1 CHAPTER 3 THE ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEM OVERVIEW Accounting information must be accumulated and summarized before it can be communicated and analysed. In this chapter, we will discuss the steps involved in the accounting cycle. We will emphasize the subject of adjusting entries. Throughout an accounting period, cash receipts and cash disbursements are recorded. At the end of the accounting period, adjusting entries are required so that revenues and expenses are reflected on the accrual basis of accounting. Adjusting entries are simply entries required to bring account balances up to date. The failure to record proper adjustments will cause errors on both the income statement and the balance sheet. SUMMARY OF LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Understand basic accounting terminology. It is important to understand the following 11 terms: (1) Event, (2) Transaction, (3) Account, (4) Permanent and Temporary accounts, (5) Ledger, (6) Journal, (7) Posting, (8) Trial balances, (9) Adjusting entries, (10) Financial statements, and (11) Closing entries. 2. Explain double-entry rules. The left side of an account is the debit side; the right side is the credit side. All asset and expense accounts are increased on the left or debit side and decreased on the right or credit side. Conversely, all liability and revenue accounts are increased on the right or credit side and decreased on the left or debit side. Shareholders' equity accounts, Common Shares and Retained Earnings, are increased on the credit side, whereas Dividends is increased on the debit side. 3. Identify steps in the accounting cycle. The basic steps in the accounting cycle are (1) identification and measurement of transactions and other events, (2) journalization, (3) posting, (4) unadjusted trial balance, (5) adjustments, (6) adjusted trial balance, (7) statement presentation, and (8) closing. 4. Record transactions in journals, post to ledger accounts, and prepare a trial balance. The simplest journal form is a chronological listing of transactions and events expressed in terms of debits and credits to particular accounts. The items entered in a general journal must be transferred (posted) to the general ledger. An unadjusted trial balance should be prepared at the end of a given period after the entries have been recorded in the journal and posted to the ledger. 5. Explain the reasons for preparing adjusting entries. Adjustments are necessary to achieve a proper matching of revenues and expenses so as to determine net income for the current period and to achieve an accurate statement of end-of-the period balances in assets, liabilities, and owners' equity accounts. 6. Prepare closing entries. In the closing process, all of the revenue and expense account balances (income statement items) are transferred to a clearing account called Income Summary, which is used only at the end of the fiscal year. Revenues and expenses are matched in the Income Summary account. The net result of this matching, which represents the net income or net loss for the period, is then transferred to an owners' equity account (Retained Earnings for a corporation and capital accounts for proprietorships and partnerships.)
2 3-2 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition 7. Explain how inventory accounts are adjusted at year-end. Under a perpetual inventory system, the balance in the Inventory account at the end of the period should represent the ending inventory amount. When the inventory records are maintained on a periodic inventory system, a Purchases account is used; the Inventory account is unchanged during the period. The Inventory account represents the beginning inventory amount throughout the period. At the end of the accounting period, the Inventory account must be adjusted by closing-out the beginning inventory amount and recording the ending inventory amount. 8. Prepare a 10-column work sheet. The 10-column work sheet provides columns for the first trial balance, adjustments, adjusted trial balance, income statement, and balance sheet. The work sheet does not replace the financial statements. Instead, it is the accountant's informal device for accumulating and sorting information needed for the financial statements. *9. Identify adjusting entries that may be reversed. Reversing entries are most often used to reverse two types of adjusting entries: accrued revenues and accrued expenses. Prepayments may also be reversed if the initial entry to record the transaction is made to an expense or revenue account. *10. Differentiate the cash basis of accounting from the accrual basis of accounting. Accrual basis accounting provides information about cash inflows and outflows associated with earnings activities as soon as these cash flows can be estimated with an acceptable degree of certainty. That is, accrual basis accounting aids in predicting future cash flows by reporting transactions and events with cash consequences at the time the transactions and events occur, rather than when the cash is received and paid. *This material is covered in an Appendix in the text. TIPS ON CHAPTER TOPICS This chapter is an extremely important one. A good understanding of this chapter and an ability to think and work quickly with the concepts incorporated herein are necessary for comprehending subsequent chapters. Although adjusting entries were introduced in your principles course, you are likely to discover new dimensions to this subject in your intermediate accounting course. Pay close attention when studying this chapter! When you encounter a transaction, always analyse it in terms of its effects on the elements of the basic accounting equation (or balance sheet equation). For your analysis to be complete, it must maintain balance in the basic accounting equation. The basic accounting equation is as follows: ASSETS = LIABILITIES + OWNERS' EQUITY or A = L + OE Assets are economic resources. Liabilities and owners' equity are sources of resources; liabilities are creditor sources, and owners' equity represents owner sources (owner investments and undistributed profits). The basic accounting equation simply states that the total assets (resources) at a point in time equal the total liabilities plus total owners' equity (sources of resources) at the same point in time.
3 The Accounting Information System 3-3 An understanding of the following terms is important. (1) Event: a happening of consequence. An event generally is the source or cause of changes in assets, liabilities, and equity. Events may be external or internal. (2) Transaction: an external event involving a transfer or exchange between two or more entities. (3) Account: a systematic arrangement that shows the effect of transactions and other events on a specific asset or equity. A separate account is kept for each type of asset, liability, revenue, and expense, and for capital (owners' equity). (4) Permanent and Temporary accounts: Permanent (real) accounts are asset, liability, and equity accounts; they appear on the balance sheet. Temporary (nominal) accounts are revenue, expense, and dividend accounts; except for dividends, they appear on the income statement. Temporary accounts are periodically closed; permanent accounts are left open. (5) Ledger: the book (or computer printouts) containing the accounts. Each account usually has a separate page. A general ledger is a collection of all the asset, liability, owners equity, revenue and expense accounts. A subsidiary ledger contains the details related to a given general ledger account. (6) Journal: the book of original entry where transactions and selected other events are initially recorded. (7) Posting: the process of transferring the essential facts and figures from the book of original entry to the ledger accounts. (8) Trial balance: a list of all open accounts in the ledger and their balances. A trial balance may be prepared at any time. (9) Adjusting entries: entries made at the end of an accounting period to bring all accounts up to date on an accrual accounting basis so that correct financial statements can be prepared. (10) Financial statements: statements that reflect the accounting data s collection, tabulation, and final summarization. Financial statements consist of the balance sheet, the income statement, the statement of cash flows and the statement of retained earnings. (11) Closing entries: the formal process by which all temporary accounts are reduced to zero, and the net income or net loss is determined and transferred to the appropriate owners' equity account. Transactions are the economic events of an entity recorded by accountants. Some events (happenings of consequence to an entity) are not measurable in terms of money and do not get recorded in the accounting records. Hiring employees, placing an order for supplies, greeting a customer and quoting prices for products are examples of activities that do not by themselves constitute transactions. In accordance with the revenue recognition principle, revenue is to be recognized (reported) in the period in which it is realized (or realizable) and earned. In accordance with the matching principle, the expenses incurred in generating revenues should be recognized in the same period as the revenues they helped to generate. First, the revenue recognition principle is applied to determine in what period(s) to recognize revenue. Then, the matching principle is applied to determine in what period(s) to recognize expense. Adjusting entries are often required so that revenues and expenses are reflected on an accrual basis of accounting (revenues recognized when earned and expenses recognized when incurred) rather than on a cash basis of accounting. Therefore, adjusting entries reflect the accruals and prepayments of revenues and expenses and also estimated expenses. Adjusting entries are simply entries required to bring account balances up to date before financial statements can be prepared. The failure to record proper adjustments will cause errors in both the income statement and the balance sheet.
4 3-4 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition Prepayments result from cash flows that occur before expense or revenue recognition. That is, cash is paid for expenses that apply to more than one accounting period or cash is received for revenue that applies to more than one accounting period. The portion of the expense that applies to future periods is deferred by reporting a prepaid expense (asset) or the portion of the revenue that applies to future periods is deferred by reporting unearned revenue (liability) on the balance sheet. Accruals result from cash flows that occur after expense or revenue recognition. That is, cash is to be paid or received in a future accounting period for an expense incurred or a revenue earned in the current period. Notice that none of the adjusting entries discussed in Chapter 3 involves the Cash account. Therefore, if you are instructed to record adjusting entries, double check your work when it is completed. If you have used the Cash account in any adjusting entry, it is very likely in error. (The only time Cash belongs in an adjusting entry is when a bank reconciliation discloses a need to adjust the Cash account this will be explained in Chapter 7 or when an error has been made that involves the Cash account, in which case a correcting entry is required.) Notice that each adjusting entry discussed in this chapter involves a balance sheet account and an income statement account. When preparing homework assignments, working through The Problem Solving Survival Guide, and answering exam questions, pay careful attention to whether a prepayment situation relates to a cash inflow or cash outflow for the entity in question. Be sure you then use the proper related account for recording the cash receipt or disbursement and correct terminology in explaining the scenario. If cash is received in a rental situation, the amount will be recorded (by a credit) in either an earned rent revenue account or an unearned rent revenue account, not in an expense or a prepaid expense account. If cash is paid in a rental situation, the amount will be recorded (by a debit) in either an expense or a prepaid expense account. In an adjusting entry for an accrual (accrued revenue or accrued expense), the word "accrued" is not needed in either account title. If you choose to use the word "accrued" in an account title, it is appropriate to do so only in the balance sheet account title. For example, the entry to record accrued salaries of $1,000 is as follows: Salaries Expense 1,000 Salaries Payable 1,000 The word "accrued" is not needed in either account title, but it could be used in the liability account title if desired (the account title would then be Accrued Salaries Payable). It would be wrong to insert the word "accrued" in the expense account title. Some people simply call the credit account "Accrued Salaries" (rather than "Salaries Payable") but we advise that you include the key word "Payable" and omit the unnecessary word "Accrued."
5 The Accounting Information System 3-5 An unadjusted trial balance is referred to as either "unadjusted trial balance" or simply "trial balance." An adjusted trial balance is referred to as either "adjusted trial balance" or the "adjusted trial." Closing entries are necessary at the end of an accounting period to prepare the temporary accounts (revenues, expenses, gains, and losses) for the recording of transactions for the next accounting period. Closing entries are prepared after the temporary account balances have been used to prepare the income statement. Only temporary accounts are closed. Permanent accounts are never closed; their balances continue into the next accounting period. Temporary accounts are often called nominal accounts; permanent accounts are often called real accounts. A temporary account with a credit balance is closed by a debit to that account and a credit to Income Summary. A temporary account with a debit balance is closed by a credit to that account and a debit to Income Summary. The Income Summary account is closed to an owners' equity account (Retained Earnings for a corporation) and is often called the Revenue and Expense Summary. If a separate account is used to record owner withdrawals or owner distributions (such as Dividends Declared for a corporation or Owner's Drawings for a proprietorship or partnership), this account is also closed at the end of the accounting period, but it is not closed to the Income Summary account because it is not a component of the net income calculation. Rather, it is closed directly to Retained Earnings (for a corporation) or to Owner's Capital (for a proprietorship or partnership). A post-closing trial balance contains only permanent accounts because the temporary accounts all have a zero balance after the closing process. A post-closing trial balance is prepared to check on the equality of debits and credits after the closing process. In preparing a 10-column work sheet, the debit and credit columns for every column pair must be equal before you can proceed to the next column pair. (This pertains to the first three column pairs). All five pairs of columns must balance for a work sheet to be complete. You should be able to define the following four terms and describe the related adjusting entry for each; they are: 1. A prepaid expense is an expense that has been paid but has not been incurred. An adjusting entry for a deferred expense involves an EXPENSE account and an ASSET (prepaid expense) account. Ex. Prepaid rent, rent expense. 2. An unearned revenue is a revenue that has been collected but has not been earned. An adjusting entry for an unearned revenue involves a LIABILITY (unearned revenue) account and a REVENUE account. Ex. Cash collected for a magazine subscription. When the magazine is mailed to the customer, the unearned revenue would be earned. 3. An accrued expense is an expense that has been incurred but has not been paid. An adjusting entry for an accrued expense involves an EXPENSE account and a LIABILITY (payable account). Ex. Wages payable, wages expense.
6 3-6 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition 4. An accrued revenue is a revenue that has been earned but has not been received. An adjusting entry for accrued revenue involves an ASSET (receivable) account and a REVENUE account. Ex. A painter that has painted a house, but has not received payment yet. A prepaid expense may be called a deferred expense. A deferred expense is so named because the recognition of expense is being deferred (put-off) to a future period; thus, a debit is carried on the balance sheet now and will be released to the income statement in a future period when the related benefits are consumed (expense is incurred). An unearned revenue may be called a deferred revenue because the recognition of revenue is being deferred to a future period; thus, a credit is carried on the balance sheet now and will be released to the income statement in a future period when the related revenue is earned. An adjusting entry for prepaid insurance expense (expense paid but not incurred) involves an expense account and an asset account. The expense account is often called Insurance Expense or Expired Insurance. Possible titles for the asset account include Prepaid Insurance, Deferred Insurance Expense, Prepaid Insurance Expense, Deferred Insurance, and Unexpired Insurance. An adjusting entry for unearned rent revenue (revenue collected but not earned) involves a liability account and a revenue account. Possible titles for the liability account include Unearned Rent Revenue, Unearned Rent, Deferred Rent Revenue, Rent Revenue Received in Advance, and Rental Income Collected in Advance. The use of Prepaid Rent Revenue as an account title is not appropriate because the term prepaid usually refers to the payment of cash in advance, not the receipt of cash in advance. The revenue account is often called Rent Revenue or Rental Income or Rent Earned. In an adjusting entry to record accrued interest revenue (revenue earned but not received), the debit is to an asset account and the credit is to a revenue account. Possible names for that asset account are Interest Receivable and Accrued Interest Receivable. Possible names for the revenue account include Interest Revenue, Interest Income, and Interest Earned. In an adjusting entry to record accrued salaries expenses (expense incurred, but not paid) the debit is to an expense account and the credit is to a liability account. The expense account is usually titled Salaries Expense. Possible names for the liability account include Salaries Payable and Accrued Salaries Payable.
7 The Accounting Information System 3-7 ILLUSTRATION 3-1 DOUBLE-ENTRY (DEBIT AND CREDIT) ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (L.O. 2) The debit and credit rules are summarized below: Debit Increase + Asset Accounts Credit Decrease - Liability Accounts Debit Credit Decrease Increase - + Dividends Account Debit Increase + Credit Decrease - Shareholders' Equity Accounts Debit Credit Decrease Increase - + Debit Increase + Expense Accounts Normal Balance Credit Decrease - Revenue Accounts Debit Credit Decrease Increase - + Normal Balance Notice that the accounts above are arranged in such a way that all of the increases ("+" signs) are on the outside and all of the decreases ("-" signs) are on the inside of this diagram. An account is an individual accounting record of increases and decreases in a specific asset, liability, or stockholders' equity item. In its simplest form, an account consists of three parts: (1) the title of the account, (2) a left or debit side, and (3) a right or credit side. Because the alignment of these parts of an account resembles the letter T, it is often referred to as a T-account. "Credit" does not always mean favourable or unfavourable. In accounting, "debit and "credit" simply mean left and right, respectively. "Debit" is a term that refers to the left side of any account. Thus, the debit side of an account is always the left side. "Credit" is a word that simply refers to the right side of an account. Thus, the credit side of an account is always the right side of the account. The phrase "to debit an account" means to enter an amount on the debit (left) side of an account. Debit can be abbreviated as "Dr." and credit is abbreviated as "Cr." A "+" indicates an increase and a "-" indicates a decrease. Therefore, a transaction, which causes an increase in an asset, is recorded by a debit to the related asset account; a transaction, which causes a decrease in the same asset, is recorded by a credit to the same account.
8 3-8 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition ILLUSTRATION 3-1 (Continued) The normal balance of an account is the side where increases are recorded. Therefore, the normal balance of an asset account is a debit balance; the normal balance of a liability account is a credit balance. A separate account should exist in the general ledger for each item that will appear on the financial statements. At this stage of your study of accounting, you should be able to quickly and correctly identify the debit and credit rules for any given account. If you are slow at this process, drill on the rules until you improve. If you memorize the rules for an asset account, you can figure out the rules for all other types of accounts by knowing which rules are the opposite of the rules for assets and which are the same. Increases in assets are recorded by debits. Because liabilities and owners' equity are on the other side of the equals sign in the basic accounting equation, they must have debit and credit rules opposite of the rules for assets. Therefore, a liability or an owners' equity account is increased by a credit entry. Revenues earned increase owners' equity (retained earnings for a corporate form of organization) so the rules to record increases in revenue are the same as the rules to record increases in an owners' equity account (increases are recorded by credits). Because expenses and owners' withdrawals reduce owners' equity, they have debit/credit rules which are opposite of the rules for an owners' equity account. In the double-entry system of accounting, for every debit there must be a credit(s) of equal amount, and vice versa.
9 The Accounting Information System 3-9 EXERCISE 3-1 Purpose: (L.O. 2) This exercise will test your understanding of the debit and credit rules. Instructions For each account listed below, put a check mark ( ) in the appropriate column to indicate if it is increased by an entry in the debit (left) side of the account or by an entry in the credit (right) side of the account. The first one is done for you. Debit Credit 1. Cash 2. Sales Revenue 3. Commissions Expense 4. Advertising Expense 5. Salaries Payable 6. Prepaid Insurance 7. Property Taxes Payable 8. Property Tax Expense 9. Dividends Declared 10. Interest Revenue 11. Salaries Expense 12. Commissions Revenue 13. Unearned Rent Revenue 14. Equipment 15. Note Payable 16. Building 17. Accounts Payable 18. Supplies on Hand 19. Accounts Receivable 20. Common Shares 21. Retained Earnings 22. Mortgage Payable 23. Loan Receivable 24. Bank Loan Payable 25. Audit Fees Incurred 26. Dividend Income 27. Fees Incurred 28. Fees Earned 29. Utilities Expense 30. Utilities Payable In essence, you are being asked to identify the normal balance of each of the accounts listed. The normal balance of an account is the side where increases are recorded.
10 3-10 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition Solution to Exercise 3-1 Approach: Determine the classification of the account (asset, liability, owners' equity, revenue or expense). Think about the debit and credit rules for that classification. Refer to Illustration 3-1 and the related TIPS for those rules. In determining the classification of an account, look for the key words, if any, in each individual item. For example: (1) the words Revenue, Earned, or Income are often associated with a revenue account, (2) the words Expense, Incurred, or Expired are often associated with an expense account, (3) the words Receivable or Prepaid Expense refer to types of asset accounts, and (4) the words Payable or Unearned Revenue refer to types of liabilities. Debit Credit Classification 1. Cash Asset 2. Sales Revenue Revenue 3. Commissions Expense Expense 4. Advertising Expense Expense 5. Salaries Payable Liability 6. Prepaid Insurance Asset 7. Property Taxes Payable Liability 8. Property Tax Expense Expense 9. Dividends Declared Owners' Equity (Owners' Withdrawals) 10. Interest Revenue Revenue 11. Salaries Expense Expense 12. Commissions Revenue Revenue 13. Unearned Rent Revenue Liability 14. Equipment Asset 15. Note Payable Liability 16. Building Asset 17. Accounts Payable Liability 18. Supplies on Hand Asset 19. Accounts Receivable Asset 20. Common Stock Owners' Equity (Owners' Investments) 21. Retained Earnings Owners' Equity (Earned Capital) 22. Mortgage Payable Liability 23. Loan Receivable Asset 24. Bank Loan Payable Liability 25. Audit Fees Incurred Expense 26. Dividend Income Revenue 27. Fees Incurred Expense 28. Fees Earned Revenue 29. Utilities Expense Expense 30. Utilities Payable Liability
11 The Accounting Information System 3-11 EXERCISE 3-2 Purpose: (L.O. 4) This exercise will review how to record transactions in the general journal. Transactions for the Motorboat Repair Shop, Inc. for August 2001 are listed below. 1. August 1 Joan and Phillip began the business by each depositing $2,500 of personal funds in the business bank account in exchange for common shares of the newly formed corporation. 2. August 2 Joan rented space for the shop behind a strip mall and paid August rent of $800 out of the business bank account. 3. August 3 The shop purchased supplies for cash, $3, August 4 The shop paid Cupboard News, a local newspaper, $300 for an ad appearing in the Sunday edition. 5. August 5 The shop repaired a boat for a customer. The customer paid cash of $1,300 for services rendered. 6. August 13 The shop purchased supplies for $900 by paying cash of $200 and charging the rest on account. 7. August 14 The shop repaired a boat for Zonie Kinkennon, a champion skier, for $3,600. Phillip collected $1,000 in cash and put the rest on Zonie's account. 8. August 24 The shop collected cash of $400 from Cheris Vasallo. 9. August 28 The shop paid $200 to Mini Maid for cleaning services for the month of August. 10. August 31 The board of directors of the corporation declared and paid a dividend of $400 in cash to its shareholders. Instructions (a) Explain the impact of each transaction on the elements of the basic accounting equation and translate that into debit and credit terms. (b) Journalize the transactions listed above. Include a brief explanation with each journal entry. SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 3-2 (a) 1. Increase in Cash. Debit Cash Increase in Common Shares. Credit Common Shares 2. Increase in Rent Expense. Debit Rent Expense Decrease in Cash. Credit Cash 3. Increase in Supplies on Hand. Debit Supplies on Hand Decrease in Cash. Credit Cash 4. Increase in Advertising Expense. Debit Advertising Expense Decrease in Cash. Credit Cash
12 3-12 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition 5. Increase in Cash. Debit Cash Increase in Service Revenue. Credit Service Revenue 6. Increase in Supplies on Hand. Debit Supplies on Hand Decrease in Cash. Credit Cash Increase in Accounts Payable. Credit Accounts Payable 7. Increase in Cash. Debit Cash Increase in Accounts Receivable. Debit Accounts Receivable Increase in Service Revenue Credit Service Revenue 8. Increase in Cash. Debit Cash Decrease in Accounts Receivable. Credit Accounts Receivable 9. Increase in Cleaning Expense. Debit Cleaning Expense Decrease in Cash. Credit Cash 10. Decrease in Retained Earnings. Debit Retained Earnings Increase in Dividends Payable. Credit Dividends Payable Approach: Write down the effects of each transaction on the basic accounting equation. Think about the individual asset, liability, or shareholders' equity accounts involved. Apply the debit and credit rules to translate the effects into a journal entry. Refer to Illustration 3-1 for the debit and credit rules for each type of account.
13 The Accounting Information System 3-13 GENERAL JOURNAL J1 Date Account Titles and Explanations Ref. Debit Credit (b) Aug. 1 Cash 5,000 Common Shares 5,000 (Issued shares of stock for cash) 2. 2 Rent Expense 800 Cash 800 (Paid August rent) 3. 3 Supplies on Hand 3,000 Cash 3,000 (Purchased supplies for cash) 4. 4 Advertising Expense 300 Cash 300 (Paid Cupboard News for advertising) 5. 5 Cash 1,300 Service Revenue 1,300 (Received cash for service fees earned) Supplies on Hand 900 Cash 200 Accounts Payable 700 (Purchased supplies for cash and on credit) Cash 1,000 Accounts Receivable 2,600 Service Revenue 3,600 (Performed services for customer for cash and on credit) Cash 400 Accounts Receivable 400 (Received cash from Cheris Vasallo on account) Cleaning Expense 200 Cash Retained Earnings (or Dividends Declared) 400 Dividends Payable 400
14 3-14 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition EXERCISE 3-3 Purpose: (L.O. 5) This exercise will provide you with examples of adjusting entries for the accrual of expenses and revenues. The following information relates to the Yuppy Clothing Sales Company at the end of The accounting period is the calendar year. This is the company's first year of operations. 1. Employees are paid every Friday for the five-day work week ending on that day. Salaries amount to $2,400 per week. The accounting period ends on a Thursday. 2. On October 1, 2002, Yuppy borrowed $8,000 cash by signing a note payable due in one year at 8% interest. Interest is due when the principal is paid. 3. A note for $2,000 was received from a customer in a sales transaction on May 1, The note matures in one year and bears 12% interest per annum. Interest is due when the principal is due. 4. A portion of Yuppy's parking lot is used by executives of a neighboring company. A person pays $6 per day for each day's use, and the parking fees are due by the fifth business day following the month of use. The fees for December 31, 2002 amount to $1,260. Instructions Using the information given above, prepare the necessary adjusting entries at December 31, Solution to Exercise Salaries Expense... 1,920 Salaries Payable... 1,920 ($2,400 5 = $480); ($480 x 4 = $1,920 accrued salaries) 2. Interest Expense Interest Payable ($8,000 x 8% x 3/12 = $160 accrued interest) 3. Interest Receivable Interest Revenue ($2,000 x 12% x 8/12 = $160 accrued interest) 4. Parking Fees Receivable... 1,260 Parking Fees Revenue... 1,260 Approach and Explanation: Write down the definitions for accrued expense and accrued revenue. Think about what is to be accomplished by each of the adjustments required in this exercise. An accrued expense is an expense that has been incurred but not paid. The "incurred" part results in an increase in Expense (debit) and the "not paid" part results in an increase in Payable (credit). An accrued revenue is a revenue that has been earned but not received. The "earned" part results in an increase in Revenue (credit) and the "not received" part results in an increase in Receivable (debit).
15 The Accounting Information System 3-15 EXERCISE 3-4 Purpose: (L.O. 5) This exercise will provide you with examples of adjusting entries for prepaid expenses and unearned revenues (that is, for the deferral of expenses and revenues). The following information relates to the I AM Magazine Company at the end of The accounting period is the calendar year. 1. An insurance premium of $8,000 was paid on April 1, 2002, and was charged to Prepaid Insurance. The premium covers a 24-month period beginning April 1, The Office Supplies on Hand account showed a balance of $3,500 at the beginning of Supplies costing $12,000 were purchased during 2002 and debited to the asset account. Supplies of $2,200 were on hand at December 31, On July 1, 2002, cash of $48,000 was received from subscribers (customers) for a 36-month subscription period beginning on that date. The receipt was recorded by a debit to Cash and a credit to Unearned Subscription Revenue. 4. At the beginning of 2002, the Unearned Advertising Revenue account had a balance of $75,000. During 2002, collections from advertisers of $800,000 were recorded by credits to Advertising Revenue. At the end of 2002, revenues received but not earned are computed to be $51,000. Instructions Using the information given above, prepare the necessary adjusting entries at December 31, SOLUTION TO EXERCISE Insurance Expense... 3,000 Prepaid Insurance... 3,000 ($8,000 9/24 = $3,000 expired cost) 2. Supplies Expense... 13,300 Office Supplies on Hand... 13,300 ($3,500 + $12,000 - $2,200 = $13,300 supplies consumed) 3. Unearned Subscription Revenue... 8,000 Subscription Revenue... 8,000 ($48,000 6/36 = $8,000 earned revenue) 4. Unearned Advertising Revenue ,000 Advertising Revenue ,000 ($75,000 + $800,000 - $51,000 = $824,000 earned revenue)
16 3-16 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition Approach and Explanation: Write down the definitions for prepaid expense and unearned revenue. Think about what is to be accomplished by each of the adjustments required in this exercise. A prepaid expense is an expense that has been paid but not incurred. In a case where the prepayment was recorded as an increase in an asset account (such as Prepaid Expense or Supplies on Hand), the adjusting entry will record the increase in Expense (debit) and a decrease in the recorded Asset (credit) due to the consumption of the benefits yielded by the earlier prepayment. An unearned revenue is a revenue that has been received but not earned. In a case where the cash receipt was recorded as an increase in a liability account (such as Unearned Revenue), the adjusting entry will record a decrease in the recorded liability Unearned Revenue (debit) and an increase in Earned Revenue (credit) due to the earning of all or a portion of the revenue represented by the earlier cash receipt. It is helpful to sketch a T-account for the related asset or liability account. Enter the amounts reflected in that account before adjustment, enter the desired ending balance, and notice how the required adjustment is then obvious from facts reflected in your T-account. The T-accounts would appear as follows: 1. Prepaid Insurance 24-month 8,000 Premium 3,000 Desired Ending 5,000 Balance ENTRY NEEDED TO COMPLETE ACCOUNTS 3,000 Ending Balance 3,000 Insurance Expense 2. Office Supplies On Hand Beg. Bal. 3,500 Acquisitions 12,000 13,300 Desired Ending Balance 2,200 ENTRY NEEDED TO COMPLETE ACCOUNTS 13,300 Ending Balance 13,300 Supplies Expense Subscription Revenue Insurance Expense ENTRY 48,000 Receipts NEEDED TO 8,000 8,000 COMPLETE 8,000 Ending ACCOUNTS 40,000 Desired Balance Ending Balance Advertising Revenue Unearned Advertising Revenue ENTRY 75,000 Beg. Balance NEEDED TO 824, ,000 COMPLETE 800,000 Receipts 824,000 ACCOUNTS Ending Balance 51,000 Desired Ending Balance
17 The Accounting Information System 3-17 ILLUSTRATION 3-2 SUMMARY OF ADJUSTMENT RELATIONSHIPS AND EXPLANATIONS (L.O. 5) Type of Adjustment 1. Prepaid Expense 2. Unearned Revenue 3. Accrued Expense 4. Accrued Revenues 5. Estimated Item Account Relationship Asset and Expense Liability and Revenue Expense and Liability Asset and Revenue Asset and Expense Reason for Adjustment (a) Prepaid expense initially recorded in asset account has been consumed; or, *(b) Prepaid expense initially recorded in expense account has not been consumed. (a) Unearned revenue initially recorded in liability account has been earned; or, *(b) Unearned revenue initially recorded in revenue account has not been earned. Expense incurred has not been billed nor paid nor recorded. Revenue earned has not been billed nor collected nor recorded. (a) A previously recorded long-lived asset has now been partially consumed; or, (b) An existing asset is not fully realizable. Account Balances Before Adjustment Asset overstated Expense understated Asset understated Expense overstated Liability overstated Revenue understated Liability understated Revenue overstated Expense understated Liability understated Asset understated Revenue understated Asset overstated Expense understated Asset overstated Expense understated Adjusting Entry Dr. Expense Cr. Asset Dr. Asset Cr. Expense Dr. Liability Cr. Revenue Dr. Revenue Cr. Liability Dr. Expense Cr. Liability Dr. Asset Cr. Revenue Dr. Expense Cr. Contra Asset Dr. Expense Cr. Contra Asset Explanation: 1. When expenses are paid for before they are incurred, the payment may either be recorded by a debit to an asset account (prepaid expense) or by a debit to an expense account. At the end of the accounting period, the accounts are adjusted as needed. If the prepayment was initially recorded by use of a prepaid (asset) account, the consumed portion is transferred to an expense account in the adjusting entry. Whereas, if the prepayment was initially recorded by use of an expense account, an adjusting entry is required only if a portion of the expense remains prepaid at the end of the accounting period (in which case the unconsumed portion is transferred to an asset account). (See Illustration 3-3 for an example.) 2. When revenues are received before they are earned, the receipt may either be recorded by a credit to a liability account (unearned revenue) or by a credit to a revenue account. At the end of the accounting period, the accounts are adjusted as needed. If the collection was initially recorded by a credit to a liability account (unearned revenue), the earned portion is transferred to a revenue account in the adjusting entry. Whereas, if the collection was initially recorded by use of a revenue account, an adjusting entry is required only if a portion of the revenue remains unearned at the end of the accounting period (in which case the unearned portion is transferred to a liability account). (See Illustration 3-3 for an example.)
18 3-18 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition ILLUSTRATION 3-2 (Continued) 3. Expenses are often incurred before they are paid. An expense incurred but not yet paid is called an accrued expense. If at the end of an accounting period this accrued expense has not been recorded (which is often the case because it usually has not been billed yet by the vendor), it must be recorded by way of an adjusting entry. Expense that accrues with the passage of time (such as interest expense) is a good example of a reason to need an accrued expense (or accrued liability) type adjusting entry. 4. Revenues are often earned before they are collected. Revenue earned but not received is called an accrued revenue. If at the end of an accounting period this accrued revenue has not been recorded (which is often the case because it usually has not been billed yet), it must be recorded by way of an adjusting entry. Revenue that accrues with the passage of time (such as interest revenue) is a good example of a reason to need an accrued revenue (or accrued asset) type adjusting entry. Examine each type of adjustment explained above and notice the logic of the resulting entry. For example, an adjustment to recognize supplies used (when the supplies were recorded in an asset account when purchased) should reduce assets and increase expenses. Keep in mind that for accrued items (accrued revenues and accrued expenses), the related cash flow follows the period in which the relevant revenue or expense is recognized; whereas, with prepayment type items (unearned revenues and prepaid expenses), the related cash flow precedes the period in which the relevant revenue or expense is recognized. For example, assume the accounting period is the calendar year. Consider an accrued expense such as accrued salaries at the end of An adjusting entry will be recorded at the end of 2002 so the expense will get reported on the 2002 income statement. The related cash payment to employees will take place in the following accounting period (2003, in this case). For another example, consider a prepaid expense such as the prepayment of rent in December 2002 for January 2003 occupancy. The cash payment occurs in December The expense is incurred and recognized in the following accounting period (January 2003). 5. The cost of most long-lived tangible assets is allocated to expense in a systematic and rational manner. The entry to record the expiration of cost due to the consumption of benefits yielded by the asset is a debit to Amortization Expense and a credit to Accumulated Amortization. The amortization of intangibles is treated in a similar manner. A reduction in the net realizable value of accounts receivable or inventories is recorded in an adjusting entry by a charge to expense and a credit to a contra asset account.
19 The Accounting Information System 3-19 ILLUSTRATION 3-3 ALTERNATIVE TREATMENTS OF PREPAID EXPENSES AND UNEARNED REVENUES (L.O.5) When a company writes a cheque to pay for an item that affects expense in at least two different time periods (such as for an insurance premium or a licence or dues), the bookkeeper may record the payment in one of two ways. Either as a prepaid expense (asset) or as an expense. The first way is used most often in introductory accounting textbooks; the second is used most often in the real world. Regardless of the way the payment is recorded, an appropriate adjusting entry will be made at the end of the accounting period so that correct balances appear on the income statement and the balance sheet. For example, a $1,200 payment is made on April 1, 2002, for a twelve-month insurance premium covering the time between April 1, 2002 and March 31, (Assume a calendar year reporting period.) A comparison of the two possible approaches appears below. Prepayment (Cash Paid) Prepayment (Cash Paid) Initially Debited to Asset Account OR Initially Debited to Expense Account 4/1 Prepaid Insurance Cash 1,200 1,200 4/1 Insurance Expense Cash 1,200 1,200 12/31 Insurance Expense Prepaid Insurance /31 Prepaid Insurance Insurance Expense After posting the entries, the accounts appear as follows: Prepaid Insurance Prepaid Insurance 4/1 1,200 12/31 Adj /31 Adj /31 Bal. 300 Insurance Expense Insurance Expense 12/31 Adj /1 1,200 12/31 Adj /31 Bal. 900 Notice that regardless of the path, you end up at the same place with a balance of $300 in Prepaid Insurance and a balance of $900 in Insurance Expense. That was your objective to report balances in accordance with the accrual basis of accounting. Reversing entries are never required. But if it is company policy to use reversing entries where appropriate, would either or both of the above adjusting entries get reversed? The adjusting entry illustrated in the left column would not get reversed since to do so would result in reestablishing an asset amount that the adjusting entry indicated had expired. The adjusting entry illustrated in the right column can be reversed since a reversing entry will record $300 of insurance expense in the new accounting period (2003) which is the period we expect the remaining $300 of premium to pertain.
20 3-20 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition Illustration 3-3 (Continued) When a company receives cash from a customer in advance of earning the related revenue, the bookkeeper may record the receipt in one of two ways. Either as an unearned revenue (liability) or as an earned revenue. The first way is used most often in introductory accounting textbooks; the second is used most often in the real world. Regardless of the way the receipt is recorded, an appropriate adjusting entry will be made at the end of the accounting period so that correct balances appear on the income statement and the balance sheet. For example, $1,200 is received on May 1, 2002, for a twelve-month magazine subscription covering the time between May 1, 2002 and April 30, (Assume a calendar year reporting period.) A comparison of the two possible approaches appears below: Unearned Revenue (Cash Unearned Revenue (Cash Received) Received) Initially Credited to OR Initially Credited to Liability Account Revenue Account 5/1 Cash Unearned Sub. Rev. 1,200 1,200 5/1 Cash Subscription Revenue 1,200 1,200 12/31 Unearned Sub. Rev. Subscription Revenue /31 Subscription Revenue Unearned Sub Rev After posting the entries, the accounts appear as follows: Unearned Subscription Revenue Unearned Subscription Revenue 12/31 Adj /1 1,200 12/31 Adj /31 Bal. 400 Subscription Revenue Subscription Revenue 12/31 Adj /31 Adj /1 1,200 12/31 Bal. 800 Notice that the balances in the accounts are the same regardless of the approach used; that is, Unearned Subscription Revenue is $400, and Subscription Revenue is $800 at December 31, The adjusting entry illustrated in the left column would not be subject to reversal; a reversing entry can be used with the approach illustrated in the right column.
21 The Accounting Information System 3-21 EXERCISE 3-5 Purpose: (L.O. 5) This exercise will provide you with examples of adjusting entries for: (1) Prepaid expenses when cash payments are recorded in an asset (permanent) account. (2) Prepaid expenses when cash payments are recorded in an expense (temporary) account. (3) Unearned revenues when cash receipts are recorded in a liability (permanent) account. (4) Unearned revenues when cash receipts are recorded in a revenue (temporary) account. Thus, this exercise will review the alternative treatments of prepaid expenses and unearned revenues discussed in Illustration 3-3. Each situation described below is independent of the others. (1) Office supplies are recorded in an asset account when acquired. There were $400 of supplies on hand at the beginning of the period. Cash purchases of office supplies during the period amount to $900. A count of supplies at the end of the period shows $320 worth to be on hand. (2) Office supplies are recorded in an expense account when acquired. There were $400 of supplies on hand at the beginning of the period. Cash purchases of office supplies during the period amount to $900. A count of supplies at the end of the period shows $320 worth to be on hand. No reversing entries are used. (3) Receipts from customers for magazine subscriptions are recorded as a liability when cash is collected in advance of delivery. The beginning balance in the liability account was $6,700. During the period, $54,000 was received for subscriptions. At the end of the period, it was determined that the balance of the Unearned Subscription Revenue account should be $8,000. (4) Receipts from customers for magazine subscriptions are recorded as revenue when cash is collected in advance of delivery. The beginning balance in the liability account was $6,700. During the period, $54,000 was received for subscriptions. At the end of the period, it was determined that the balance of the Unearned Subscription Revenue account should be $8,000. No reversing entries are used. Instructions For each of the independent situations above: (a) Prepare the appropriate adjusting entry in general journal form. (b) Indicate the amount of revenue or expense that will appear on the income statement for the period. (c) Indicate the balance of the applicable asset or liability account at the end of the period. (d) Indicate the amount of cash received or paid during the period. (e) Indicate the change in the applicable asset or liability account from the beginning of the period to the end of the period.
22 3-22 Problem Solving Survival Guide for Intermediate Accounting, 6th Canadian Edition It would be helpful to draw T-accounts for each situation. Enter the information given as it would be, or needs to be, reflected in the accounts. Solve for the adjusting entry that would be necessary to "reconcile" the facts given. Solution to Exercise 3-5 (1) a. Office Supplies Expense Office Supplies on Hand b. Office Supplies Expense $980 c. Office Supplies on Hand $320 d. Cash paid $900 e. Decrease in Office Supplies on Hand $ 80 Approach: Office Supplies on Hand Beg. Bal. 400 ENTRY Acquisitions Desired Ending Balance 320 NEEDED TO COMPLETE ACCOUNTS Office Supplies Expense 980 Ending Balance 980 (2) a. Office Supplies Expense Office Supplies on Hand b. Office Supplies Expense $980 c. Office Supplies on Hand $320 d. Cash paid $900 e. Decrease in Office Supplies on Hand $ 80 Approach: Office Supplies on Hand Beg. Bal. 400 ENTRY 80 Desired Ending Balance 320 NEEDED TO COMPLETE ACCOUNTS Office Supplies Expense Acquisitions Ending Balance 980 Compare situation (1) with situation (2). Notice the facts are the same except for the account debited for acquisitions of office supplies. The solution is then the same except for the adjusting entry required. (3) a. Unearned Subscription Revenue... 52,700 Subscription Revenue... 52,700 b. Subscription Revenue $52,700 c. Unearned Subscription Revenue $ 8,000 d. Cash received $54,000 e. Increase in Unearned Subscription Revenue $ 1,300
23 The Accounting Information System 3-23 Approach: Subscription Revenue 52,700 Ending Balance 52,700 ENTRY NEEDED TO COMPLETE ACCOUNTS Unearned Subscription Revenue Beg. Bal. 6,700 52,700 Receipts 54,000 Desired Ending Bal. 8,000 (4) a. Subscription Revenue... 1,300 Unearned Subscription Revenue... 1,300 b. Subscription Revenue $52,700 c. Unearned Subscription Revenue $ 8,000 d. Cash received $54,000 e. Increase in Unearned Subscription Revenue $ 1,300 Approach: Unearned Subscription Revenue Beg. Bal. 6,700 1,300 Desired Ending Bal. 8,000 ENTRY NEEDED TO COMPLETE ACCOUNTS Subscription Revenue Receipts 54,000 1,300 Ending Balance 52,700 Compare situation (3) with situation (4). Notice the facts are the same except for the account credited for receipt of revenue in advance of the period in which the revenue is earned. The solution is the same except for the adjusting entry required. You should be able to handle what for most students can be the most challenging situations. Refer back to the descriptions of situations (2) and (4). Redo them, assuming that reversing entries are used. Reversing entries are described in Appendix 3-A in the text. Those new solutions should appear as follows. (2) Assuming reversing entries are used. a. Office Supplies on Hand Office Supplies Expense b. Office Supplies Expense $980 c. Office Supplies on Hand $320 d. Cash paid $900 e. Decrease in Office Supplies on Hand $ 80 Approach: Office Supplies Expense Office Supplies on Hand ENTRY Reversing 400 Beg. Bal. 400 NEEDED TO Acquisitions Reversing 400 COMPLETE Ending Bal. 980 Desired Ending Bal. ACCOUNTS 320
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