used immediately if used like a grenade ; in this case the model just throws the charge, and you check the table to hit. If a model with satchel charges spends an entire turn stationary and next to an obstacle, an armoured door, a bridge or a section of barbed wire, he can prime a charge and places the relative marker. He can move away during the next turn. In the following turns (not necessarily the next one) the satchel can be detonated by the model as his only action. Roll 1d10 and consult the table below; the rest of the unit can act normally with any order. To destroy a bridge the procedure is the same but you will need at least 6 satchel charges before pressing the button (only 1 roll, with a +3 bonus). If it is destroyed then all soldiers on the bridge at that time are killed and all vehicles are destroyed. Satchel charge Damage Table (1d10) 1: NE. The satchel charge doesn t work. 2-4: Remove the scenery element if it is barbed wire. 5-6: Remove the scenery element if it is a steel anti-tank obstacle or barbed wire. 7-8: Remove the scenery element if it is a steel or cement anti-tank obstacle, an armoured door, or barbed wire. 9-10: Remove the scenery element. Buildings: When a charge is detonated next to or inside a building roll 1d10 on the Building Demolition Table with a penalty of -2. Satchel charges: Cost +50 points each. Close range: n/a. Normal range: 5cm. Extreme range: 10cm. One use only. If you roll 1 or 2 while throwing the satchel charge it explodes and the throwing model is removed as KIA. Place the template on the model. You can move and throw a satchel charge. Template A(3). Multiple rocket-launchers Some weapons fire using their whole arsenal in one salvo. Russian Katyusha rocket-launchers and German Nebelwerfers are the best examples. The number of templates available per salvo is the number shown in brackets. If you decide to fire a salvo, declare the target. Roll 1d10 to see whether you have hit or if the shot deviates. Check for the deviation of the remaining templates starting from the actual impact point of the first shot. One use only. Compact Groups of artillery, multiple rocket launchers. When building your army you can attach artillery or multiple rocket launchers of the same type and from the same platoon/section, as long as this is declared at the start of the game. The models of artillery or multiple rocket launchers in the compact group must remain in cohesion with the others (10cm) and will perform the same action: they only get one Order Card, and they all fire at the same target etc. If the battery takes losses you can spread them amongst the units as you prefer, but if they are hit by a burst weapon then losses can only be applied to models within the template. If the enemy gets a Catastrophe! result only one unit is destroyed. The Compact group s Panic Resistance is equal to the sum of the single RPs. Once the group has been formed the units cannot go back to acting singly. Operation: World War Two Page 19 of 185

20 Shaped charge Weapons (HEAT) In the Weapons Tables you will have noticed that there are four sorts of ammunition: High-explosive, armourpiercing, smoke and shaped charges. While a solid shell uses mass and velocity to penetrate a target, a shaped charge only needs to detonate on contact to develop the necessary heat reaction. In game terms, shaped charge weapons do not get a +1 to hit at Close range with an Ambush Order, but nor do they have the -2 when firing at Extreme range: for this reason in the Weapons Table we have only shown Normal range. Sandbags and Schurzen are very effective against these weapons. As well as the anti-tank function, these weapons can also be used against infantry hiding inside buildings, in ruins or behind walls, in so far as we consider that the shell explodes against the obstacle. You cannot fire at infantry units in other locations (in a wood, in the open, behind a hedge, etc.). If you hit, use the template for the weapon used. If you miss, consider the shot as NE. German Weapons Panzerfaust: Does not require an assistant. Can move and fire. If it hits an infantry unit inside a building, a ruin or behind a wall, use an A(3) template. Characteristics: Shaped charge, slow re-load. In this case it isn t actually a re-load but rather the man that is preparing another Panzerfaust to fire. Panzerschreck: Can only fire when moving if another model in the squad is in base contact with the model armed with the rocket-launcher at the moment it fires. If no one is in contact with the model armed with the rocket-launcher, it fires in alternate turns and only if the model does not move. If it hits an infantry unit inside a building, a ruin or behind a wall, use an A(3) template. Characteristics: Shaped charge. American Weapons Bazooka: Can only fire when moving if another model in the squad is in base contact with the model armed with the rocket-launcher at the moment it fires. If no one is in contact with the model armed with the rocket-launcher, it fires in alternate turns and only if the model does not move. If it hits an infantry unit inside a building, a ruin or behind a wall, use an A(3) template. Characteristics: Shaped charge. Can use white phosphorous shells paying the extra cost: in this case the template is A(5). (Optional rule). British Weapons Piat: Can only fire when moving if another model in the squad is in base contact with the model armed with the rocket-launcher at the moment it fires. If no one is in contact with the model armed with the rocket-launcher, it fires in alternate turns and only if the model does not move. If it hits an infantry unit inside a building, a ruin or behind a wall, use an A(3) template. Characteristics: Shaped charge, silent weapon, slow re-load. Can use 2 mortar shells which have an A(5) template and characteristics: Silent weapon, slow reload. Russian Weapons RPG-1 or Panzerfaust: Does not need an assistant. Can move and fire. If it hits an infantry unit inside a building, a ruin or behind a wall, use the A(3) template. Characteristics: Shaped charge,, slow re-load. In this specific case it isn t a true re-load, but the rule simulates the fact that the soldier must prepare a new RPG1 or Panzerfaust for firing. Operation: World War Two Page 20 of 185

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