ESA Study Guide Year 10 Science

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1 1. What is ecology the study of? Then and now Questions from page 234 of 2. Why did Maori and European settlers burn forests and drain wetlands? 3. Give figures for four examples of a change that has occurred in New Zealand s environment since humans arrived here. 1. Why did the New Zealand government develop an environmental strategy? 2. What does sustainable fisheries mean? Contributing Environment 2010 sets out goals for managing nine aspects of the environment. Choose one of the nine aspects and describe: what the aspect is about: how you think people should be managing that aspect of the environment. Answers (except for Contributing ) are provided on page 328 of

2 Feeding groups Questions from page 236 of Complete the following sentences using words from the word lists. Add in your own examples for spaces d. and f., and f., k., m., o., q., s., and u. carbohydrates chlorophyll decomposers energy from sunlight photosynthesis producers Plants are a. because through the process of b. plants produce c.. An example is d.. In plants, e. captures f. and changes it into chemical potential energy in carbohydrates. By extracellular digestion g. break down dead and waste plant and animal material. An example is h.. carnivores consumers herbivores omnivores parasites predators scavengers All animals belong to the group called i. because they must eat to obtain the chemical energy in food. Consumers that eat both plant and animal food are j.. An example is k.. Consumers that eat only plant food are l.. An example is m.. Consumers that eat only animal food are n.. An example is o.. Carnivores that feed on dead animals are p.. An example is q.. Carnivores that hunt and kill their food are r.. An example is s.. Carnivores living in or on a host animal are t.. An example is u.. 1. Why are decomposers important in composting waste plant material? 2. Dogs and cats have carnivore adaptations, such as sharp molar teeth and short intestines. Why are household pet dogs and cats often given omnivore diets? Contributing Select one of the following habitats: pond, forest, garden, farm, ocean, river. Write the names of ten living things that live in that habitat some plants, animals and fungi or bacteria. Beside each name, write the organism s feeding group. Write on your own paper. Answers (except for Contributing ) are provided on pages of

3 Food chains Questions from page 238, 239 of Understanding 1. Explain what the arrows in a food chain mean. 2. Complete the following food chain by giving the name of a suitable feeding group from: primary carnivore, producer, secondary carnivore, herbivore. a. herbivore b. c. 3. Complete the following food chains using living things from the list: carrot, pine tree, caterpillar, hawk, ladybird, spider, starling (bird). a. Lettuce i. thrush cat b. ii. rabbit iii. c. Rose bush aphid iv. spider v. 1. Why must food webs always start with a producer? 2. Producers Herbivores Primary Secondary carnivores carnivores kelp snail salmon heron phytoplankton moth shag cat flax caterpillar pied stilt shag rye grass herring fish thrush seal lettuce sandhopper spider salmon Use the information in the table to construct: a. A three-level food chain: b. Two four-level food chains. 3. Explain why organisms such as salmon and shags are listed in the information in the table as both primary and secondary carnivores. Answers are provided on page 329 of

4 1. Explain what food webs show. Food webs Questions from page 241 of 2. Below is part of a food web from a rocky shore community: sea lettuce limpet crab human algae a. From the food web name a: animal plankton prawn i. producer ii. herbivore iii. carnivore herring gull iv. primary consumer v. primary carnivore vi. top carnivore. b. Describe what limpets eat: c. Describe what feeds on prawns: d. Redraw the food web adding in the following information. Herring gulls eat crabs. Humans eat limpets. Mussels eat algae and plankton; mussels are eaten by crabs, herring gulls and humans. Starfish eat mussels and are eaten by herring gulls. 3. Use the following food chains to draw a rose-bush food web in the following space. rose bush aphid ladybird praying mantis wolf spider rose bush caterpillar spider fantail cat rose bush snail thrush cat rose bush aphid ladybird fantail cat Answers are provided on pages 329 and 330 of

5 Nutrient cycles Questions from pages 245, 246 of Understanding 1. Describe why decomposers are important in nutrient cycles. 2. Name the plant life process that uses carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. 3. Name the plant and animal life process that releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. 4. Explain why nitrogen-fixing bacteria are important in the ecosystem. 5. Name two legume plants and describe how legumes are different from other plants. 6. Use the word list to complete the following table and show the change carried out by the four groups of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle. The information for nitrogen-fixing bacteria has been done for you. Some words are used twice. ammonia dead and waste material nitrates nitrogen gas Bacteria Raw material Product Nitrogen-fixing Nitrogen gas Nitrates Decomposers Nitrifying bacteria Denitrifying bacteria 7. What happens in transpiration? 1. Explain what would happen to the recycling of nutrients if all the bacteria and fungi were removed from an ecosystem 2. Explain what is happening in the water cycle during condensation, precipitation and evaporation. Answers are provided on pages 330 and 331 of

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