Chapter 16 Section 2: The Compromise of 1850

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1 Chapter 16 Section 2: The Compromise of 1850 In this lesson, we will: explain why the slavery debate erupted again in 1850 describe the impact of the Compromise of 1850 Summarize how Uncle Tom's Cabin affected attitudes toward slavery 1

2 The Slavery Debate Erupts Again California requested admission to the United States as a free state in The balance of power in the Senate was once again threatened. In 1849 there were 15 slave states and 15 free states. 2

3 It had seemed possible that Oregon, Utah and New Mexico might also join as free states. Southerners feared the South would be outvoted in the Senate. Some even suggested that southern states might want to secede, or remove themselves from the United States. Northern congressmen argued that California should enter as free state because most of the territory lay north of. Many in Congress looked to a great "compromiser" to help. Who am I referring to? Who is he??? 3

4 Clay vs. Calhoun Clay argued that the North & South should reach an agreement on slavery, otherwise the nation would fall apart. John C. Calhoun refused to compromise, arguing that slavery should be allowed in the western territories. Calhoun also demanded that runaway slaves (fugitives) be returned to their owners. See p. 464 Clay Calhoun 4

5 Daniel Webster from New called for unity, supporting Clay's plea to save the Union, predicting that there could be no such thing as "peaceable secession." he feared that the states could not separate without starting a bloody civil war. A civil war is a war between people of the same country. Webster viewed slavery as evil but the breakup of the Union as worse. He was willing to compromise with southern demands that northerners be forced to return fugitive slaves. 5

6 Compromise of 1850 as the debate raged on in 1850, John C. Calhoun died. Henry Clay gave more than 70 speeches in favor of a compromise but eventually became too old and too ill to continue. Stephen Douglas of Illinois took over for him and guided Clay's plan through Congress. This plan is called the Compromise of

7 7

8 Let's go over each of the five parts 1) It allowed California to enter as a free state. 2) It divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into the territories of Utah & New Mexico. Voters in each territory would decide the slavery question according to popular. 3) It ended the slave trade in the nation's capital, Washington D.C. 4) It included a strict fugitive slave law. 5) It settled a border dispute between Texas & New Mexico. 8

9 Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves. folks who let fugitives escape could be fined $1000 and jailed. this act enraged antislavery northerners. By forcing them to catch runaways, it made them feel as if they were part of the slave system. neither side got everything it wanted and the Fugitive Slave Law was hard for Northerners to accept. 9

10 Uncle Tom's Cabin: An Antislavery Bestseller written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in written to highlight the evils of slavery and injustice of the Fugitive Slave Act. had an incredible impact in the North; book was hated in the South. one of the most important novels in American history. 10

11 When Stowe met President Lincoln in 1862, he is said to have exclaimed, "So you are the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war!" What war was our 16th president referring to?? Lincoln meets Stowe statue, located in Hartford CT 11

12 Short recap on what we've learned today!! Uncle Tom's Cabin 12

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