DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Five Basic Processes The Gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal)

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Five Basic Processes The Gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal)"

Transcription

1 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Five Basic Processes 1. Ingestion - eating 2. Movement of the food along the G.I. tract. 3. Digestion- chemical and mechanical breakdown of food. 4. Absorption of the breakdown products into the lymphatic and circulatory systems. 5. Defecation - elimination of undigested substances. The Gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal) - extends from the moth to the anus feet long (in the cadaver) - accessory structures - aid in digestion - example: teeth, liver, pancreas

2 Histology - 4 basic layers with subdivisions 1. Mucosa - mucous membrane - lining of a tract - has 3 sublayers (1) Epithelium - in contact with the food - varies from stratified squamous in esophagus and anal canal to simple columnar in the small intestine (2) Lamina Propria - areolar connective tissue (3) Muscularis mucosa - smooth muscle 2. Submucosa - binds mucosa to underlining smooth muscle layer - made of areolar connective tissue - contains ANS supply to muscularis mucosa called Submucosal Plexus (Plexus of Meissner) 3. Muscularis - in mouth, pharynx and esophagus is skeletal muscle - in the rest of the tract is smooth muscle. - usually contains 2 sheets (stomach has 3) - inner circular - outer longitudinal - contains the major nerve supply to the major nerve supply the Myenteric Plexus (Plexus of auerbach) controls motility 4. Serosa - serous membrane - made of connective tissue and epithelium - below the diaphragm known as visceral peritoneum 17

3 Mouth - oral or buccal cavity - anatomy - cheeks - help hold food in place between molars - labial frenulum - mucous membrane fold - attaches lips to gums - lingual frenulum - attaches tongue to base of oral cavity - fauces - opening between the oral cavity and the oropharynx (throat) - hard palate - made from: - palatine processes of the maxilla and horizontal plates of the palatine bones - soft palate - arch between oral pharynx and nasal pharynx 18

4 Tongue - holds food in place over molars (with cheeks) so food can be masticated - moves food to back of mouth for swallowing and is involved in swallowing - 2 sets of muscles 1. Extrinsic muscles the origin of the muscle is outside of the tongue. Functions; aids in chewing and swallowing and moves tongue in and out and from side to side. - 19

5 2. Intrinsic muscles - origin and insertion of muscles is inside the tongue itself - functions - alters the shape of the tongue - speech and swallowing - glands on the surface of the tongue secrete Lingual Lipase -digest triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides Salivary Glands - buccal glands secrete some saliva - 3 pairs of major salivary glands 1. Parotid Salivary glands - located anterior to the ears - secrete through parotid duct into the oral cavity by upper second molar - secrete a watery mucous with salivary amylase 2. Submandibular Salivary glands - located under the mandible at sides of tongue - secrete a thicker saliva with mucous and salivary amylase - empty under the tongue 3. Sublingual Salivary gland - located under the tongue - secrete a thick mucous with little salivary amylase - secrete into mouth under the tongue - saliva is composed of: % water, 0.5% solutes like: ions, gases, urea/uric aid, serum proteins, lysozyme, salivary amylase 20

6 Secretion of Saliva to 1500 ml secreted daily from salivary glands - under nervous system parasympathetic stimulation from the salivary nuclei in the brain stem - secretion of the saliva can be brought about by: - food in the mouth - thought, smell, sound, sight of food. Teeth - accessory structures - aid in masticating food - two dentitions: 1. Deciduous teeth - appear at 6 months - 20 in all - formula: 2 incisors, 1 cuspid, 2 molars (per quadrant) 21

7 2. Permanent teeth - appear 6-12 years - 32 in all - formula: 2 incisors, 1 canine (cuspid), 2 bicuspids (premolars), 3 molars Chemical Digestion in the Mouth - Salivary amylase breaks down starches into disaccharides - Lingual Lipase - breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides Deglutition 22

8 - the act of swallowing - 3 stages 1. Voluntary - the tongue moves the bolus into the pharynx 2. Pharyngeal stage - bolus stimulates receptors in the oropharynx causing the respiratory passageway to close and breathing to stop. This is initiated by the deglutition center in he medulla. 3. Esophageal stage - upper esophageal sphincter and the bolus enters the esophagus. Then peristalsis pushes the food toward the stomach. The lower esophageal sphincter opens so the food can enter the stomach. Stomach Histology - same four layers Mucosa has gastric pits with gastric glands with 4 types of cells 1. Chief (Zymogenic) cells - secrete pepsinogen (enzyme precursor) and gastric lipase. 2. Parietal (oxyntic) cells - secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) which converts pepsinogen to pepsin and intrinsic factor that aids in the absorption of Vitamin B12 (necessary for red blood cell production) 3. Mucous cells - secrete mucous to protect the mucosal layer of the stomach from the acid and enzymes 4. G cells - secrete the hormone stomach gastrin - the combined secretions of chief cells, parietal cells, and mucous cells is called: 23

9 Submucosa - same as rest of G.I. tract - made of areolar connective tissue Muscularis - has three layers instead of two - inner oblique - middle circular - outer longitudinal Serosa - forms greater and lesser omentum Mechanical Digestion in the Stomach - peristaltic mixing waves occur every 15 to 25 seconds - food mixed with HCl and reduced to chyme - food is initially stored in the fundus, and ground down in the body and pylorus - each wave ejects chyme into the duodenum Chemical Digestion in the Stomach - HCl denatures proteins and converts pepsinogen to enzyme pepsin - pepsin breaks large polypeptides into peptides - gastric lipase digests buttermilk in infants Absorption in the Stomach - the stomach only absorbs water, some electrolytes, some drugs (like aspirin) and alcohol Pancreas 24

10 - produces 1200 to 1500 ml of pancreatic juice per day - juice consists of 2 major groups of compounds 1. Digestive enzymes. 2. Sodium Bicarbonate. - the sodium bicarbonate neutralizes the acidic chyme coming from the stomach - the digestive enzymes are; Enzyme Breaks Into Pancreatic amylase Starches Disaccharides Trypsin Proteins Peptides Chymotrypsin Proteins Peptides Carboxypeptidase Proteins Peptides Pancreatic Lipase Lipids Fatty acids and monoglycerides Ribonuclease RNA Nucleotides Deoxyribonuclease DNA Nucleotides The Liver 25

11 - heaviest organ in the body (3 lbs) - Histology - lobules - made up of hepatic cells lining sinusoids which empty into central veins - sinusoids - twisting capillaries - lined with hepatocytes - sinusoids are lined with hepatocytes 26

12 - sinusoids have fixed macrophages called Stellate Reticuloendothelial cells that phagocytize worn-out red blood cells - bile capillaries are found adjacent to the sinusoids - bile is recycled from the sinusoids by the hepatocytes and emptied into bile ducts to go back to the gall bladder - the hepatocytes store most of the nutrients coming from the digestive system via the hepatic portal vein Blood supply to the liver - from two sources - the hepatic portal vein brings blood with digested products from the G.I. tract - the hepatic portal vein empties into the sinusoids where nutrients in the blood coming from the digestive organs is removed (and stored in the hepatocytes). - the hepatic artery brings oxygenated blood to the liver Bile - secreted by hepatic cells of the liver to 1000 ml a day - is both a digestive and an excretory product - the digestive component is bile acids that emulsify fats - excretory products include bilirubin (that makes feces brown in color) Liver - functions 1. The liver can take most digested organic molecules and convert them into other molecules. 2. Metabolizes lipid molecules. 3. Deamination (removal of N) of proteins and synthesis of new proteins. 4. Removes drugs and hormones. 5. Excretion of bile. 6. Storage of glycogen and vitamins (A, B, D, E, K) 7. Synthesis of bile salts 8. Phagocytosis of worn-out red blood cells. 9. Activates vitamin D. Gall Bladder - concentrates bile by reabsorbing water from bile - ejects bile into duodenum (keyed by CCK) Small Intestine - 21 feet long 27

13 - 3 segments - duodenum - jejunum - ileum - Histology (1) Mucosa - secretes intestinal juice (brush border enzymes) - has three structures to increase surface area Villi - Microvilli - Plica circulares (2) Submucosa - Areolar tissue containing the nerves and blood vessels (3) Muscularis - two layers - Inner circular and Outer longitudinal (4) Serosa - forms the mesentery Intestinal Juice - 1 to 2 liters a day produced - some juice comes from the surface of the enterocytes and is called Brush Border Enzymes - these include: - alpha destrinase - maltase Breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides - sucrase Breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides - lactase Breaks down disaccharides into monosaccharides - peptidase Breaks down peptides into amino acids - nucleosidases Breaks down nucleotides into N bases, pentoses, P - phosphatases " Mechanical Digestion Segmentation - chyme is confined to one region of the small intestine 28

14 - washes back and forth to make contact with the mucosa - peristalsis then moves the chyme to the next part of the small intestine where segmentation occurs again Regulation of secretion in the Small Intestine - local reflexes due to the presence of chyme - vasoactive intestinal polypeptide stimulates secretion of intestinal juice - parasympathetic nervous system stimulates secretion Absorption in the small intestine - in order to be absorbed - carbohydrates must be broken down into monosaccharides - proteins must be broken down into amino acids - lipids must be broken down into fatty acids and monoglycerides - 90% of the absorption occurs in the small intestine - 10% in the rest of the G.I. tract Vitamin Absorption - fat-soluble ADEK pass with triglycerides - water-soluble pass by diffusion - vitamin B12 with intrinsic factor Large Intestine -5 feet long - attached to posterior abdominal wall by a double fold of the serosa called mesocolon 29

15 Gastroileal Reflex - ileocecal sphincter opens - chyme passes into the cecum by ileal peristalsis - initiated by hormone from the intestinal mucosa stomach gastrin - the fecal material is forced from one haustra to the next - called haustral churning - haustral churning continues until the second half of the transverse colon where mass peristalsis moves it into the rectum Chemical Digestion in the Colon - bacteria break down what's left of the chyme - bacteria make vitamins B2, B6, Pantothenic acid, and Vitamin K. Physiology of Defecation - mass peristalsis ejects fecal material from the sigmoid colon into the rectum - the stretching of the wall of he rectum initiates a defecation reflex - the defecation reflex is initiated by the sacral portion of the parasympathetic nervous system diarrhea is the discharge of liquid feces - this often results in the loss of ions and dehydration constipation is infrequent of difficult defecation. The cause is usually a decrease in the motility of the large intestine resulting in an increase in water reabsorption, and feces become hard and dry 30

16 31

The Digestive System

The Digestive System The Digestive System Digestive Structures Mouth including teeth and tongue Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Accessory structures - salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, & pancreas Digestive

More information

Divisions of Digestive System. Organs of the Alimentary Canal. Anatomy of the Digestive System: Organs of the Alimentary Canal. CHAPTER 14 p.

Divisions of Digestive System. Organs of the Alimentary Canal. Anatomy of the Digestive System: Organs of the Alimentary Canal. CHAPTER 14 p. Divisions of Digestive System Anatomy of the Digestive System: Organs of the Alimentary Canal CHAPTER 14 p. 412-423 1. Alimentary Canal or Gastrointestinal Tract (GI)-digests and absorbs food coiled hollow

More information

Digestive System Functions

Digestive System Functions Digestive System Functions A. Gastrointestinal Processes 1. Ingestion: placing food in mouth (voluntary) 2. Propulsion: moving food through GI tract a. Peristalsis: alternating waves of contraction and

More information

GI TRACT ORGANS ACCESSORY ORGANS

GI TRACT ORGANS ACCESSORY ORGANS Digestive System GI TRACT ORGANS Oral cavity Oropharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large Intestine Anus ACCESSORY ORGANS Salivary glands Pancreas Liver Gall bladder GI TRACT LAYERS Mucosa Submucosa

More information

The Digestive System. Chapter 16. Introduction. Histological Organization. Overview of Digestive System. Movement and Mixing of Digestive Materials

The Digestive System. Chapter 16. Introduction. Histological Organization. Overview of Digestive System. Movement and Mixing of Digestive Materials The Digestive System Chapter 16 Introduction Structure of the digestive system A tube that extends from mouth to anus Accessory organs are attached Functions include Ingestion Movement Digestion Absorption

More information

10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411

10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411 10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411 The human digestive system is made up of a group of organs working together. The digestive tract is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and

More information

Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi

Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Lec.13 Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Functions of the Digestive System The major functions of the digestive tract include the following six processes, summarized in Figure 1: 1. Ingestion Food must

More information

5. Secretion: release of water, acids. Enzymes, buffers by digestive tract.

5. Secretion: release of water, acids. Enzymes, buffers by digestive tract. Digestive System CH-16 Lecture topics Functions of the digestive system: p. 488. 1. Ingestion: Taking food in 2. Propulsion: movement of food thru alimentary canal p.490. voluntary: swalloing : skeletal

More information

The Digestive System. Chapter 14. The Digestive System and Body Metabolism. Metabolism. Organs of the Digestive System. Digestion.

The Digestive System. Chapter 14. The Digestive System and Body Metabolism. Metabolism. Organs of the Digestive System. Digestion. Chapter 14 The Digestive System The Digestive System and Body Metabolism Digestion of ingested food of nutrients into the blood Metabolism Production of Constructive and degradative cellular activities

More information

Digestive System AKA. GI System. Overview. GI Process Process Includes. G-I Tract Alimentary Canal

Digestive System AKA. GI System. Overview. GI Process Process Includes. G-I Tract Alimentary Canal Digestive System AKA G-I Tract Alimentary Canal Overview GI System Consists of Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus About 30 in length Accessory Organs Teeth, tongue,

More information

Chapter 15 Digestive System.

Chapter 15 Digestive System. Chapter 15 Digestive System. I. The Gastrointestinal Tract. a. The digestive system mechanically and chemically breaks down food into molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream or lymph. Residues

More information

Digestive System. Gross Anatomy and Physiology

Digestive System. Gross Anatomy and Physiology Digestive System Gross Anatomy and Physiology I. Introduction A. Base Function: Working with the circulatory system the digestive system provides the body with fuel. B. Main players: 1. Digestive tract:

More information

The Digestive System. Chapter 15

The Digestive System. Chapter 15 The Digestive System Chapter 15 Introduction Digestion refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food so the nutrients can be absorbed by cells Carried out by the digestive system Consists of

More information

Mechanical digestion: physical breaking of food chewing by teeth churning by stomach segmentation by intestines (= mixing food) p.611/ Fig. 22.

Mechanical digestion: physical breaking of food chewing by teeth churning by stomach segmentation by intestines (= mixing food) p.611/ Fig. 22. The Digestive System 1. Describe the general functions of the digestive system Ingestion: Taking food in Propulsion: movement of food thru alimentary canal voluntary: swalloing involuntary: peristalsis

More information

Chapter 17 Digestive System. Alimentary Canal. Movements of the Tube

Chapter 17 Digestive System. Alimentary Canal. Movements of the Tube Chapter 17 Digestive System Functions of Digestive System ingestion mechanical digestion chemical digestion propulsion absorption defecation Consists of the alimentary canal and accessory organs 1 Alimentary

More information

The Human Digestive System

The Human Digestive System The Human Digestive System Name: Section: Date: Page 1 of 10 Page 2 of 10 Page 3 of 10 Page 4 of 10 Page 5 of 10 Page 6 of 10 Putting it All Together Digestive Enzymes Page 7 of 10 Page 8 of 10 Page 9

More information

Digestive system Review

Digestive system Review Digestive system Review 1. Distinguish between chemical digestion and mechanical digestion. The physical breakdown of food begins in the mouth with two types of processes. The mouth is a complex structure

More information

Digestion, Absorption. How & where?

Digestion, Absorption. How & where? Digestion, Absorption How & where? What happens to food? Three processes Digestion Absorption Elimination Where do they occur? GI tract Overview of Digestion GI tract Gastrointestinal (GI) tract: series

More information

The Vertebrate (mostly human) Digestive System

The Vertebrate (mostly human) Digestive System The Vertebrate (mostly human) Digestive System Mouth - mastication, lubrication, digestion Pharynx and Esophagus - swallowing Stomach - some digestion Small intestine - most digestion and absorption Large

More information

The Digestive System. You are what you eat!

The Digestive System. You are what you eat! The Digestive System You are what you eat! Try to label the diagram (PENCIL!!) What is Digestion? Digestion: the breakdown of large macromolecules (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) into smaller molecules

More information

Outline Digestive System

Outline Digestive System Outline Digestive System The Digestive System Digestive System Lecture Packet 19 Chapter 15 I. Function II. Layers of the GI tract III. Major parts: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,

More information

SEER Training Modules

SEER Training Modules http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/digestive/ WiRED International wishes to thank the National Cancer Institute for use of this information. SEER Training Modules Introduction to the Digestive System

More information

Biology 2402 Anatomy &Physiology II - Digestive system notes - Ch. 15

Biology 2402 Anatomy &Physiology II - Digestive system notes - Ch. 15 Biology 2402 Anatomy &Physiology II - Digestive system notes - Ch. 15 Digestive system processes the food used as fuel and nutrients for the body. Composed of a tube through the body (digestive tract,

More information

General Structure and Function of the Digestive System

General Structure and Function of the Digestive System General Structure and Function of the Digestive System Do Now Why does food have to be digested before cells can use it? What are the typical four layers of the digestive tract wall? What is the name of

More information

Functions of the GI Tract. Chapter 18. Functions of the GI Tract (continued)

Functions of the GI Tract. Chapter 18. Functions of the GI Tract (continued) Functions of the GI Tract Chapter 18 The Digestive System Motility: Movement of of food through the GI tract. Ingestion: Taking food into the mouth. Mastication: Chewing the food and mixing it with saliva.

More information

I. The basic function of the digestive system is

I. The basic function of the digestive system is Chapter 15, Digestive System - ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM I. The basic function of the digestive system is. This process is called. II. List 2 other names for the digestive tract: A. B. III. The digestive

More information

26. Digestive System

26. Digestive System 26. Digestive System Your body needs food for two primary purposes: growth and maintenance. Molecules and atoms in the food you eat are generally used to either build new molecules in your body or to provide

More information

Chapter 24: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Chapter 24: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Chapter 24: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM I. OVERVIEW A. Gross anatomy (Fig. 24.1) and functions (Table 24.1) B. "You are what you eat." 1. The problem: Ingestion (eating) is not the same as absorption. 2. The solution:

More information

CHAPTER 23 DIGESTIVE

CHAPTER 23 DIGESTIVE CHAPTER 23 DIGESTIVE nutrition requires : getting nutrients digesting nutrients transporting nutrients Digestive System musculo-skeletal digestive circulatory Digestive System alimentary canal ~ gastrointestinal

More information

SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE SECRETIONS

SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE SECRETIONS SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE SECRETIONS Objectives At the end of lecture student should be able to know, Digestive system Digestive system secretions Small intestine Component of small intestine Intestinal

More information

Digestion, Absorption. How & where?

Digestion, Absorption. How & where? Digestion, Absorption How & where? What happens to food? Three processes Digestion Absorption Elimination Where do they occur? GI tract Overview of Digestion GI tract Gastrointestinal (GI) tract: series

More information

Digestive System Notes

Digestive System Notes Digestive System Notes Structure Function Relation Mouth cavity Mechanical digestion by teeth; chemical digestion of starch by saliva. Salivary glands Three pairs of glands which secrete saliva containing

More information

The Gastrointestinal System It consists of: The digestive tract Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine

The Gastrointestinal System It consists of: The digestive tract Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine The Gastrointestinal System It consists of: The digestive tract Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine The digestive organs Teeth Tongue Salivary glands Liver Gall bladder Pancreas

More information

THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM.

THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM. THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM. OVERVIEW OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Two groups of organs compose

More information

Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract) continuous coiled hollow tube

Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract) continuous coiled hollow tube The Digestive System and Body Metabolism Gross Anatomy Function The Digestive System Functions Ingestion taking in food Digestion breaking food down both physically and chemically Absorption movement of

More information

Digestion. What we ll cover. Main stages of digestion. Digestion: A Closer Look. A Tour of the Human Digestive System. Mechanical digestion

Digestion. What we ll cover. Main stages of digestion. Digestion: A Closer Look. A Tour of the Human Digestive System. Mechanical digestion Digestion What we ll cover What are the digestive system structures and their functions? Where does carbohydrate, protein and fat digestion and absorption occur? What are the 3 accessory organs of digestion?

More information

Continuing Education Independent Study Series

Continuing Education Independent Study Series Continuing Education Independent Study Series Professional Development Manager Association of Surgical Technologists Englewood, Colorado Association of Surgical Technologists Publication made possible

More information

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Ingested food is not technically in the body until it is absorbed so it needs to be: Mechanically and chemically reduced Transported by the blood to the cells Large portions are not

More information

Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly)

Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly) Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly) 6 basic nutrients - 4 food groups (milk, meat, fruit and vegetable,

More information

Special organ structures and functions conduct these tasks through the successive parts of the overall system.

Special organ structures and functions conduct these tasks through the successive parts of the overall system. Chapter 5 Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism Chapter 5 Lesson 5.1 Key Concepts Through a balanced system of mechanical and chemical digestion, food is broken down into smaller substances and the nutrients

More information

Functions of the digestive system

Functions of the digestive system Digestive system Functions of the digestive system Digestion-mechanical and chemical breakdown of material Motility-movement of material from the oral cavity to the anus-swallowing / peristalsis Secretion-exocrine

More information

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids The three nutrients needed by the body in the greatest amounts are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients in Food All of these nutrients are called organic compounds,

More information

Each gland has at least one duct that takes saliva to the oral cavity.

Each gland has at least one duct that takes saliva to the oral cavity. kufa university Physiology College of Nursing first year student Ass. Lect :- Hisham Qassem M. Lecture No :-3 The Digestive System Digestive system consists of: 1. Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT). 2. Accessory

More information

CHAPTER 17: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 2. Distinguish between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.

CHAPTER 17: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 2. Distinguish between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion. CHAPTER 17: SYSTEM OBJECTIVES 1. Define the term digestion and explain its significance. 2. Distinguish between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion. 3. Discuss the five digestive processes that

More information

II. General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal

II. General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal Human Anatomy & Physiology 17 Be sure to watch the Video: The Digestive System. Digestive System URLs http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/ BioBookDIGEST.html http://yahooligans.yahoo.com/reference/gray/244.html

More information

Digestive system. Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Anatomy 35 Mt San Antonio College

Digestive system. Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Anatomy 35 Mt San Antonio College Digestive system Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Anatomy 35 Mt San Antonio College Oral cavity Alimentary Canal Accessory organs teeth salivary glands liver gall bladder pancreas appendix Components Functions Motility

More information

The Digestive System 24-1

The Digestive System 24-1 The Digestive System 24-1 Overview of GI tract Functions Mouth---bite, chew, swallow Pharynx and esophagus---- transport Stomach----mechanical disruption; absorption of water & alcohol Small intestine--chemical

More information

Digestion. Processing of food Types. Mechanical (physical) Chemical. Chew Tear Grind Mash Mix. Catabolic reactions Enzymatic hydrolysis

Digestion. Processing of food Types. Mechanical (physical) Chemical. Chew Tear Grind Mash Mix. Catabolic reactions Enzymatic hydrolysis Digestive System Digestion Processing of food Types Mechanical (physical) Chew Tear Grind Mash Mix Chemical Catabolic reactions Enzymatic hydrolysis Carbohydrate Protein Lipid 2 Digestion Phases Ingestion

More information

Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition

Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition Digestive System: Digestion refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods so that nutrients can be absorbed by cells. Consists of the canal which is all of

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley

Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam III Name: Instructions This exam consists of 50 questions. You may write on the exam itself, but be sure to answer all your questions on a Scantron

More information

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look OpenStax-CNX module: m49457 1 Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look Donna Browne Based on Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look by OpenStax This work is

More information

The Excretory and Digestive Systems

The Excretory and Digestive Systems The Excretory and Digestive Systems 38.2 The Process of Digestion Organs of the Digestive System The digestive system includes the: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small and large intestine. Other structures

More information

Study Guide Digestive System

Study Guide Digestive System Study Guide Digestive System 1. Digestion is breakdown of complex food molecules like starch into smaller molecules like glucose that can pass through the cell membranes of intestine and get absorbed into

More information

Digestive System. Digestive System. Digestive tract. Accessory organs. Digestive System Overview

Digestive System. Digestive System. Digestive tract. Accessory organs. Digestive System Overview Digestive System Digestive System The process of chemically and physically breaking down foods into simpler forms that can be absorbed is called digestion. The digestive system can be divided into two

More information

The Digestive System

The Digestive System 16 The Digestive System FOCUS: The function of the digestive system is to take in food, break it down into smaller compounds, and absorb those compounds so that the body can use them. This process provides

More information

2) Digestion the breakdown of. There are two types of digestion: Mechanical and Chemical. 3) Absorption when the nutrients enter into the blood.

2) Digestion the breakdown of. There are two types of digestion: Mechanical and Chemical. 3) Absorption when the nutrients enter into the blood. The Digestive System Video on the digestive system (5 min) The digestive system is responsible for the breakdown of the we eat so that it can be absorbed into the. There are four main stages of the digestive

More information

Horse Science: The Digestive System of the Horse Page 3

Horse Science: The Digestive System of the Horse Page 3 Horse Science: The Digestive System of the Horse Page 3 The digestive system of the horse is different from that Mastication (chewing) is the mechanical reduction of of the other farm animals. Although

More information

The Digestive System

The Digestive System The Digestive System Objectives Name and locate the digestive organs and the accessory organs of digestion. List the general function of the digestive system and the function of each organ. Define mechanical

More information

Lab 18 The Digestive System

Lab 18 The Digestive System Lab 18 The Digestive System Laboratory Objectives Identify on a diagram, model or cadaver the parts of the digestive system and accessory organs. Describe the general histology of the digestive system.

More information

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Secretion Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Secretion Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Secretion Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1: Title Page Digestive system secretion involves

More information

Classifications of animals: ruminant vs non-ruminant carnivore: meat-eating herbivore: plant-eating omnivore: both meat and plant-eating

Classifications of animals: ruminant vs non-ruminant carnivore: meat-eating herbivore: plant-eating omnivore: both meat and plant-eating Digestion and Metabolism Digestive tract one long, continuous tube starting at the mouth and ending at the anus Functions Ingestion Grinding Digestion/absorption of food Elimination of solid wastes Classifications

More information

Introduction. Digestive System. Physiology. Anatomy. Physiology. Alimentary Canal. Chapter 21

Introduction. Digestive System. Physiology. Anatomy. Physiology. Alimentary Canal. Chapter 21 Chapter 21 Digestive System Susan G. Salvo Introduction Digestive process is a disassembly line Digestive system provides processes in which proteins, carbohydrates, and fats are broken down and used a

More information

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement Digestive System The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus and other organs that help the body break down

More information

BIO 202 Digestive System Part I Overview and Mouth to Stomach

BIO 202 Digestive System Part I Overview and Mouth to Stomach 1 BIO 202 Digestive System Part I Overview and Mouth to Stomach Function of the Digestive System Ingestion Taking food and water into the mouth Break down the food Mechanical digestion: chewing, mixing,

More information

ii. Palatine tonsils - located between glossopalatine arch and pharyngopalatine arch iii. Function: guide food and air to laryngopharynx III.

ii. Palatine tonsils - located between glossopalatine arch and pharyngopalatine arch iii. Function: guide food and air to laryngopharynx III. Digestive System I. Introduction I. Tube from mouth to anus, 30 ft. long II. Greatest portion below diaphragm III. Function: digestion and absorption II. Cross section through the coelom (body cavity)

More information

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Jenny Kim Professor Rosario Nutrition: Macronutrients Project June 26, 2014 1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Whenever we eat, the foods we ingest in our bodies undergo

More information

Welcome back. Today, we embark on Lesson 6 where we ll study the human digestive system.

Welcome back. Today, we embark on Lesson 6 where we ll study the human digestive system. Basic Human Anatomy Lesson 6: The Human Digestive System Welcome back. Today, we embark on Lesson 6 where we ll study the human digestive system. After completing this lesson, you should be able to define

More information

Session 20. The Digestive Organs. Session Outline. Introduction. Unit 6 Digestive System

Session 20. The Digestive Organs. Session Outline. Introduction. Unit 6 Digestive System Unit 6 Digestive System Session 20 The Digestive Organs Session Outline Introduction 20.1Alimentary tract 20.2 Mouth 20.3Tongue 20.4Teeth 20.5Oesophagus 20.6 Stomach 20.7Small intestine 20.8 large intestine

More information

Digestive System. Student Learning Objectives: Structures to be studied: Introduction

Digestive System. Student Learning Objectives: Structures to be studied: Introduction Digestive System Student Learning Objectives: Identify the primary structures of the digestive system. Describe the use of various important nutrient materials in the body. Structures to be studied: Oral

More information

Name Digestive System and Body Metabolism Notes Ch 14

Name Digestive System and Body Metabolism Notes Ch 14 Name Digestive System and Body Metabolism Notes Ch 14 Digestion Breakdown of ingested food Absorption of nutrients into the blood Metabolism Production of cellular energy ( ) Constructive and degradative

More information

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM What is digestion? Digestion is the process of breaking down food so that it's small enough to be absorbed and used by the body for energy or in other bodily functions. Digestion involves

More information

Functions of Digestive System. The Digestive System. Digestive Processes. Anatomy. Digestive System. Melissa Gonzales McNeal 1. Layers of the GI tract

Functions of Digestive System. The Digestive System. Digestive Processes. Anatomy. Digestive System. Melissa Gonzales McNeal 1. Layers of the GI tract The Digestive System Gastroenterology: study of digestive tract Heptologists study the liver General surgeons operate on most parts of the GI tract 1 Functions of Digestive System Protection Corrosive

More information

The Digestive System. - teeth, tongue, gall bladder, and glands (salivary glands, liver, pancreas).

The Digestive System. - teeth, tongue, gall bladder, and glands (salivary glands, liver, pancreas). The Digestive System I. Overview A. Organs of the digestive system. 1. Alimentary canal (GI Tract): - continuous muscular tube, open at both ends. - digests food, absorbs digested fragments. 2. Accessory

More information

Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Chapter Outline

Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Chapter Outline Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Chapter Outline I. Anatomy of the Digestive Tract A. The Digestive Organs 1. Mouth to the Esophagus 2. Esophagus to the Stomach 3. The Small Intestine 4. The Large Intestine

More information

1. gustatory cells: Surface cells in the throat and on the taste buds in the mouth that transmit

1. gustatory cells: Surface cells in the throat and on the taste buds in the mouth that transmit Chapter 3 Digestion and Absorption Key Terms 1. gustatory cells: Surface cells in the throat and on the taste buds in the mouth that transmit taste information. 2. absorption: The movement of substances

More information

The digestive system is made up of a tubular system and its accessory organs and is referred to as the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract (GI)

The digestive system is made up of a tubular system and its accessory organs and is referred to as the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract (GI) Digestive System The digestive system is made up of a tubular system and its accessory organs and is referred to as the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract (GI) I. A tube traveling through the body

More information

The Digestive System. The organ system that processes food, extracts nutrients from it, and eliminates the residue.

The Digestive System. The organ system that processes food, extracts nutrients from it, and eliminates the residue. The Digestive System The organ system that processes food, extracts nutrients from it, and eliminates the residue. Digestive System The digestive system allows your body to obtain substances required to

More information

Learning Objectives. Introduction to Medical Careers. Vocabulary: Chapter 16 FACTS. Functions. Organs. Digestive System Chapter 16

Learning Objectives. Introduction to Medical Careers. Vocabulary: Chapter 16 FACTS. Functions. Organs. Digestive System Chapter 16 Learning Objectives Introduction to Medical Careers Digestive System Chapter 16 Define at least 10 terms relating to the digestive Describe the four functions of the digestive Identify different structures

More information

Digestive system. Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College

Digestive system. Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College Digestive system Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College Functions Motility ingestion mastication deglutition peristalsis Secretion exocrine endocrine Digestion Absorption Tunics Innervation

More information

Topic 3.0 Healthy human function depends on a variety of interacting and reacting systems

Topic 3.0 Healthy human function depends on a variety of interacting and reacting systems Topic 3.0 Healthy human function depends on a variety of interacting and reacting systems Organ Systems Organ systems must have the ability to to changes within and outside of your body to maintain life

More information

Integumentary System Digestive System. Outline. Integumentary System 11/4/2008. Week 11 BA & BP November 4, 2008 Nadia Arora, ND

Integumentary System Digestive System. Outline. Integumentary System 11/4/2008. Week 11 BA & BP November 4, 2008 Nadia Arora, ND Integumentary System Digestive System Week 11 BA & BP November 4, 2008 Nadia Arora, ND Outline Integumentary system and body membranes Types of body membranes and their function General structure and main

More information

The Digestive System

The Digestive System The Digestive System What do you know?? quiz-digestive-health Digestion Videos The Digestive System Inside-Dr-Ozs-Digestive-System-Video Now it is your turn to recreate the digestive system. How is food

More information

Digestive System Digestive Tract

Digestive System Digestive Tract Digestive System Digestive Tract Dept. of Histology and Embryology 周 莉 教 授 Introduction of digestive system * a long tube extending from the mouth to the anus, and associated with glands. * its main function:

More information

Small & Large Intestines

Small & Large Intestines Small & Large Intestines Small Intestine: principal site for digestion of food and absorption of the products of digestion Large Intestine: reabsorption of water and elimination of undigested food and

More information

Digestion in the small and Large Intestines

Digestion in the small and Large Intestines 9.5 Digestion in the small and Large Intestines Do some foods keep you feeling full for a long time? Do you ever feel that after eating certain foods, you are hungry again in a short time? Some foods stay

More information

Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition

Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition THE CONTENTS OF FOOD Food contains nutrients: Nutrients include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nutrients must be small enough to enter our cells. If they are too large they must be digested

More information

Physiology of Digestive system II

Physiology of Digestive system II Small Intestine Physiology of Digestive system II Motility of small intestine: Distention of the Small Intestine Elicits Mixing Contractions Called Segmentation Contractions. These are concentric contractions

More information

Note Taking Guide. Topic # 3024 Comparative Digestive Systems

Note Taking Guide. Topic # 3024 Comparative Digestive Systems Note Taking Guide Topic # 3024 Comparative Digestive Systems Digestive Systems Overview 1. Digestion Digestion: Food enters the mouth and goes through mechanical and chemical changes as it passes through

More information

8. Be able to label a diagram of an earthworm. Know the function of each of the major parts of the earthworm.

8. Be able to label a diagram of an earthworm. Know the function of each of the major parts of the earthworm. Review for Unit Test: The Digestive System 1. Know the meaning of these terms: heterotrophs digestion peristalsis microvilli autotrophs chemical digestion chyme lacteal intracellular digestion mechanical

More information

The 6 th International Junior Science Olympiad Training Programme

The 6 th International Junior Science Olympiad Training Programme The 6 th International Junior Science Olympiad Training Programme KEEPING HEALTHY SECTION 2: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Notes to Teachers Learning Objectives: Processes of nutrition in human (0.25 hr) General plan

More information

Human Digestive System Anatomy

Human Digestive System Anatomy Human Digestive System Anatomy Biology 104 Objectives: 1. Learn the anatomy of the digestive system. You should be able to find all terms in bold on the human torso models. 2. Relate structure of the system

More information

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients Page1 Digestion Food travels from mouth esophagus stomach small intestine colon rectum anus. Food mixes with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract Large molecules of food are broken into

More information

1. Which substances in the small intestine of humans serve to increase the surface area for absorption?

1. Which substances in the small intestine of humans serve to increase the surface area for absorption? Digestion Review 1. Which substances in the small intestine of humans serve to increase the surface area for absorption? (a.) intestinal glands (b.) villi (c.) pseudopodia (d.) cilia (e.) flagella 2. The

More information

The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive Systems The Respiratory System Major functions include: Obtaining oxygen Removing carbon dioxide Maintenance of ph balance Respiration may be accomplished

More information

Chapter 22: Digestive System

Chapter 22: Digestive System Chapter 22: Digestive System Converts food into raw materials necessary for cell maintenance and growth Digestive System: Main Divisions of Digestive System: 1) Alimentary Canal (gastrointestinal tract)

More information

h. Large intestine 3

h. Large intestine 3 (1) General features (a) Large intestine is last organ of digestive tract proper divided into 3 or 4 regions cecum appendix in humans colon rectum 1 b) No villi lumenal epithelium has microvilli This brush

More information

23.4 Digestive System

23.4 Digestive System 23.4 Digestive System The Pancreas & Pancreatic Regulation Regulation of Bile Secretions The Small Intestine The Large Intestine Pancreas Location Mostly retroperitoneal Deep to greater curvature of stomach

More information

PCB 4023 Cell Biology. Lab 8: Organology II Digestive tract and accessory organs

PCB 4023 Cell Biology. Lab 8: Organology II Digestive tract and accessory organs PCB 4023 Cell Biology Lab 8: Organology II Digestive tract and accessory organs Name: Name: SSN: SSN: N.B. Since this document is in pdf format, the URLs (web addresses) cannot be linked. To use them,

More information

AP Biology. What do animals need to live? Animal Nutrition. Nutritional requirements. How do animals get their food? Different diets; different lives

AP Biology. What do animals need to live? Animal Nutrition. Nutritional requirements. How do animals get their food? Different diets; different lives Animal Nutrition What do animals need to live? Animals make energy using: food food oxygen Animals build bodies using: food for raw materials amino acids, sugars, fats, nucleotides O 2 ATP energy for synthesis

More information

Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014

Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014 Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014 This lecture tells the story of the Flow of Matter from Food to Cells. The pictures are only there to help you visualize structures don t worry about names of structures

More information