Digestive system. Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Digestive system. Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College"

Transcription

1 Digestive system Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College

2 Functions Motility ingestion mastication deglutition peristalsis Secretion exocrine endocrine Digestion Absorption

3 Tunics

4

5 Innervation Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic (vagus nerve) motility secretion Sympathetic decreases peristalsis secretion contraction of sphincters

6 Esophagus Collapsible tube first 1/3 Skeletal muscle last 2/3 Smooth muscle gastroesophageal sphincter

7 Stomach Function food storage initiates protein digestion kills bacteria moves food to SI intrinsic factor Digestion and absorption proteins alcohol/aspirin

8 Gastric Glands Goblet cells mucus Parietal cells HCl Chief cells pepsinogen Argentaffin cells Seratonin (correct) G cells gastrin

9 ph 3 functions of ph in stomach denature ingested protein convert pepsinogen to pepsin destroy bacteria

10 Protective mechanisms Impermeability of gastric mucosa to CO 2 and NH 3 alkaline mucus tight junctions rapid cell division and replacement protective effects of prostaglandins In doudenum bicarbonate from pancreatic juice Brunner s glands Secrete mucinous alkaline solution

11 Peptic ulcers Gastric ulcers Weakened defense mechanisms Duodenal ulcers Increased acid and pepsin production Helicobacter pylori Major factor in both types Present in 100% of gastric ulcer patients and 95% of duodenal ulcer patients Exceptions: Those whose ulcers are the result of overuse of NSAIDS = inhibits prostaglandin production Produces NH 3 and urease damages epithelium and allows H+ to permeate Also linked to increased acid secretion

12 Small intestines Length 3 divisions duodenum jejunum ileum absorption doudenum + jejunum ileum system of folds microvilli, villi, plicae circularis

13 Villi Columnar epithelium goblet cells crypts of Lieberkuhn Glands that secrete intestinal juice at base of the villi brush border surface area enzymes enterokinase microvilli arteriole villus capillaries nerve lacteal Lymph duct vein Muscularis mucosa artery

14 Intestinal motility Major types of contractions peristalsis segmentation Pacesetter potential smooth muscle cells can lead to a/p parasympathetic and sympathetic influences Relaxation NO

15 Large Intestine Structure Haustra Fluid and electrolyte absorption 90% in SI passive osmosis water secretion Defecation

16 Liver

17 Liver lobules: functional unit

18

19

20

21 Functions of liver Exocrine Endocrine Clotting functions Plasma proteins Organic metabolism Cholesterol metabolism Excretory and degradative functions

22 Exocrine & Endocrine Synthesis and secretion of bile salts ml/day Adds bicarbonate rich solution to bile Secretes IGF-1 = promotes cell division Forms T3 from T4 Secretes Angiotensinogen Metabolizes hormones Secretes immune cytokines

23 Clotting and Plasma proteins Produces prothrombin & fibrinogen Produces bile salts needed for vitamin K absorption Produces plasma albumin, acute phase proteins, binding proteins, and lipoproteins

24 Organic metabolism Converts plasma glucose to glycogen and triglycerides Converts amino acids to fatty acids Produces triglycerides and secretes them as lipoproteins Gluconeogeneisis and glycogenolysis Converts fatty acids into ketones Produces urea

25 Cholesterol metabolism/excretory & degradative functions Synthesizes cholesterol Secretes plasma cholesterol into bile Converts plasma cholesterol into bile salts Secretes bile pigments Excretes toxins via bile Destroys old erythrocytes and lots, lots more!

26 Gallbladder & pancreas Hepatic ducts Common bile duct gallbladder Pancreas Duodenal papillae Pancreatic duct Doudenum

27 Pancreas Endocrine = islets of Langerhans insulin and glucagon, etc. Exocrine = pancreatic acini pancreatic juice composition water bicarb digestive enzymes role of enterokinase

28 Neural and endocrine regulation Long reflex preconditioning Short reflex more local GI hormones Extrinsic controls 3 phases (cephalic, gastric, intestinal) some events without neural or endocrine control

29 GI hormones Gastrin Secretin CCK glucose-dependent insolinotropic peptide (GIP) Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) Guanylin

30 Gastrin endocrine cell location antrumof stomach stimulus for release amino acids, peptides in stomach parasympathetic nervous system actions stimulates secretion of HCl and pepsinogen

31 Secretin Endocrine cell location small intestine stimulus for release acid in small intestine action stimulate pancreatic bicarbonate secretion potentiate CCK-stimulated pancreatic enzyme secretion

32 Cholecystokinin (CCK) Endocrine cell location small intestine Stimulus for release amino acids, fatty acids in small intestine Action contraction and emptying of the gall bladder stimulates release of pancreatic enzymes (in the brain: acts as satiety hormone)

33 Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) Endocrine cell location small intestine Stimulus for release glucose, fat in the small intestine Action inhibits gastric emptying potentiates insulin release

34 Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) Endocrine cell location ileum and colon Stimulus for release oral ingestion of nutrients glucose, fats, amino acids (mixed meals) Action inhibits gastric motility stimulates insulin secretion

35 Guanylin Endocrine gland location ileum and colon Action stimulates intestinal Cl - release result: increased NaCl and water in feces

36 Cephalic phase First 30 minutes Smell, sight, and taste of food stimulates vagus nuclei of brain (long reflex) vagus nerve stimulates: parietal and chief cells Gastrin secretion by G cells Also stimulates parietal and chief cells

37 Gastric phase Begins when food arrives in stomach Stimulus distension chemical composition of chyme short polypeptides and amino acids in stomach Positive feedback, cells secrete gastrin HCl and pepsinogen are released Glucose No effect Lipids Inhibition of gastrin secretion ph<2.5 negative feedback inhibition of gastrin

38 Intestinal phase Begins when chyme enters small intestines neural inhibition of gastric emptying and acid secretion due to: increased osmolality stretching enterogastrone stimulus: fat in chyme inhibits gastric acid secretion GIP = insulin secretion if glucose is present CCK = inhibits gastric emptying when chyme in duodenum

39 Intestinal reflexes Gastroileal reflex increased gastric activity = increased motility of ileum = increased chyme through sphincter ileogastric reflex ileal distension = decreased gastric motility intestino-intestinal reflex one segment overdistends = rest relax

40 Regulation pancreatic juice & bile Neural & hormonal Pancreatic juice secretin ph <4.5 in duodenum stimulates bicarbonate production by pancreas camp as a second messenger CCK fat content in chyme production of pancreatic enzymes Ca ++ as second messenger Secretion of bile continuous secretion gallbladder contraction under influence of CCK and secretin

41 Mouth Digestion and absorption of salivary amylase Stomach carbohydrates enzymes denatured Small intestines pancreatic amylase = maltose, maltriose brush border enzymes = monosaccharides secondary active transport with Na + Into capillaries in villus

42 Mouth: Salivary amylase Digestion of Carbohydrates Stomach: Enzymes denatured Duodenum: Pancreatic amylase Brush border enzymes

43 Absorption of carbohydrates

44 Digestion and absorption of proteins Mouth nothing Stomach Pepsin = short chain polypeptides Small Intestines trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase carboxypeptidase aminopeptidase = from brushborder across into blood Whole proteins babies botulinum toxin Free amino acids Dipeptides tripeptides

45 Digestion of proteins Stomach: Pepsin and HCl Small intestines: Trypsin, chymotrypsin Carboxypeptidase Brush border: aminopeptidases

46 Protein absorption aa Na + -Amino acids move into enterocytes by countertransport, in exchange for two Na +. -They are absorbed into a capillary bed on the basal side of the cell and taken to the liver via the hepatic portal system.

47 Digestion and absorption of lipids Emulsification pancreatic lipase Mixed micelles to brushborder transport across into epithelial cells can be moved inside cell chylomicron into lacteal

48 Digestion of Fat Small intestines: Pancreatic lipase

49 lacteal

50 Lipid transport From lymphatics to thoracic duct Triglycerides removed by lipoprotein lipase on endothelial membranes Free fatty acids and glycerol into tissues Leftovers to liver Remnant particles contain cholesterol Combined with apoproteins to produce VLDL s Deliver triglycerides to other organs Later converted to LDL s when triglyceride has been removed

51 Lipoproteins What are they? Lipid & protein complexes Transport cholesterol & triglycerides in blood Protein allows hydrophobic lipids to remain in suspension Five classes: Based on density, molecular weight, size, chemical composition Chylomicrons VLDL IDL LDL High levels associated with increased risk CVD HDL Low levels associated with increased risk of CVD Best profile = high HDL, low LDL

52 Treatment for morbid obesity

53 Lapband

54 Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

Functions of the GI Tract. Chapter 18. Functions of the GI Tract (continued)

Functions of the GI Tract. Chapter 18. Functions of the GI Tract (continued) Functions of the GI Tract Chapter 18 The Digestive System Motility: Movement of of food through the GI tract. Ingestion: Taking food into the mouth. Mastication: Chewing the food and mixing it with saliva.

More information

Digestion, Absorption. How & where?

Digestion, Absorption. How & where? Digestion, Absorption How & where? What happens to food? Three processes Digestion Absorption Elimination Where do they occur? GI tract Overview of Digestion GI tract Gastrointestinal (GI) tract: series

More information

GI TRACT ORGANS ACCESSORY ORGANS

GI TRACT ORGANS ACCESSORY ORGANS Digestive System GI TRACT ORGANS Oral cavity Oropharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large Intestine Anus ACCESSORY ORGANS Salivary glands Pancreas Liver Gall bladder GI TRACT LAYERS Mucosa Submucosa

More information

SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE SECRETIONS

SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE SECRETIONS SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE SECRETIONS Objectives At the end of lecture student should be able to know, Digestive system Digestive system secretions Small intestine Component of small intestine Intestinal

More information

The Vertebrate (mostly human) Digestive System

The Vertebrate (mostly human) Digestive System The Vertebrate (mostly human) Digestive System Mouth - mastication, lubrication, digestion Pharynx and Esophagus - swallowing Stomach - some digestion Small intestine - most digestion and absorption Large

More information

Digestive System Functions

Digestive System Functions Digestive System Functions A. Gastrointestinal Processes 1. Ingestion: placing food in mouth (voluntary) 2. Propulsion: moving food through GI tract a. Peristalsis: alternating waves of contraction and

More information

Digestion, Absorption. How & where?

Digestion, Absorption. How & where? Digestion, Absorption How & where? What happens to food? Three processes Digestion Absorption Elimination Where do they occur? GI tract Overview of Digestion GI tract Gastrointestinal (GI) tract: series

More information

Chapter 17 Digestive System. Alimentary Canal. Movements of the Tube

Chapter 17 Digestive System. Alimentary Canal. Movements of the Tube Chapter 17 Digestive System Functions of Digestive System ingestion mechanical digestion chemical digestion propulsion absorption defecation Consists of the alimentary canal and accessory organs 1 Alimentary

More information

Chapter 15 Digestive System.

Chapter 15 Digestive System. Chapter 15 Digestive System. I. The Gastrointestinal Tract. a. The digestive system mechanically and chemically breaks down food into molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream or lymph. Residues

More information

Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi

Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Lec.13 Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Functions of the Digestive System The major functions of the digestive tract include the following six processes, summarized in Figure 1: 1. Ingestion Food must

More information

10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411

10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411 10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411 The human digestive system is made up of a group of organs working together. The digestive tract is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and

More information

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Secretion Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Secretion Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Secretion Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1: Title Page Digestive system secretion involves

More information

The Digestive System

The Digestive System The Digestive System Digestive Structures Mouth including teeth and tongue Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Accessory structures - salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, & pancreas Digestive

More information

Chapter 24: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Chapter 24: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Chapter 24: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM I. OVERVIEW A. Gross anatomy (Fig. 24.1) and functions (Table 24.1) B. "You are what you eat." 1. The problem: Ingestion (eating) is not the same as absorption. 2. The solution:

More information

Outline Digestive System

Outline Digestive System Outline Digestive System The Digestive System Digestive System Lecture Packet 19 Chapter 15 I. Function II. Layers of the GI tract III. Major parts: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,

More information

5. Secretion: release of water, acids. Enzymes, buffers by digestive tract.

5. Secretion: release of water, acids. Enzymes, buffers by digestive tract. Digestive System CH-16 Lecture topics Functions of the digestive system: p. 488. 1. Ingestion: Taking food in 2. Propulsion: movement of food thru alimentary canal p.490. voluntary: swalloing : skeletal

More information

Special organ structures and functions conduct these tasks through the successive parts of the overall system.

Special organ structures and functions conduct these tasks through the successive parts of the overall system. Chapter 5 Digestion, Absorption, and Metabolism Chapter 5 Lesson 5.1 Key Concepts Through a balanced system of mechanical and chemical digestion, food is broken down into smaller substances and the nutrients

More information

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look

Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look OpenStax-CNX module: m49457 1 Digestive System Module 7: Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look Donna Browne Based on Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look by OpenStax This work is

More information

The Digestive System. You are what you eat!

The Digestive System. You are what you eat! The Digestive System You are what you eat! Try to label the diagram (PENCIL!!) What is Digestion? Digestion: the breakdown of large macromolecules (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) into smaller molecules

More information

Digestion. What we ll cover. Main stages of digestion. Digestion: A Closer Look. A Tour of the Human Digestive System. Mechanical digestion

Digestion. What we ll cover. Main stages of digestion. Digestion: A Closer Look. A Tour of the Human Digestive System. Mechanical digestion Digestion What we ll cover What are the digestive system structures and their functions? Where does carbohydrate, protein and fat digestion and absorption occur? What are the 3 accessory organs of digestion?

More information

The Digestive System. Chapter 16. Introduction. Histological Organization. Overview of Digestive System. Movement and Mixing of Digestive Materials

The Digestive System. Chapter 16. Introduction. Histological Organization. Overview of Digestive System. Movement and Mixing of Digestive Materials The Digestive System Chapter 16 Introduction Structure of the digestive system A tube that extends from mouth to anus Accessory organs are attached Functions include Ingestion Movement Digestion Absorption

More information

26. Digestive System

26. Digestive System 26. Digestive System Your body needs food for two primary purposes: growth and maintenance. Molecules and atoms in the food you eat are generally used to either build new molecules in your body or to provide

More information

The Human Digestive System

The Human Digestive System The Human Digestive System Name: Section: Date: Page 1 of 10 Page 2 of 10 Page 3 of 10 Page 4 of 10 Page 5 of 10 Page 6 of 10 Putting it All Together Digestive Enzymes Page 7 of 10 Page 8 of 10 Page 9

More information

Physiology of Digestive system II

Physiology of Digestive system II Small Intestine Physiology of Digestive system II Motility of small intestine: Distention of the Small Intestine Elicits Mixing Contractions Called Segmentation Contractions. These are concentric contractions

More information

The Digestive System. Chapter 14. The Digestive System and Body Metabolism. Metabolism. Organs of the Digestive System. Digestion.

The Digestive System. Chapter 14. The Digestive System and Body Metabolism. Metabolism. Organs of the Digestive System. Digestion. Chapter 14 The Digestive System The Digestive System and Body Metabolism Digestion of ingested food of nutrients into the blood Metabolism Production of Constructive and degradative cellular activities

More information

Divisions of Digestive System. Organs of the Alimentary Canal. Anatomy of the Digestive System: Organs of the Alimentary Canal. CHAPTER 14 p.

Divisions of Digestive System. Organs of the Alimentary Canal. Anatomy of the Digestive System: Organs of the Alimentary Canal. CHAPTER 14 p. Divisions of Digestive System Anatomy of the Digestive System: Organs of the Alimentary Canal CHAPTER 14 p. 412-423 1. Alimentary Canal or Gastrointestinal Tract (GI)-digests and absorbs food coiled hollow

More information

Digestive system. Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Anatomy 35 Mt San Antonio College

Digestive system. Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Anatomy 35 Mt San Antonio College Digestive system Dr. Carmen E. Rexach Anatomy 35 Mt San Antonio College Oral cavity Alimentary Canal Accessory organs teeth salivary glands liver gall bladder pancreas appendix Components Functions Motility

More information

Mechanical digestion: physical breaking of food chewing by teeth churning by stomach segmentation by intestines (= mixing food) p.611/ Fig. 22.

Mechanical digestion: physical breaking of food chewing by teeth churning by stomach segmentation by intestines (= mixing food) p.611/ Fig. 22. The Digestive System 1. Describe the general functions of the digestive system Ingestion: Taking food in Propulsion: movement of food thru alimentary canal voluntary: swalloing involuntary: peristalsis

More information

Digestive system Review

Digestive system Review Digestive system Review 1. Distinguish between chemical digestion and mechanical digestion. The physical breakdown of food begins in the mouth with two types of processes. The mouth is a complex structure

More information

Biology 2402 Anatomy &Physiology II - Digestive system notes - Ch. 15

Biology 2402 Anatomy &Physiology II - Digestive system notes - Ch. 15 Biology 2402 Anatomy &Physiology II - Digestive system notes - Ch. 15 Digestive system processes the food used as fuel and nutrients for the body. Composed of a tube through the body (digestive tract,

More information

II. General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal

II. General Characteristics of the Alimentary Canal Human Anatomy & Physiology 17 Be sure to watch the Video: The Digestive System. Digestive System URLs http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/ BioBookDIGEST.html http://yahooligans.yahoo.com/reference/gray/244.html

More information

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Five Basic Processes The Gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal)

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Five Basic Processes The Gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal) DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Five Basic Processes 1. Ingestion - eating 2. Movement of the food along the G.I. tract. 3. Digestion- chemical and mechanical breakdown of food. 4. Absorption of the breakdown products

More information

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued

Chapter 48. Nutrients in Food. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids. Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids, continued Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids The three nutrients needed by the body in the greatest amounts are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients in Food All of these nutrients are called organic compounds,

More information

The Digestive System

The Digestive System The Digestive System Objectives Name and locate the digestive organs and the accessory organs of digestion. List the general function of the digestive system and the function of each organ. Define mechanical

More information

The Excretory and Digestive Systems

The Excretory and Digestive Systems The Excretory and Digestive Systems 38.2 The Process of Digestion Organs of the Digestive System The digestive system includes the: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small and large intestine. Other structures

More information

Functions of the digestive system

Functions of the digestive system Digestive system Functions of the digestive system Digestion-mechanical and chemical breakdown of material Motility-movement of material from the oral cavity to the anus-swallowing / peristalsis Secretion-exocrine

More information

Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly)

Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly) Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly) 6 basic nutrients - 4 food groups (milk, meat, fruit and vegetable,

More information

SEER Training Modules

SEER Training Modules http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/digestive/ WiRED International wishes to thank the National Cancer Institute for use of this information. SEER Training Modules Introduction to the Digestive System

More information

Digestive System Notes

Digestive System Notes Digestive System Notes Structure Function Relation Mouth cavity Mechanical digestion by teeth; chemical digestion of starch by saliva. Salivary glands Three pairs of glands which secrete saliva containing

More information

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients

1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Jenny Kim Professor Rosario Nutrition: Macronutrients Project June 26, 2014 1. Essay: The Digestive and Absorption Processes of Macronutrients Whenever we eat, the foods we ingest in our bodies undergo

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley

Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley Human Anatomy & Physiology II with Dr. Hubley Practice Exam III Name: Instructions This exam consists of 50 questions. You may write on the exam itself, but be sure to answer all your questions on a Scantron

More information

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients Page1 Digestion Food travels from mouth esophagus stomach small intestine colon rectum anus. Food mixes with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract Large molecules of food are broken into

More information

1. gustatory cells: Surface cells in the throat and on the taste buds in the mouth that transmit

1. gustatory cells: Surface cells in the throat and on the taste buds in the mouth that transmit Chapter 3 Digestion and Absorption Key Terms 1. gustatory cells: Surface cells in the throat and on the taste buds in the mouth that transmit taste information. 2. absorption: The movement of substances

More information

Weds 5/20/15. Membranes - finish last lecture outline. Digestive System Nutrition Types of digestion & digestive systems Vertebrate digestive system

Weds 5/20/15. Membranes - finish last lecture outline. Digestive System Nutrition Types of digestion & digestive systems Vertebrate digestive system Membranes - finish last lecture outline Weds 5/20/15 Digestive System Nutrition Types of digestion & digestive systems Vertebrate digestive system structures and functions // accessory organs mechanism

More information

Digestive system Is a disassemble line to break nutrients down into forms that can be used by the body

Digestive system Is a disassemble line to break nutrients down into forms that can be used by the body Digestive system Is a disassemble line to break nutrients down into forms that can be used by the body for cells to perform metabolic reactions the cells need oxygen and organic molecules that can be broken

More information

The Digestive System. Chapter 15

The Digestive System. Chapter 15 The Digestive System Chapter 15 Introduction Digestion refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food so the nutrients can be absorbed by cells Carried out by the digestive system Consists of

More information

Digestive System AKA. GI System. Overview. GI Process Process Includes. G-I Tract Alimentary Canal

Digestive System AKA. GI System. Overview. GI Process Process Includes. G-I Tract Alimentary Canal Digestive System AKA G-I Tract Alimentary Canal Overview GI System Consists of Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus About 30 in length Accessory Organs Teeth, tongue,

More information

Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Chapter Outline

Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Chapter Outline Chapter 2 Digestion and Absorption Chapter Outline I. Anatomy of the Digestive Tract A. The Digestive Organs 1. Mouth to the Esophagus 2. Esophagus to the Stomach 3. The Small Intestine 4. The Large Intestine

More information

Continuing Education Independent Study Series

Continuing Education Independent Study Series Continuing Education Independent Study Series Professional Development Manager Association of Surgical Technologists Englewood, Colorado Association of Surgical Technologists Publication made possible

More information

Each gland has at least one duct that takes saliva to the oral cavity.

Each gland has at least one duct that takes saliva to the oral cavity. kufa university Physiology College of Nursing first year student Ass. Lect :- Hisham Qassem M. Lecture No :-3 The Digestive System Digestive system consists of: 1. Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT). 2. Accessory

More information

Digestion in the small and Large Intestines

Digestion in the small and Large Intestines 9.5 Digestion in the small and Large Intestines Do some foods keep you feeling full for a long time? Do you ever feel that after eating certain foods, you are hungry again in a short time? Some foods stay

More information

BIO 202 Digestive System Part I Overview and Mouth to Stomach

BIO 202 Digestive System Part I Overview and Mouth to Stomach 1 BIO 202 Digestive System Part I Overview and Mouth to Stomach Function of the Digestive System Ingestion Taking food and water into the mouth Break down the food Mechanical digestion: chewing, mixing,

More information

The Digestive System. The organ system that processes food, extracts nutrients from it, and eliminates the residue.

The Digestive System. The organ system that processes food, extracts nutrients from it, and eliminates the residue. The Digestive System The organ system that processes food, extracts nutrients from it, and eliminates the residue. Digestive System The digestive system allows your body to obtain substances required to

More information

Small & Large Intestines

Small & Large Intestines Small & Large Intestines Small Intestine: principal site for digestion of food and absorption of the products of digestion Large Intestine: reabsorption of water and elimination of undigested food and

More information

Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition

Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition Digestive System: Digestion refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods so that nutrients can be absorbed by cells. Consists of the canal which is all of

More information

Digestive System. Digestive System. Digestive tract. Accessory organs. Digestive System Overview

Digestive System. Digestive System. Digestive tract. Accessory organs. Digestive System Overview Digestive System Digestive System The process of chemically and physically breaking down foods into simpler forms that can be absorbed is called digestion. The digestive system can be divided into two

More information

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement Digestive System The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus and other organs that help the body break down

More information

2) Digestion the breakdown of. There are two types of digestion: Mechanical and Chemical. 3) Absorption when the nutrients enter into the blood.

2) Digestion the breakdown of. There are two types of digestion: Mechanical and Chemical. 3) Absorption when the nutrients enter into the blood. The Digestive System Video on the digestive system (5 min) The digestive system is responsible for the breakdown of the we eat so that it can be absorbed into the. There are four main stages of the digestive

More information

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM What is digestion? Digestion is the process of breaking down food so that it's small enough to be absorbed and used by the body for energy or in other bodily functions. Digestion involves

More information

PCB 4023 Cell Biology. Lab 8: Organology II Digestive tract and accessory organs

PCB 4023 Cell Biology. Lab 8: Organology II Digestive tract and accessory organs PCB 4023 Cell Biology Lab 8: Organology II Digestive tract and accessory organs Name: Name: SSN: SSN: N.B. Since this document is in pdf format, the URLs (web addresses) cannot be linked. To use them,

More information

CHAPTER 23 DIGESTIVE

CHAPTER 23 DIGESTIVE CHAPTER 23 DIGESTIVE nutrition requires : getting nutrients digesting nutrients transporting nutrients Digestive System musculo-skeletal digestive circulatory Digestive System alimentary canal ~ gastrointestinal

More information

AP Biology. What do animals need to live? Animal Nutrition. Nutritional requirements. How do animals get their food? Different diets; different lives

AP Biology. What do animals need to live? Animal Nutrition. Nutritional requirements. How do animals get their food? Different diets; different lives Animal Nutrition What do animals need to live? Animals make energy using: food food oxygen Animals build bodies using: food for raw materials amino acids, sugars, fats, nucleotides O 2 ATP energy for synthesis

More information

23.4 Digestive System

23.4 Digestive System 23.4 Digestive System The Pancreas & Pancreatic Regulation Regulation of Bile Secretions The Small Intestine The Large Intestine Pancreas Location Mostly retroperitoneal Deep to greater curvature of stomach

More information

8. Be able to label a diagram of an earthworm. Know the function of each of the major parts of the earthworm.

8. Be able to label a diagram of an earthworm. Know the function of each of the major parts of the earthworm. Review for Unit Test: The Digestive System 1. Know the meaning of these terms: heterotrophs digestion peristalsis microvilli autotrophs chemical digestion chyme lacteal intracellular digestion mechanical

More information

The Digestive System

The Digestive System 16 The Digestive System FOCUS: The function of the digestive system is to take in food, break it down into smaller compounds, and absorb those compounds so that the body can use them. This process provides

More information

Digestive System Digestive Tract

Digestive System Digestive Tract Digestive System Digestive Tract Dept. of Histology and Embryology 周 莉 教 授 Introduction of digestive system * a long tube extending from the mouth to the anus, and associated with glands. * its main function:

More information

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition

Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter Objectives INTRODUCTION 1. Generalize the way in which nutrients are processed through the three major metabolic fates in order to perform various energetic

More information

The Digestive System. - teeth, tongue, gall bladder, and glands (salivary glands, liver, pancreas).

The Digestive System. - teeth, tongue, gall bladder, and glands (salivary glands, liver, pancreas). The Digestive System I. Overview A. Organs of the digestive system. 1. Alimentary canal (GI Tract): - continuous muscular tube, open at both ends. - digests food, absorbs digested fragments. 2. Accessory

More information

The Gastrointestinal System It consists of: The digestive tract Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine

The Gastrointestinal System It consists of: The digestive tract Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine The Gastrointestinal System It consists of: The digestive tract Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine The digestive organs Teeth Tongue Salivary glands Liver Gall bladder Pancreas

More information

22 Digestive System. Taft College Human Physiology

22 Digestive System. Taft College Human Physiology 22 Digestive System Taft College Human Physiology Functions of the Digestive System (4 Basic Functions of Digestion) 1. Ingestion - food intake. 2. Digestion - process of reducing foods to their constituent

More information

Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition

Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition THE CONTENTS OF FOOD Food contains nutrients: Nutrients include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nutrients must be small enough to enter our cells. If they are too large they must be digested

More information

OVERVIEW OF LIPID METABOLISM

OVERVIEW OF LIPID METABOLISM VERVIEW F LIPID METABLISM Date: September 20, 2005 * Time: 8:00 am 8:50 am * Room: G202 Biomolecular Building Lecturer: Steve Chaney 515A Mary Ellen Jones Building stephen_chaney@med.unc.edu 9663286 *Please

More information

Mammalian Physiology. Gastrointestinal System: Digestion and Absorption

Mammalian Physiology. Gastrointestinal System: Digestion and Absorption Mammalian Physiology Gastrointestinal System: Digestion and Absorption 1UNLV UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA LAS VEGAS PHYSIOLOGY, Chapter 33 Berne, Levy, Koeppen, Stanton Objectives Describe the digestive secretions

More information

Chapter 25. The Stomach Microscopic Anatomy and Gastric Function

Chapter 25. The Stomach Microscopic Anatomy and Gastric Function Chapter 25 The Stomach Microscopic Anatomy and Gastric Function Gross Anatomy of Stomach Diaphragm Lesser omentum Lesser curvature Pyloric region: Antrum Pyloric canal Pylorus Pyloric sphincter Fundic

More information

ii. Palatine tonsils - located between glossopalatine arch and pharyngopalatine arch iii. Function: guide food and air to laryngopharynx III.

ii. Palatine tonsils - located between glossopalatine arch and pharyngopalatine arch iii. Function: guide food and air to laryngopharynx III. Digestive System I. Introduction I. Tube from mouth to anus, 30 ft. long II. Greatest portion below diaphragm III. Function: digestion and absorption II. Cross section through the coelom (body cavity)

More information

Chapter 22: Digestive System

Chapter 22: Digestive System Chapter 22: Digestive System Converts food into raw materials necessary for cell maintenance and growth Digestive System: Main Divisions of Digestive System: 1) Alimentary Canal (gastrointestinal tract)

More information

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Eating, pooping, and peeing THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Ingested food is not technically in the body until it is absorbed so it needs to be: Mechanically and chemically reduced Transported by the blood to the cells Large portions are not

More information

I. The basic function of the digestive system is

I. The basic function of the digestive system is Chapter 15, Digestive System - ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM I. The basic function of the digestive system is. This process is called. II. List 2 other names for the digestive tract: A. B. III. The digestive

More information

Learning Objectives. Introduction to Medical Careers. Vocabulary: Chapter 16 FACTS. Functions. Organs. Digestive System Chapter 16

Learning Objectives. Introduction to Medical Careers. Vocabulary: Chapter 16 FACTS. Functions. Organs. Digestive System Chapter 16 Learning Objectives Introduction to Medical Careers Digestive System Chapter 16 Define at least 10 terms relating to the digestive Describe the four functions of the digestive Identify different structures

More information

Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract) continuous coiled hollow tube

Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract) continuous coiled hollow tube The Digestive System and Body Metabolism Gross Anatomy Function The Digestive System Functions Ingestion taking in food Digestion breaking food down both physically and chemically Absorption movement of

More information

THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM.

THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM. THE GI TRACT IS A CONTINUOUS MULTILAYERED TUBE EXTENDING FROM THE MOUTH TO THE ANUS THAT IS SUPPORTED AND PARTIALLY COVERED BY THE PERITONEUM. OVERVIEW OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Two groups of organs compose

More information

Digestive System. Gross Anatomy and Physiology

Digestive System. Gross Anatomy and Physiology Digestive System Gross Anatomy and Physiology I. Introduction A. Base Function: Working with the circulatory system the digestive system provides the body with fuel. B. Main players: 1. Digestive tract:

More information

Plants and other photosynthetic organisms can produce

Plants and other photosynthetic organisms can produce 51 Fueling Body Activities: Digestion Concept Outline 51.1 Animals employ a digestive system to prepare food for assimilation by cells. Types of Digestive Systems. Some invertebrates have a gastrovascular

More information

The digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal

The digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal exercise 8 Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion Objectives 1. To define digestive tract, accessory glands, digestion, hydrolases, salivary amylase, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, bile salts,

More information

17. The Digestion and Absorption of Food. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Processes

17. The Digestion and Absorption of Food. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Processes chapter C H A P T E R 17 _ The Digestion and Overview: of the Gastrointestinal Organs Structure of the Gastrointestinal Tract Wall Digestion and Absorption Carbohydrate Protein Fat Vitamins Water and Minerals

More information

Introduction. Digestive System. Physiology. Anatomy. Physiology. Alimentary Canal. Chapter 21

Introduction. Digestive System. Physiology. Anatomy. Physiology. Alimentary Canal. Chapter 21 Chapter 21 Digestive System Susan G. Salvo Introduction Digestive process is a disassembly line Digestive system provides processes in which proteins, carbohydrates, and fats are broken down and used a

More information

CHAPTER 17: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 2. Distinguish between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.

CHAPTER 17: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. 2. Distinguish between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion. CHAPTER 17: SYSTEM OBJECTIVES 1. Define the term digestion and explain its significance. 2. Distinguish between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion. 3. Discuss the five digestive processes that

More information

Session 20. The Digestive Organs. Session Outline. Introduction. Unit 6 Digestive System

Session 20. The Digestive Organs. Session Outline. Introduction. Unit 6 Digestive System Unit 6 Digestive System Session 20 The Digestive Organs Session Outline Introduction 20.1Alimentary tract 20.2 Mouth 20.3Tongue 20.4Teeth 20.5Oesophagus 20.6 Stomach 20.7Small intestine 20.8 large intestine

More information

General Structure and Function of the Digestive System

General Structure and Function of the Digestive System General Structure and Function of the Digestive System Do Now Why does food have to be digested before cells can use it? What are the typical four layers of the digestive tract wall? What is the name of

More information

Digestive System: Chapter 24. All living organisms need nutrients for anabolic and catabolic processes Anabolic

Digestive System: Chapter 24. All living organisms need nutrients for anabolic and catabolic processes Anabolic Digestive System: Chapter 24 All living organisms need nutrients for anabolic and catabolic processes Anabolic Catabolic 2 Types of Organs: 1. Alimentary Canal (GI tract) Muscular tube (smooth muscle)

More information

Name Digestive System and Body Metabolism Notes Ch 14

Name Digestive System and Body Metabolism Notes Ch 14 Name Digestive System and Body Metabolism Notes Ch 14 Digestion Breakdown of ingested food Absorption of nutrients into the blood Metabolism Production of cellular energy ( ) Constructive and degradative

More information

1. Which substances in the small intestine of humans serve to increase the surface area for absorption?

1. Which substances in the small intestine of humans serve to increase the surface area for absorption? Digestion Review 1. Which substances in the small intestine of humans serve to increase the surface area for absorption? (a.) intestinal glands (b.) villi (c.) pseudopodia (d.) cilia (e.) flagella 2. The

More information

Regulation of Metabolism. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College

Regulation of Metabolism. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College Regulation of Metabolism By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College Energy Constant need in living cells Measured in kcal carbohydrates and proteins = 4kcal/g Fats = 9kcal/g Most diets are

More information

Digestive System. Student Learning Objectives: Structures to be studied: Introduction

Digestive System. Student Learning Objectives: Structures to be studied: Introduction Digestive System Student Learning Objectives: Identify the primary structures of the digestive system. Describe the use of various important nutrient materials in the body. Structures to be studied: Oral

More information

Chapter 25. The Small Intestine (The Absorption of Nutrients)

Chapter 25. The Small Intestine (The Absorption of Nutrients) hapter 25 The Small Intestine (The Absorption of Nutrients) Small Intestine nearly all chemical digestion and nutrient absorption occurs in small intestine the longest part of the digestive tract 2.7 to

More information

Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder

Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder OpenStax-CNX module: m46496 1 Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution

More information

30.3 The Digestive System

30.3 The Digestive System 30.3 The Digestive System Lesson Objectives Describe the organs of the digestive system and explain their functions. Explain what happens during digestion. Describe how nutrients are absorbed into the

More information

Study Guide Digestive System

Study Guide Digestive System Study Guide Digestive System 1. Digestion is breakdown of complex food molecules like starch into smaller molecules like glucose that can pass through the cell membranes of intestine and get absorbed into

More information

The Digestive System 24-1

The Digestive System 24-1 The Digestive System 24-1 Overview of GI tract Functions Mouth---bite, chew, swallow Pharynx and esophagus---- transport Stomach----mechanical disruption; absorption of water & alcohol Small intestine--chemical

More information

Integumentary System Digestive System. Outline. Integumentary System 11/4/2008. Week 11 BA & BP November 4, 2008 Nadia Arora, ND

Integumentary System Digestive System. Outline. Integumentary System 11/4/2008. Week 11 BA & BP November 4, 2008 Nadia Arora, ND Integumentary System Digestive System Week 11 BA & BP November 4, 2008 Nadia Arora, ND Outline Integumentary system and body membranes Types of body membranes and their function General structure and main

More information