# Static Electricity. Section 4.2. Explaining Static Electricity

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1 CHAPTER 4 Section 4.2 Static Electricity Key Terms static electricity attract repel discharges You pull a shirt out of the clean laundry basket and some other clothing is stuck to it. You drag your feet across the carpet and feel a shock when you reach for the doorknob. You brush your hair on a winter day and it sticks out from your head. You pull out an extra blanket on a winter night and sparks crackle. All of these are examples of static electricity. Static electricity is a buildup of positive and negative charges that have become separated from each other. The word static means not moving. Static electricity is an electric charge that stays in one place on the surface of an object. But what makes these charges build up? And why is static electricity noticeable sometimes, but not always? In this section you will explore the properties of static electricity. Explaining Static Electricity Figure 4.8 Do your socks go with your shirt a little too well? Static electricity can make different fabrics stick together. In Section 4.1 you saw that atoms can pick up electrons from other atoms. When this happens, both atoms become electrically charged. This picking up and losing or transfer of electrons takes place between the atoms of different objects or materials. If you rub two pieces of wool cloth together, they won t pick up electrons from each other. But if you rub a balloon and a wool cloth together, one will pick up electrons from the other. When you separate the objects, you leave a static charge on each object. 6 MHR Unit 2 Electricity

2 Rubbing Builds a Charge In Starting Point Activity 4-A, you charged a balloon with static electricity by rubbing it with a piece of wool. As you can see in Figure 4.9, the surface of the balloon picked up electrons from the wool and became negatively charged. The surface of the wool lost electrons and became positively charged. If you keep rubbing the balloon and the wool together, electrons will continue to move from the wool to the balloon. The longer or harder you rub, the larger a static charge you build. A B What would happen if you rubbed the balloon only once with the wool? Would you still see the effects of static electricity? Why do you think the effect is different when you rub the balloon several times with the wool? Figure 4.9 (A) Before the balloon is rubbed with the wool cloth, the charges on both objects are balanced. (B) After the balloon is rubbed with the wool cloth and the objects are separated, the wool is left with a positive charge. The balloon is left with a negative charge. Electrons have transferred from the wool to the balloon on the spot that was rubbed. After the balloon became charged with electricity, it behaved in a specific way. As you moved toward the charged balloon, the balloon moved toward you. The balloon was reacting to the electric charges within your body. When the charged balloon was placed near another charged balloon, the two charged balloons moved away (were repelled) from each other. Electricity can pull together or attract other objects. Electricity can also push away or repel other objects. In Investigation 4-C, you will charge different objects to find out more about how electric charges behave. Chapter 4 Electric Charges MHR 7

5 Nothing could exist without electric charges. Do you agree with this sentence? Think about the structure of the atom. What do you think holds an atom together? Scientists can place materials in order of how easily they give up electrons. If you rub together two materials from the following list, the one higher on the list will give up electrons. It will become positively charged. The one lower on the list will gain electrons. It will become negatively charged. Does this help to explain your observations in Investigation 4-C? human skin glass hair wool silk paper cotton rubber plastic Three Rules of Electricity When scientists began to study static electricity, they did experiments as you did in Investigation 4-C. Through this research, scientists concluded that the behaviour of electric charges follows three basic rules. 1. Opposite Charges Attract You might have heard this expression: opposites attract. In the case of static electricity, it is definitely true. Objects with a positive charge will attract objects with a negative charge. If you put a silk shirt and cotton socks together in the dryer, they rub together while the dryer runs. The shirt will give up electrons to the socks. The shirt becomes positively charged and the socks become negatively charged. When the laundry is done, the socks and shirt cling together. Figure 4.10 A bad hair day? When you pull off your sweater, static electricity may make your hair stand on end. 2. Like Charges Repel Objects that have the same charge will push away from one another. When you rub two balloons with wool, both balloons become negatively charged. Then when you hang them side by side, they move apart. Two positively charged objects will also repel each other. You may have experienced this yourself if you have ever pulled off a woollen hat or sweater on a dry winter day. As the wool rubs your hair, it picks up electrons. Each hair becomes positively charged. Each hair will try to move away from every other hair because they have the same charge. The result: a positively hair-raising experience! 10 MHR Unit 2 Electricity

6 3. Charged Objects Attract Uncharged Objects In Investigation 4-C you found that pieces of paper will move toward a charged object. The paper itself did not have a charge it was electrically neutral. Why did it move? Remember that an uncharged object still has both positive and negative charges. These charges can move around within an object. Figure 4.11 shows what happens when a negatively charged balloon is brought close to an uncharged wall. The negative charges in the balloon repel the charges in the wall. The result is that the part of the wall nearest the balloon becomes positively charged, even though no electrons have actually moved from the balloon to the wall or from the wall to the balloon. Using Static Electricity Making your hair stand on end or sticking balloons to the wall can be fun, but is it useful? Some technologies use the properties of charged objects to do important work. For example, some pulp mills and factories use static electricity to clean the smoke from their smokestacks. To clean the smoke, charged plates are placed in the smokestack. Oppositely charged particles in the smoke are attracted to the plates and stick to them. The particles can then be collected and removed from the smokestack, allowing the cleaner gas to be released into the air. In the next activity you will build a simple version of another common machine that uses static electricity. A B balloon far from wall surface of wall balloon close to wall Figure 4.11 (A) When a negatively charged balloon is held far from an uncharged wall, the charges in the wall are evenly distributed. (B) When the charged balloon is held close to the wall, the electrons in the part of the wall next to the balloon move as far away from the balloon as possible. That part of the wall becomes positively charged. The negatively charged balloon and the positively charged part of the wall are attracted to each other. The balloon sticks to the wall. What are the three rules of static electricity? Figure 4.12 The Teck Cominco smelter in Trail, B.C., uses static electricity to reduce pollution from its smokestacks. Chapter 4 Electric Charges MHR 11

7 Find Out ACTIVITY 4 D Make a Pepper Copier Your friend has drawn the funniest cartoon you have ever seen, and you will use the library to make a photocopy for yourself. In this activity, you will model what goes on inside the photocopier when you use it to copy the cartoon. What You Need a plastic petri dish with a lid ground pepper Scotch tape paper wool cloth scissors What to Do 1. Make a stencil by tracing the outline of the petri dish lid onto a piece of paper. Cut out the circle of paper. Then cut the shape of your first initial out of that circle. 2. Put a small amount of pepper into the petri dish. 3. Shake the dish to spread the pepper evenly so that it covers the entire bottom of the petri dish. 4. Place the lid on the petri dish. 5. Attach the stencil to the outside of the petri dish lid with small pieces of tape at the edges. 8. Remove the stencil from the lid. Be careful to handle the lid only at the edges. 9. With the lid still on, turn the petri dish upside down, and then right side up again. Remove the lid and observe the pepper. What Did You Find Out? 1. What happened to the pepper in your first trial? What happened in the second trial? Explain why the results were different. 2. What happens to electrons in the pepper when they come close to plastic that has a negative charge? Explain. Extension 3. Why was it important to do the two different trials in this activity? Explain. 4. Use your school library or the Internet to research how a photocopier uses static electricity. Make a diagram or write a short report to communicate what you learned. 6. Trial 1: Turn the petri dish upside down and then right side up again. Remove the lid and observe the pepper. 7. Trial 2: Replace the lid on the petri dish. Place the Petri dish on a flat surface, holding the dish at the edges. Using a wool cloth, rub the lid only where it shows through your stencil. Rub hard and quickly with two fingers for 45 to 60 seconds. 12 MHR Unit 2 Electricity

8 Static Shocker: Electricity Can Jump You have seen that objects charged with static electricity can attract and repel other objects. For example, a negatively charged balloon will attract a positively charged piece of wool. When this happens, the charges stay on the surface of each object. The electrons themselves do not move between the wool and the balloon unless they touch. Sometimes, however, electrons do jump from one object to another. You may feel the burst of electrons as a shock, and you may see it as a spark. You can even hear it: think about the crackle when you separate clothes that have stuck together in the dryer. The crackle is the burst of electrons transferring from one object to another. This transfer of electrons discharges the static electricity. That is, the transfer puts the electric charges back in balance on each object. Figure 4.13 shows what happens when you get a static electric shock from a doorknob. A B C Figure 4.13 (A) If you shuffle your feet across a carpet, you may pick up electrons from the carpet. Your body may build a negative charge. (B) As you reach for the doorknob, the extra electrons are discharged in a sudden burst, which we often call a shock. The shock happens when your finger and the knob are close together, but not yet touching. Electrons leap between them, making the air light up as they pass. (C) Your body now has a balanced charge again, and the extra electrons have moved into the doorknob. What causes a static electric shock? Lightning strikes are millions of times more powerful than the static shocks you get from a doorknob. You sometimes get a static shock when you step out of a car and touch the metal around the door. During the drive your body has been rubbing on the seat and building a charge. In most cars, this shock will be several times stronger if you are wearing nylon than if you are wearing cotton. Chapter 4 Electric Charges MHR 13

9 Figure 4.14 Human cultures have often associated lightning with supernatural beings. In the traditional stories of the Kwakwaka wakw First Nation on Vancouver Island, lightning is made by a powerful being called Thunderbird. Lightning Is a Gigantic Static Shock In the time it takes you to say the word lightning, lightning strikes about 100 times around the world. A lightning strike is a very powerful natural event. A bolt of lightning can explode a tree, shatter rock, and melt sand into glass. And yet lightning is just a more powerful version of the shock you get from a doorknob. During a thunderstorm, air currents cause water droplets and ice particles to collide and rub together inside a thundercloud. This action builds an enormous imbalance of charges within the cloud. Figure 4.15 shows how this static electricity is released, or discharged, in the form of lightning. A B C Figure 4.15 Charges that build up during a thunderstorm are released as lightning. (A) Both the cloud and the ground are neutral to begin with. (B) Within the cloud, particles of ice and water rub together. Some particles lose electrons and other particles gain electrons. Negative charges build up on the bottom of the cloud. The strong negative charge from the cloud repels negative charges on Earth s surface. The ground under the cloud as well as objects on the ground, such as trees or buildings, become positively charged. (C) A gigantic spark leaps from the cloud to the ground. What you see as a single flash of lightning is actually many sparks that travel between the cloud and the ground. Figure 4.16 An average bolt of lightning is about 10 km long. A lightning stroke can reach a temperature several times hotter than the surface of the Sun. Lightning happens suddenly and is over in an instant. The speed of this event makes it hard to study. Benjamin Franklin was an American scientist in the 1700s who studied lightning and he was lucky to survive his own experiment. He flew a kite in a storm to show that storm clouds carry electricity. To learn more, go to the web site above. Click on Web Links to find out where to go next. What did Franklin do? 14 MHR Unit 2 Electricity

11 Section 4.2 Summary In this section, you learned that you can build a static electric charge by rubbing together objects made of different materials. One object transfers electrons to the other with the following results: The object that gives up electrons becomes positively charged. The object that picks up electrons becomes negatively charged. This imbalance of charges is called static electricity. This kind of electric charge stays in one place on the surface of each object. The longer you rub the two different objects together, the stronger the charge becomes. Static electric charges follow three basic rules: 1. Opposite charges attract each other. 2. Like charges repel each other. 3. Charged objects attract uncharged objects. When two oppositely charged objects are close together, electrons may jump through the air between them to balance the charge. This discharge of static electricity causes a static electric shock. Lightning is an example of a large static electric shock. Key Terms static electricity attract repel discharges Check Your Understanding 1. How does a positively charged object become uncharged? 2. The following diagram illustrates the charge on three different objects, A, B, and C. (a) Is object A positively charged, negatively charged, or uncharged? (b) What will happen to object B if object C is brought close? (c) What would have to be done to object C to make it neutral? 3. What is it called when electrons enter or leave an object to balance a charge? 4. Apply You rub two identical wool cloths together, and then hold them close together (but not touching). What would you expect to observe? Explain. 5. Thinking Critically The following diagram shows electric charges (shown as X s) that accumulate on balloons when they are each rubbed with a wool cloth. Each balloon is made of a different material. Which diagram illustrates a static charge on the balloon? Explain. A A B C B 16 MHR Unit 2 Electricity

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