The Birth of the Republican Party. Main Idea The issue of slavery dominated U.S. politics in the 1850s.

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1 10-3

2 The Birth of the Republican Party Main Idea The issue of slavery dominated U.S. politics in the 1850s.

3 Differences Between North and South North South

4 North economy based on manufacturing and industrialization railroad construction very common urbanization (growth of cities) immigration from European countries was common

5 South economy based on agriculture and slavery cotton was the major cash crop (King Cotton) primarily a rural region of plantations and small farms lack of railroads and industry no significant European immigration to the South

6 Slavery in the Territories Wilmot Proviso def. plan to ban slavery from expanding into lands won from Mexico during the Mexican War SIG sparked sectional conflict over slavery issue North vs. South California applied for statehood as a free state Gold Rush of 1849 led to an explosion in California s population Upset Southerners demanded that slavery be allowed to expand West

7 The Compromise of 1850 Background: Henry Clay (aka The Great Compromiser ) - wanted to avoid conflict between North and South, developed a compromise California = free state New Mexico and Utah territories would use popular sovereignty to decide slavery issue Popular sovereignty def. the residents of a territory would vote for or against slavery

8 The Compromise of 1850 New Mexico and Texas border dispute settled in favor of New Mexico, but Texas received debts paid by federal government Slave trade in Washington D.C. was abolished Very popular in the North, very controversial in the South New Fugitive Slave Law passed in order to return escaped slaves to plantations in the South Very popular in the South, very controversial in the North

9 Chapter 10 - Section 2

10 Protest, Resistance, and Violence Main Idea Proslavery factions in the South and antislavery factions in the North disagreed over the treatment of fugitive slaves and the spread of slavery to the territories. This resulted in increased sectionalism between the regions.

11 Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad Fugitive Slave Law Underground Railroad Uncle Tom s Cabin Harriet Tubman

12 Fugitive Slave Law Northerners angered by the new Fugitive Slave Law - part of the Compromise of 1850 runaway slaves could NOT testify in court and no trial by jury Helping an escaped slave resulted in fines and jail time

13 Underground Railroad def. secret network of abolitionists who would help fugitive slaves escape to the North and Canada Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman former slave and conductor on the underground railroad Made 19 trips and helped 300 people to freedom Nicknamed Moses of her people for her efforts

14 Uncle Tom s Cabin (1852) antislavery novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Attacked the institution of slavery as evil, became a bestseller in the North SIG increased sectional tensions between North and South

15 Tensions in Kansas Kansas-Nebraska Act Bleeding Kansas Bleeding Sumner

16 Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Stephen Douglas plan to organize territories in the West Popular sovereignty - settlers in the territories would vote for or against slavery in both Kansas and Nebraska Repealed the Missouri Compromise Kansas and Nebraska were both north of the parallel line (slavery had been banned North of that line) SIG sectional tensions exploded Northerners resented the idea that slavery could expand to lands where slavery had been banned led to the formation of the Republican Party

17 Bleeding Kansas violence erupted as pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers rushed to Kansas and began fighting with each other Two rival governments were set up for the Kansas territory Pro-slavery capital = Lecompton Anti-slavery capital = Topeka Sack of Lawrence proslavery men burned and looted an anti-slavery town Pottawatomie Massacre John Brown (an abolitionist) murdered 5 slave owners with broad-swords in Kansas SIG Kansas erupted in its own civil war

18 Bleeding Sumner Senator Charles Sumner (Massachusetts) was beaten with a cane by Preston Brooks (South Carolina) in the U.S. Senate SIG sectional tensions increased North defended Sumner, South cheered Brooks

19 10-3

20 The Birth of the Republican Party Main Idea In the mid- 1850s, the issue of slavery and other factors split political parties and led to the birth of new ones, including the Republican Party.

21 New Political Parties Emerge Whig Party Republican Party Know-Nothing Party

22 New Political Parties Background: Whig Party collapsed by 1854 due to conflicts over slavery

23 Know Nothing Party (American Party) established 1854 Members believed in nativism def. favoring of native-born Americans over immigrants anti-immigrant and anti-catholic

24 Republican Party established 1854 Opposed to the expansion of slavery into western territories Supported by many people in the North as a result of Bleeding Kansas

25 10-4

26 Slavery and Secession Main Idea A series of controversial events heightened the sectional conflict that brought the nation to the brink of civil war.

27 Slavery Dominates Politics President James Buchanan Dred Scott v. Sandford (aka Dred Scott Decision) Lincoln-Douglas Debates John Brown s Raid on Harpers Ferry

28 James Buchanan President elected in 1856 Weak and indecisive at dealing with the slavery issue Typical of ineffective presidential leadership in the 1850s

29 Dred Scott v. Sandford Dred Scott Decision (1857) Background: Dred Scott African American slave from Missouri who sued for his freedom because his master had moved him to the free state of Illinois Roger B. Taney (Chief Justice) - ruled that African Americans were not citizens Missouri Compromise line was unconstitutional because it violated property rights SIG sectionalism exploded decision hated by North and cheered by South Dred Scott

30 Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates on slavery in the western territories as part of their senate race in 1858 SIG - Douglas won the senate race, but Lincoln became known throughout the North as a possible presidential candidate in 1860

31 John Brown s Raid on Harpers Ferry (1859) John Brown abolitionist who wanted to lead a slave revolt in the South Harpers Ferry federal armory and arsenal Brown s goal was to capture weapons for slaves and lead revolt John Brown was captured and hanged for treason SIG sectionalism between North and South exploded In the South, John Brown was viewed as an evil murderer In the North, some people viewed Brown as a heroic martyr, others agreed with his views but thought that he was too radical in his actions

32 Lincoln is Elected President Election of 1860 revealed sectionalism between the North and South

33 Election of 1860 Candidates Abraham Lincoln (Republican) Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat) John C. Breckenridge (Southern Democrat) John Bell (Constitutional Union Party) Lincoln Douglass Debate

34 Election of 1860 Lincoln won electoral college but only won 39% of popular vote He won all northern states He won no southern states SIG South was upset at Lincoln s election led directly to secession crisis Lincoln

35 Southern Secession Secession Crisis Confederate States of America

36 Secession Crisis ( ) South Carolina seceded from the Union as a result of Lincoln s election Followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas

37 Confederate States of America (CSA) Confederacy created by southern states that seceded from the Union Emphasized states rights Devoted to the protection of slavery Jefferson Davis = president of the CSA President Buchanan did nothing in response to the secession crisis = ineffective leader

38 Activity Test!

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