3 Accounting Basics By definition, the Assets side of the equation consists of the net resources owned by an entity. Liabilities are the obligations of an entity or an outsider s claim against a company s assets. Owners Equity represents the investment of the owners in the company plus accumulated profits (revenues less expenses).
4 Accounts and the Accounting Cycle Entries to the left side of an account are debits (dr), and entries to the right side of an account are credits (cr). Debits increase asset and expense accounts, while credits decrease them. Conversely, credits increase liability, owners equity, and revenue accounts; debits decrease them. Every transaction recorded in the accounting records will have both a debit and a credit, thus the term double-entry accounting.
5 Balance Sheet The balance sheet shows a snapshot of a company s financial situation at a specific point in time, generally the last day of the accounting period. It is an expansion of the accounting equation, assets = liabilities + owners equity.
6 Balance Sheet XYZ Company Balance Sheet December 31, 20XX Assets Liabilities Current Assets: Current Liabilities: Cash $ 148,000 Accounts Payable $ 11,000 Accounts Receivable 75,000 Total Current Liabilities $ 11,000 Total Current Assets $ 223,000 Long-term Liabilities Fixed Assets Notes Payable 75,000 Equipment 200,000 Total Long-term Liabilities 75,000 Less: Accum. Depr. (137,000) Total Liabilities 86,000 Total Fixed Assets 63,000 Owners Equity Common Stock 102,000 Retained Earnings 98,000 Total Owners Equity 200,000 Total Assets $ 286,000 Total Liabilities and Equity $ 286,000
7 Owners Equity Usually represents amounts from two sources: Common or capital stock and paid-in capital Undistributed earnings (retained earnings)
9 Income Statement Income statement details how much profit (or loss) a company earned during a period of time, such as a quarter or a year. The accounts reflected on the income statement are temporary; at the end of each fiscal year, they are reduced to a zero balance (closed), with the resulting net income (or loss) added to (or subtracted from) retained earnings on the balance sheet.
10 Financial Statements XYZ Company Statement of Income For the Year Ended December 31, 20XX Revenue Net Sales $ 400,000 Less: Cost of Goods Sold 250,000 Gross Profit $ 150,000 Operating Expenses Payroll 77,000 Supplies 4,000 Utilities 19,000 Taxes 15,000 Depreciation 27,000 Total Operating Expenses 142,000 Net Income $ 8,000
11 Financial Statements Revenue - Expenses = Net Income
12 Income Statement Most companies present net sales or net service revenues as the first line item on the income statement. The difference between net sales and cost of goods sold is called gross profit or gross margin, which represents the amount left over from sales to pay the company s operating expenses.
13 Statement of Owners Equity The statement of owners equity details the changes in the total owners equity amount listed on the balance sheet. Because it shows how the amounts on the income statement flow through to the balance sheet, it acts as the connecting link between the two statements.
14 Statement of Owners Equity XYZ Company Statement of Owners Equity For the Year Ended December 31, 20XX Owners equity, January 1, 20XX $ - Investment by owners during the year $ 192,000 Net income for the year 8,000 Increase in owners equity 200,000 Owners equity, December 31, 20XX $ 200,000
15 Statement of Cash Flows The statement of cash flows reports a company s sources and uses of cash during the accounting period. Often used by potential investors and other interested parties in tandem with the income statement to determine the true financial performance of a company. The statement of cash flows is broken down into three sections: cash flows from operating activities, cash flows from investing activities, and cash flows from financing activities.
16 Statement of Cash Flows XYZ Company Statement of Cash Flows Direct Method For the Year Ended December 31, 20XX Cash flows from operating activities Cash received from customers $ 15,000 Cash paid for merchandise (14,000) Net cash flows from operating activities $ 1,000 Cash flows from investing activities Cash paid for purchase of equipment (70,000) Net cash flows from investing activities (70,000) Cash flows from financing activities Cash received as owners investment 192,000 Cash received from issuing note payable 80,000 Cash paid on note payable (5,000) Net cash flows from financing activities 267,000 Increase in cash 198,000 Cash balance at the beginning of the year 0 Cash balance at the end of the year $ 198,000
17 Generally Accepted Accounting Principles Revenue Recognition Matching Consistency Full Disclosure Departures from GAAP Industry Practices Substance over Form Materiality
18 Sample Prep Question 1. Which of the following represents the correct accounting model? A. Assets + Liabilities = Owners Equity B. Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity C. Assets = Liabilities Owners Equity D. None of the above
19 Correct Answer: B Accounting is based on the model or accounting equation: Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity
20 Sample Prep Question 2. According to generally accepted accounting principles, revenue and corresponding expenses should NOT be recorded or matched in the same accounting period. A. True B. False
21 Correct Answer: B The matching concept requires that expenses be recorded in the same accounting period as the revenues they help generate. Estimates, accruals, and allocations are often required to meet this requirement. As a sale is made, the appropriate charges for cost of goods sold, or other expenses directly corresponding to the sale, should be recorded in the same accounting period.
22 Sample Prep Question 3. Which of the following could be used to balance the accounting equation if cash were stolen? A. Increasing another asset B. Reducing a liability C. Reducing revenue D. All of the above
23 Correct Answer: D The accounting equation, Assets = Liabilities + Owners Equity, is the basis for all double-entry accounting. If an asset (e.g., cash) is stolen, the equation can be balanced by increasing another asset, reducing a liability, reducing an owners equity account, reducing revenues (and thus retained earnings), or creating an expense (and thus reducing retained earnings).
24 Sample Prep Question 4. Which of the following types of accounts are decreased by debits? A. Liabilities B. Revenue C. Owners equity D. All of the above
25 Correct Answer: D Entries to the left side of an account are referred to as debits, and entries to the right side of an account are referred to as credits. Debits increase asset and expense accounts, whereas credits decrease these accounts. On the other side of the equation, credits increase liabilities, revenue, and owners equity accounts. Conversely, debits decrease liabilities, revenues, and owners equity.
26 Financial Transactions and Fraud Schemes Financial Statement Fraud 2013 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc.
27 Financial Statement Fraud The deliberate misrepresentation of the financial condition of an enterprise accomplished through the intentional misstatement or omission of amounts or disclosures in the financial statements to deceive financial statement users
28 Why Financial Statement Fraud Is Committed Not always for direct personal financial gain To encourage investment through the sale of stock To demonstrate increased earnings per share or partnership profits interest, thus allowing increased dividend/distribution payouts To cover inability to generate cash flow To dispel negative market perceptions To obtain financing, or to obtain more favorable terms on existing financing To receive higher purchase prices for acquisitions To demonstrate compliance with financing covenants To meet company goals and objectives To receive performance-related bonuses
29 Typical Financial Statement Fraud Forms Overstated Assets or Revenue Understated Liabilities and Expenses
30 Classifications of Financial Statement Schemes Fictitious Revenues Timing Differences Improper Asset Valuations Concealed Liabilities and Expenses Improper Disclosures
31 Fictitious Revenues Mysterious accounts receivable on the books that are long overdue are a common sign of a fictitious revenue scheme.
32 Timing Differences The recording of revenue and/or expenses in improper periods Shifts revenues or expenses between one period and the next, increasing or decreasing earnings as desired
33 Premature Revenue Recognition Revenue is typically recognized when: Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists Delivery has occurred or services have been rendered The seller s price to the buyer is fixed or determinable Collectability is reasonably assured Sales with conditions Long-term contracts Percentage of completion method
34 Recording Expenses in the Wrong Period Often compromised due to pressures to meet budget projections and goals, or due to lack of proper accounting controls This might make the sales revenue from the transaction almost pure profit, inflating earnings In the next period, earnings would be depressed by a similar amount Costs not properly matched
36 Inventory Valuation Inventory should be written down to its current value, or written off altogether if it has no value. Failing to write down inventory results in overstated assets and the mismatching of cost of goods sold with revenues. Inventory can also be improperly stated through the manipulation of the physical inventory count, inflating the unit cost used to price out inventory, failure to relieve inventory for costs of goods sold, and by other methods. Schemes usually involve the creation of fake documents such as inventory count sheets, receiving reports, and similar items.
37 Accounts Receivable Fictitious Accounts Receivable Common among companies with financial problems Debits accounts receivable and credits sales More common around end of accounting period Failure to Write Down Companies are required to accrue losses on uncollectible receivables when certain criteria are met Companies struggling for profits and income may be tempted to omit the recognition of such losses because of the negative impact on income
38 Concealed Liabilities and Expenses Common methods for concealing liabilities and expenses include: Liability/expense omissions Capitalized expenses Failure to disclose warranty costs and liabilities Understating liabilities and expenses manipulates the company to appear more profitable than it actually is
39 Capitalized Expenses Another way to increase income and assets since capitalized items are depreciated or amortized over a period of years rather than expensed immediately If expenditures are capitalized as assets and not expensed during the current period, income will be overstated Organizations sometimes expense capitalized expenses to understate income and avoid taxes
40 Liability omissions Subsequent events Management fraud Improper Disclosures Management is obligated to disclose all significant information in the financial statements. Improper disclosures relating to financial statement fraud usually involves the following: Related-party transactions
41 Liability Omissions Typically includes the failure to disclose loan covenants or contingent liabilities Loan covenants are agreements, in addition to or as part of a financing arrangement, which a borrower has promised to keep as long as the financing is in place Contingent liabilities are potential obligations that will materialize only if certain events occur in the future Corporate guarantees of personal liability Liability if material must be disclosed
42 Subsequent Events Events occurring or becoming known after the close of the period may have a significant effect on the financial statements and should be disclosed.
43 Management Fraud Management has an obligation to disclose to the shareholders significant fraud committed by officers, executives, and others in a position of trust. Withholding such information from auditors would likely also involve lying to auditors, an illegal act in itself.
44 Related-Party Transactions Occur when a company does business with another entity whose management or operating policies can be controlled or significantly influenced by the company or by some other party in common Not inherently wrong as long as fully disclosed Often referred to as self-dealing
45 Accounting Changes In general, three types of accounting changes must be disclosed to avoid misleading the user of financial statements: 1. Accounting principles 2. Estimates 3. Reporting entities
46 Sample Prep Question 1. If the collection of funds for a sale depends on a future event, such as a resale of the product, that sale is considered contingent and should not be recorded as complete on the selling company s books. A. True B. False
47 Correct Answer: A True. Until all four criteria for revenue recognition are met, a sale should not be recorded as complete. Revenue is typically recognized when: Persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists. Delivery has occurred or services have been rendered. The seller s price to the buyer is fixed or determinable. Collectability is reasonably assured.
48 Sample Prep Question 2. Recording expenses in the wrong period and early revenue recognition are classified as what type of financial fraud scheme? A. Timing differences B. Improper disclosures C. Improper asset valuations D. Fictitious revenues
49 Correct Answer: A Financial statement fraud might also involve timing differences, or the recording of revenue and/or expenses in improper periods. Matching revenues with expenses; early revenue recognition; and recording expenses in the wrong period are all types of timing differences schemes.
50 Sample Prep Question 3. Which of the following statements is TRUE with regard to a fictitious revenue scheme? A. Fictitious revenues must involve sales to a fake customer. B. The debit side of a fictitious sales entry usually goes to accounts payable. C. Uncollected accounts receivable are a red flag of fictitious revenue schemes. D. If a fictitious revenue scheme has taken place, there will typically be no accounts receivable on the books.
51 Correct Answer: C Fictitious or fabricated revenues involve the recording of sales of goods or services that did not occur. Fictitious sales most often involve fake or phantom customers, but can also involve legitimate customers. Unlike revenue accounts, however, accounts receivable are not reversed at the end of the accounting period. They stay on the books as an asset until collected. If the outstanding accounts never get collected, they will eventually need to be written off as bad debt expense. Mysterious accounts receivable on the books that are long overdue are a common sign of a fictitious revenue scheme.
52 Financial Transactions and Fraud Schemes Financial Statement Analysis 2013 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc.
53 Financial Statement Analysis Vertical Analysis Horizontal Analysis Ratio Analysis
54 Percentage Analysis: Vertical and Horizontal Vertical analysis is a technique for analyzing the relationships between the items on an income statement, balance sheet, or statement of cash flows by expressing components as percentages. Also called common sizing Horizontal analysis is a technique for analyzing the percentage change in individual financial statement items from one year to the next.
56 Financial Ratios Ratio analysis is a means of measuring the relationship between two different financial statement amounts. Ratios can be used to compare the business to other companies in the same industry.
57 Examples of Financial Ratios Current Ratio Quick Ratio Current Assets Current Liabilities Cash+Securities+Receivables Current Liabilities
58 Financial Ratios, continued Asset Turnover Net Sales / Average Total Assets Debt-to-Equity Ratio Total Liabilities / Total Equity
59 Sample Prep Question 1. Which of the following is the correct calculation of the quick ratio? A. Current assets divided by current liabilities B. Cash plus securities divided by accounts payable C. Cash plus receivables divided by current liabilities D. Cash plus marketable securities plus receivables divided by current liabilities
60 Correct Answer: D The quick ratio, often referred to as the acid test ratio, compares assets that can be immediately liquidated. This calculation divides the total of cash, securities, and receivables by current liabilities. This ratio is a measure of a company s ability to meet sudden cash requirements.
61 Sample Prep Question 2. The asset turnover ratio, which is used to determine how efficiently assets are used to produce sales, is calculated by dividing net sales by the asset balance at the end of the period. A. True B. False
62 Correct Answer: B The asset turnover ratio is calculated by dividing net sales by the average total assets for the period.
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