# Object Recognition and Template Matching

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1 Object Recognition and Template Matching Template Matching A template is a small image (sub-image) The goal is to find occurrences of this template in a larger image That is, you want to find matches of this template in the image 1

2 Example Template Image matches Basic Approach For each Image coordinate i,j for the size of the template s,t compute a pixel-wise metric between the image and the template sum next record the similarity next A match is based on the closest similarity measurement at each (i,j) 2

3 Similarity Criteria Correlation The correlation response between two images f and t is defined as: c = x, y f ( x, y) t( x, y) This is often called cross-correlation Template Matching Using Correlation Assume a template T with [2W, 2H] The correlation response at each x,y is: W H c ( x, y) = f ( x + k, y + l) t( k, l) k = W l= H Pick the c(x,y) with the maximum response [It is typical to ignore the boundaries where the template won t fit] 3

4 Template Matching Response Space c(x,y) (using correlation) Matlab Example Problems with Correlation If the image intensity varies with position, Correlation can fail. For example, the correlation between the template and an exactly matched region can be less than correlation between the template and a bright spot. The range of c(x,y) is dependent on the size of the feature Correlation is not invariant to changes in image intensity Such as lighting conditions 4

5 Normalized Correlation We can normalize for the effects of changing intensity and the template size We call this Normalized Correlation c = x, y x, y [ f ( x, y) [ f ( x, y) f ] 2 f ][ t( x, y) t ] x, y 2 [ t( x, y) t ] 1/ 2 Make sure you handle dividing by 0 Finding Matches Normalized correlation returns values with a maximum range of 1. Specify accepted matches with a threshold Example c(x,y) > 0.9 considered a match Note that you generally need to perform some type of Non-maximum suppression Run a filter of a given window size Find the max in that window, set other values to 0 5

6 Other Metrics Normalized Correlation is robust It is one of the most commonly used template matching criteria when accuracy is important But, it is computationally expensive For speed, we often use other similarity metrics SSD Sum of the Squared Difference c( x, y) = W H k = W l= H [ f ( x + k, y + l) t( k, l)] 2 Note in this case, you look for the minimum response! 6

7 SAD Sum of the Absolute Difference W H c ( x, y) = f ( x + k, y + l) t( k, l) k = W l= H Also, look for the minimum response! This operation can be performed efficiently with integer math. Example Response Space c(x,y) (using SAD) A match is the minimum response 7

8 Template Matching Limitations Templates are not scale or rotation invariant Slight size or orientation variations can cause problems Often use several templates to represent one object Different sizes Rotations of the same template Note that template matching is an computationally expensive operation Especially if you search the entire image Or if you use several templates However, it can be easily parallelized Template Matching Basic tool for area-based stereo Basic tool for object tracking in video Basic tool for simple OCR Basic foundation for simple object recognition 8

9 Object Recognition We will discuss a simple form of object recognition Appearance Based Recognition Assume we have images of several known objects We call this our Training Set We are given a new image We want to recognize (or classify) it based on our existing set of images Example? Columbia University Image Library 9

10 Object Recognition Typical Problem You have a training set of images of N objects You are given a new image, F F is an image of one of these N objects Maybe at a slightly different view than the images in your training set Can you determine which object F is? Let s Start With Face Recognition Database of faces [objects] Given an new image, Can you tell who this is? ftp://ftp.uk.research.att.com:pub/data/att_faces.tar.z 10

11 About the Training Set The training set generally has several images of the same object at slightly different views The more views, the more robust the training set However, more views creates a larger training set! Brute Force Approach to Face Recognition This is a template matching problem The new face image is a template Compare the new face image against the database of images Using Normalized Correlation, SSD, or SAD For example: Let I i be all of the existing faces Let F be the new face For each I i c i = I i F (SAD) Hypothesis that the minimum c i is the person 11

12 Example Database of 40 people 5 Images per person We randomly choose 4 faces to compose our database That is a set of 160 images 1 image per person that isn t in the database Find this face using the Brute force approach (The class example uses image of size 56x46 pixels. This is very small and only used for a demonstration. Typical image sizes would be 256x256 or higher) Implementation Let Ii (training images) be written as a vector Form a matrix X from these vectors X = I 1 I 2... I i... I n-1 I n X dimensions: W*H of image * number_of_images 12

13 Implementation Let F (new face) also be written as a vector Compute the distance of F to each I i for i = 1 to n s = F - I i Closest I i (min s) is hypothesised to be the match In class example: X matrix is: 2576 x 160 elements To compare F with all Ii Brute force approach takes roughly 423,555 integer operations using SAD Example New Face Training Set SAD Diff Image (Computed in Vector Form) SAD result

14 Brute Force Computationally Expensive Requires a huge amount of memory Not very practical We need a more compact representation We have a collection of faces Face images are highly correlated They share many of the same spatial characteristics Face,Nose, Eyes We should be able to describe these images using a more compact representation 14

15 Compact Representation Images of faces, are not randomly distributed We can apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) PCA finds the best vectors that account for the distribution of face images within the entire space Each image can be described as a linear combination of these principal components The powerful feature is that we can approximate this space with only a few of the principal components Seminal Paper: Face Recognition Using Eigenfaces 1991, Mathew A. Turk and Alex. P. Pentland (MIT) Eigen-Face Decomposition Idea Find the mean face of the training set Subtract the mean from all images Now each image encodes its variation from the mean Compute a covariance matrix of all the images Imagine that this is encoding the spread of the variation for each pixel (in the entire image set) Compute the principal components for the covariance matrix (eigen-vectors of the covariance space) Parameterize each face in terms of principal components 15

16 Eigen-Face Decomposition X = Compute Mean Image I 1 I 2... I i... I n-1 I n I ^ X = ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ I 1 I 2... I i... I n-1 I n Compose X ^ of ^ I i = (I i I) Eigen-Face Decomposition Compute the covariance matrix C= X ^ X ^ T (note this is a huge matrix, size_of_image*size_of_image) Perform Eigen-decomposition on C This gives us back a set of eigen vectors (u i ) These are the principal components of C U = u 1 u 2... u i u m-1 u m 16

17 The Eigen-Faces These eigenvector form what Pentland called eigen-faces First 5 Eigen Faces (From our training set) Parameterize faces as Eigen-faces All faces in our training set can be described as a linear combination of the eigen-faces The trick is, we can approximate our face using only a few eigen-vectors P i is only size k P i = U kt * (I i I) Where k << Size of Image (k = 20) 17

18 Eigen-face Representation Original K= Comparing with Eigen faces We build a new representation of our training set For each Ii in our training set of N images Compute: P i =U kt * (I i I) Create a new matrix P aram = P 1 P 2 P 3... P i.... P n-1 P n Only has k rows! 18

19 Recognition using Eigen-Faces Find a match using the parameterization coefficients of P aram So, given a new face F Parameterize it in Eigenspace P f = U kt * (I i I) Find the closest P i using SAD min P i P f Hypothesis image corresponding to Pi is our match! EigenFaces Performance Pixel Space In class example: X matrix is: 2576 x 160 elements Brute force approach takes roughly 423,555 integer operations using SAD Eigen Space In class example Assume we have already calculated U and P aram P aram = 20 x 160 elements Search approach 51,520 multiples to convert our image to eigen-space roughly 3200 integer operations to find a match SAD!!! 19

20 Eigenspace Representation Requires significant pre-processing of space Greatly reduces the amount of memory needed Greatly reduces the matching speed Widely accepted approach Extension to Generalized Object Recognition Build several eigenspaces using several training sets (one eigenspace for each set) Parameterize new image into these spaces Find the closest match in all spaces Find the closest space 20

21 Pose Recognition Industrial Imaging Automation Take a training set of an images at difference positions Build an eigenspace of the training set Given an a new image Find its closest match in the space this is its pose Draw backs to Eigenspaces Computationally Expensive Images have to be registered Same size, roughly same background The choice of K affects the accuracy of recognition Static representation If you want to add a new object (person) You have to rebuild the eigenspace Starts to break down when there are too many objects You begin to get a random distribution 21

22 Template Matching Summary Similarity Criteria Correlation, Normalized Correlation SSD and SAD Object Recognition Appearance Based PCA (Principal Component Analysis) Eigen-space representation Eigen-faces Active Research Area Not too much for template matching Object Recognition Selected Feature Based Eigen Decomp 22

23 Active Research Area Computing Eigenspaces Optimal Eigenspaces Incremental Eigenspaces Face Recognition Training set is important Fake training images with view morphing Compressed Domain Integration Eigenspace research In math and computer vision Very active area 23

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