2 TIME PERIOD ASSUMPTION The time period (or periodicity) assumption assumes that the economic life of a business can be divided into artificial time periods generally a month, a quarter, or a year. Periods of less than one year are called interim periods. The accounting time period of one year in length is usually known as a fiscal year.
3 REVENUE RECOGNITION PRINCIPLE The revenue recognition principle states that revenue should be recognized in the accounting period in which it is earned. In a service business, revenue is usually considered to be earned at the time the service is performed. In a merchandising business, revenue is usually earned at the time the goods are delivered.
4 THE MATCHING PRINCIPLE The practice of expense recognition is referred to as the matching principle. The matching principle dictates that efforts (expenses) be matched with accomplishments (revenues). Revenues earned this month are offset against... expenses incurred in earning the revenue
5 ACCRUAL BASIS OF ACCOUNTING Adheres to the Revenue recognition principle Matching principle Revenue recorded when earned, not only when cash received. Expense recorded when services or goods are used or consumed in the generation of revenue, not only when cash paid.
6 CASH BASIS OF ACCOUNTING Revenue recorded only when cash received. Expense recorded only when cash paid.
7 ADJUSTING ENTRIES Adjusting entries make the revenue recognition and matching principles HAPPEN!
8 ILLUSTRATION 3-3 TRIAL BALANCE Pioneer Advertising Agency Trial Balance October 31, 2002 Debit Credit Cash $ 15,200 Advertising Supplies 2,500 Prepaid Insurance The Trial Balance 600 Office Equipment is analysed to 5,000 Notes Payable $ 5,000 Accounts Payable determine the need 2,500 Unearned Revenue for adjusting 1,200 C.R. Byrd, Capital 10,000 entries. C.R. Byrd, Drawings 500 Service Revenue 10,000 Salaries Expense 4,000 Rent Expense 900 $ 28,700 $ 28,700
9 ADJUSTING ENTRIES Adjusting entries are required each time financial statements are prepared. Adjusting entries can be classified as 1. prepayments (prepaid expenses or unearned revenues), 2. accruals (accrued revenues or accrued expenses), or 3. estimates (amortization).
10 TYPES OF ADJUSTING ENTRIES Prepayments 1. Prepaid Expenses Expenses paid in cash and recorded as assets before they are used or consumed. 2. Unearned Revenues Revenues received in cash and recorded as liabilities before they are earned.
11 TYPES OF ADJUSTING ENTRIES Accruals 1. Accrued Revenues Revenues earned but not yet received in cash or recorded. 2. Accrued Expenses Expenses incurred but not yet paid in cash or recorded.
12 TYPES OF ADJUSTING ENTRIES Estimates 1. Amortization Allocation of the cost of capital assets to expense over their useful lives.
13 PREPAYMENTS Prepayments are either prepaid expenses or unearned revenues. Adjusting entries for prepayments are required to record the portion of the prepayment that represents 1. the expense incurred or, 2. the revenue earned in the current accounting period.
14 PREPAID EXPENSES Prepaid expenses are expenses paid in cash and recorded as assets before they are used or consumed. Prepaid expenses expire with the passage of time or through use and consumption. An asset-expense account relationship exists with prepaid expenses.
15 PREPAID EXPENSES Prior to adjustment, assets are overstated and expenses are understated. The adjusting entry results in a debit to an expense account and a credit to an asset account. Examples of prepaid expenses include supplies, rent, insurance, and property tax.
16 UNEARNED REVENUES Unearned revenues are revenues received and recorded as liabilities before they are earned. Unearned revenues are subsequently earned by performing a service or providing a good to a customer. A liability-revenue account relationship exists with unearned revenues.
17 UNEARNED REVENUES Prior to adjustment, liabilities are overstated and revenues are understated. The adjusting entry results in a debit to a liability account and a credit to a revenue account. Examples of unearned revenues include rent, magazine subscriptions, airplane tickets, and tuition.
19 ACCRUALS A different type of adjusting entry is accruals. Adjusting entries for accruals are required to record revenues earned and expenses incurred in the current period. The adjusting entry for accruals will increase both a balance sheet and an income statement account.
20 ACCRUED REVENUES Accrued revenues may accumulate with the passing of time or through services performed but not billed or collected. An asset-revenue account relationship exists with accrued revenues. Prior to adjustment, assets and revenues are understated. The adjusting entry requires a debit to an asset account and a credit to a revenue account. Examples of accrued revenues include accounts receivable, rent receivable, and interest receivable.
21 ACCRUED EXPENSES Accrued expenses are expenses incurred but not yet paid. A liability-expense account relationship exists. Prior to adjustment, liabilities and expenses are understated. The adjusting entry results in a debit to an expense account and a credit to a liability account. Examples of accrued expenses include accounts payable, rent payable, salaries payable, and interest payable.
22 ILLUSTRATION 3-6 FORMULA TO CALCULATE INTEREST Face Value of Note Annual Interest Rate Time x x = Interest (in Terms of One Year) $5,000 x 6% x 1/12 = $25
24 AMORTIZATION Amortization is the process of allocating the cost of certain capital assets to expense over their useful life in a rational and systematic manner. Amortization attempts to match the cost of a long-term, capital asset to the revenue it generates each period.
25 AMORTIZATION Amortization is an estimate rather than a factual measurement of the cost that has expired. We re not attempting to reflect the actual change in value of an asset!
26 AMORTIZATION In recording amortization, Amortization Expense is debited and a contra asset account, Accumulated Amortization, is credited. The difference between the cost of the asset and its related accumulated amortization is referred to as the net book value of the asset. Amortization Expense xxx Accumulated Amortization xxx
27 AMORTIZATION Balance Sheet Presentation Office equipment $5,000 Less: Accumulated amortization 83 Net book value $4,917 Estimate
28 ILLUSTRATION 3-8 SUMMARY OF ADJUSTING ENTRIES Type of Account Accounts before Adjusting Adjustment Relationship Adjustment Entry 1.Prepaid Assets and Assets overstated Dr. Expenses expenses expenses Expenses understated Cr. Assets 2.Unearned Liabilities and Liabilities overstated Dr. Liabilities revenues revenues Revenues understated Cr. Revenues 3.Accrued Assets and Assets understated Dr. Assets revenues revenues Revenues understated Cr. Revenues 4.Accrued Expenses and Expenses understated Dr. Expenses expenses liabilities Liabilities understated Cr. Liabilities 5.Amortization Expense and Expenses understated Dr. Amort. Exp contra asset Assets overstated Cr. Accum.
29 ADJUSTED TRIAL BALANCE An Adjusted Trial Balance is prepared after all adjusting entries have been journalized and posted. It shows the balances of all accounts at the end of the accounting period and the effects of all financial events that have occurred during the period. It proves the equality of the total debit and credit balances in the ledger after all adjustments have been made. Financial statements can be prepared directly from the adjusted trial balance.
31 PREPARING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Financial statements can be prepared directly from an adjusted trial balance. 1. The income statement is prepared from the revenue and expense accounts. 2. The statement of owner s equity is derived from the owner s capital and drawings accounts and the net income (or net loss) shown in the income statement. 3. The balance sheet is then prepared from the asset and liability accounts and the ending owner s capital balance as reported in the statement of owner s equity.
32 ILLUSTRATION 3-12 PREPARATION OF THE INCOME STATEMENT AND THE STATEMENT OF Pioneer Advertising Agency Pioneer Advertising Agency Adjusted Trial Balance Income Statement OWNER S October EQUITY 31, 2002 FROM THE Debit Credit Revenues ADJUSTED Cash $ TRIAL 15,200 BALANCE Accounts Receivable 200 Advertising Supplies 1,000 Prepaid Insurance 550 Office Equipment 5,000 Accumulated Amort'n. $ 83 Notes Payable 5,000 Accounts Payable 2,500 Unearned Revenue 800 Salaries Payable 1,200 Interest Payable 25 C.R. Byrd, Capital 10,000 C.R. Byrd, Drawings 500 Service Revenue 10,600 Adv. Supplies Expense 1,500 Amortization Expense 83 Insurance Expense 50 Salaries Expense 5,200 Rent Expense 900 Interest Expense 25 $ 30,208 $ 30,208 For the Month Ended October 31, 2002 Service Revenue $ 10,600 Expenses Adv. Supplies Expense $ 1,500 Amortization Expense 83 Insurance Expense 50 Salaries Expense 5,200 Rent Expense 900 Interest Expense 25 Total Expenses 7,758 Net Income $ 2,842 Pioneer Advertising Agency Statement of Owner's Equity For the Month Ended October 31, 2002 C.R. Byrd, Capital, October 1 $ - Add: Investments 10,000 Net income 2,842 12,842 Less: Drawings 500 C.R. Byrd, Capital, October 31 $ 12,342
33 ILLUSTRATION 3-13 PREPARATION OF THE BALANCE SHEET FROM THE ADJUSTED TRIAL BALANCE Pioneer Advertising Agency Adjusted Trial Balance October 31, 2002 Debit Credit Cash $ 15,200 Accounts Receivable 200 Advertising Supplies 1,000 Prepaid Insurance 550 Office Equipment 5,000 Accumulated Amort'n. $ 83 Notes Payable 5,000 Accounts Payable 2,500 Unearned Revenue 800 Salaries Payable 1,200 Interest Payable 25 C.R. Byrd, Capital 10,000 C.R. Byrd, Drawings 500 Service Revenue 10,600 Adv. Supplies Expense 1,500 Amortization Expense 83 Insurance Expense 50 Salaries Expense 5,200 Rent Expense 900 Interest Expense 25 $ 30,208 $ 30,208 Pioneer Advertising Agency Balance Sheet October 31, 2002 Assets Cash $ 15,200 Accounts Receivable 200 Advertising Supplies 1,000 Prepaid Insurance 550 Office Equipment $ 5,000 Less: Accumulated Amortization 83 4,917 Total Assets $ 21,867 Liabilities and Owner's Equity Liabilities Notes Payable $ 5,000 Accounts Payable 2,500 Unearned Revenue 800 Salaries Payable From 1,200 Interest Payable Statement 25 Total Liabilities of Owner s $ 9,525 Owner's Equity Equity C.R. Byrd, Capital 12,342 Total Liabilities and Owner's Equity $ 21,867
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