# Tree sums and maximal connected I-spaces

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1 Tree sums and maximal connected I-spaces Adam Bartoš Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles University in Prague Twelfth Symposium on General Topology Prague, July 2016

2 Maximal and minimal topologies Definition Let X be a set. The set of all topologies on X is a complete lattice denoted by T (X ). Let P be a property of topological spaces. We say a topology τ T (X ) is maximal P if it is a maximal element of {σ T (X ) : σ satisfies P}, i.e. τ satisfies P but no strictly finer topology satisfies P. In that case X, τ is a maximal P space. We say a topology τ T (X ) is minimal P if it satisfies P but no strictly coarser topology satisfies P. In that case X, τ is a minimal P space.

3 Maximal and minimal topologies Examples Maximal space means maximal without isolated points. A compact Hausdorff space is both maximal compact and minimal Hausdorff. We are interested in maximal connected spaces. For more examples see [Cameron, 1971]. Maximal connected topologies were first considered by Thomas in [Thomas, 1968]. Thomas proved that an open connected subspace of a maximal connected space is maximal connected, and characterized finitely generated maximal connected spaces.

4 Maximal connected spaces Definition A topological spaces is called maximal connected [Thomas, 1968] if it is connected and has no connected strict expansion; strongly connected [Cameron, 1971] if it has a maximal connected expansion; essentially connected [Guthrie Stone, 1973] if it is connected and every connected expansion has the same connected subsets. Observation Every maximal connected space is both strongly connected and essentially connected.

5 Subspaces of maximal connected spaces Lemma Let Y, σ be a subspace of a connected space X, τ. For every connected expansion σ σ there exists a connected expansion τ τ such that τ Y = σ. Sketch of the proof. We put τ := τ {S (X \ Y ) : S Y σ -open}. Corollary The following properties are preserved by connected subspaces: maximal connectedness [Guthrie Reynolds Stone, 1973], essential connectedness [Guthrie Stone, 1973], strong & essential connectedness.

6 Strongly connected and essentially connected topologies Theorem [Hildebrand, 1967] The real line is essentially connected. Theorem [Simon, 1978] and [Guthrie Stone Wage, 1978] There exists a maximal connected expansion of the real line. Corollary The spaces R, [0, 1), [0, 1] are both strongly connected and essentially connected.

7 Non-strongly connected topologies Theorem [Guthrie Stone, 1973] No Hausdorff connected space with a dispersion point has a maximal connected expansion. A dispersion point is the only cutpoint of a connected space. Every infinite Hausdorff maximal connected space has infinitely many cutpoints. Observation Strong connectedness is not preserved by connected subspaces since Knaster Kuratowski fan / Cantor s leaky tent is a subspace of R 2.

8 Submaximal, nodec, and T 1 2 spaces Definition Recall the following properties of a topological space X. X is submaximal if every its dense subset is open. X is nodec if every its nowhere dense subset is closed. X is T 1 2 if every its singleton is open or closed. We have the following implications. maximal connected T 1 maximal submaximal nodec T 1 2

9 Tree sums of topological spaces Definition Let X i : i I be an indexed family of topological spaces, an equivalence on i I X i, and X := i I X i/. We consider the canonical maps e i : X i X, the canonical quotient map q : i I X i X, the set of gluing points S X := {x X : q 1 (x) > 1}, the gluing graph G X with vertices I S X and edges of from s x i where s S X, i I, and x X i such that e i (x) = s. We say that X is a tree sum if G X is a tree, i.e. for every pair of distinct vertices there is a unique undirected path connecting them. Example A wedge sum, that is a space i I X i/ such that one point is chosen in each space X i and is gluing these points together, is an example of a tree sum.

10 Tree sums of topological spaces Proposition A topological space X is naturally homeomorphic to a tree sum of a family of its subspaces X i : i I if and only if the following conditions hold. 1 i I X i = X, 2 X is inductively generated by embeddings {e i : X i X } i I, 3 G is a tree, where G is the graph on S I satisfying S := {x X : {i I : x X i } 2}, s i is an edge if and only if s S, i I, and s X i.

11 Tree sums of topological spaces Proposition Let X be a tree sum of spaces X i : i I such that every gluing point of X is closed. A subset C X is connected if and only if every C X i is connected and G C is connected (i.e. it is a subtree of G X ), where G C is the subgraph of G X induced by I C S C, I C := {i I : C X i }, S C := S X C. In this case, C is the induced tree sum of spaces C X i : i i. Proposition Let X, τ := i I X i, τ i / be a tree sum, A P(X ). We put τ := τ A, τi := τ i {A X i : A A} for i I. If the set of gluing points S X is closed discrete in X, τ, the family A is point-finite at every point of S X, then X, τ = i I X i, τi /, i.e. such expansion of a tree sum is a tree sum of the corresponding expansions.

12 Tree sums of maximal connected spaces Theorem Let X be a tree sum of spaces X i : i I such that the set of gluing points is closed discrete. 1 If the spaces X i are maximal connected, then X is such. 2 If the spaces X i are strongly connected, then X is such. 3 If the spaces X i are essentially connected, then X is such. Examples As a corollary we have that the spaces like R κ, [0, 1] κ, S n are are strongly connected, and every topological tree graph is both strongly connected and essentially connected.

13 Finitely generated maximal connected spaces Definition A topological space X is called finitely generated or Alexandrov if every intersection of open sets is open. Equivalently, if A = x A {x} for every A X. [Thomas, 1968] characterized finitely generated maximal connected spaces and introduced diagrams for visualizing them. [Kennedy McCartan, 2001] reformulated the characterization in the language of so-called degenerate A-covers. We reformulate the characterization in the language of specialization preorder and graphs and also provide a visualization method.

14 Specialization preorder Definition The specialization preorder on a topological space X is defined by x y : {x} {y}. Facts Every open set is an upper set. Every closed set is a lower set. The converse holds if and only if X is finitely generated. The specialization preorder is an order if and only if X is T 0. Every isolated point is a maximal element, every closed point is a minimal element.

15 Finitely generated maximal connected spaces Let X be a finitely generated T 1 space. 2 The topology is uniquely determined by the specialization preorder, which is an order with at most two levels. Let us consider a graph G X on X such that there is an edge between x, y X if and only if x < y or y < x. X is connected G X is connected as a graph. X is maximal connected G X is a tree. Therefore, principal maximal connected spaces correspond to trees with fixed bipartition and also to tree sums of copies of the Sierpiński space. Examples The empty space, the one-point space, the Sierpiński space, principal ultrafilter spaces, principal ultraideal spaces.

16 I-spaces Definition Let X be a topological space. By I (X ) we denote the set of all isolated points of X. X is an I-space if X \ I (X ) is discrete. X is I-dense if I (X ) = X. X is I-flavored if I (X ) \ I (X ) is discrete. I-spaces were considered in [Arhangel skii Collins, 1995]. We are interested in maximal connected I-spaces, a class containing finitely generated maximal connected spaces. The term maximal connected I-space is unambiguous since I-spaces are closed under expansions.

17 I-spaces We have the following implications between the classes. The red part is a meet semilattice with respect to conjunction. T 1 2 finitely generated maximal connected I-space submaximal scattered 2-discrete nodec I-dense <ω-discrete T 0 atomic T 1 2 I-flavored crowded

18 Maximal connected I-spaces The green part collapses in the realm of maximal connected spaces. T 1 2 finitely generated maximal connected I-space submaximal scattered 2-discrete nodec I-dense <ω-discrete T 0 atomic T 1 2 I-flavored crowded

19 I-extensions Definition Let X be a topological space, Y a set disjoint with X, and F := F y : y Y an indexed family of filters on I (X ). Let X be the space with universe X Y and the following topology: { A X A X is open in X, is open A I (X ) F y for every y A Y. The space X is called the I-extension of X by F. Observations X becomes an open subspace of X. I-spaces are precisely I-extensions of discrete spaces in a canonical way.

20 Maximal connected I-extensions Proposition An I-extension of a maximal connected space is maximal connected if and only if it is an I-extension by a family of ultrafilters. Proposition Let X be an I-space. If A X, then A is an I-extension of A. Corollary Let X be a maximal connected I-space. If A X is connected, then A is an I-extension of A by a family of ultrafilters.

21 Towards characterization of maximal connected I-spaces Definition Let X be a topological space. We define the following, so that for every ordinal α we have D α is a decomposition of X into connected subsets, E α is the corresponding equivalence, G α is a graph on D α with D, x being an edge D D for D D D α if and only if D D x, D 0 := {{x} : x X }, D α+1 := { C : C is an undirected component of G α }, E α := β<α E α for limit α. We denote the smallest α such that D α = D α+1 by ρ(x ).

22 Towards characterization of maximal connected I-spaces Theorem Let X be a maximal connected I-space, let α be an ordinal. Let D D α+1 and let C be the component of G α such that D = C. 1 C is an I-extension of C by a family of ultrafilters for every C C. If α = 0, then the ultrafilters are principal. If α > 0, then the ultrafilters are free. 2 The graph G α C is a tree. 3 D is the tree sum of its subspaces {C : C C}. The set of gluing points is closed discrete. Therefore, the members of D ρ(x ) are obtained by iteratively forming tree sums of ultrafilter I-extensions.

23 Intersections of connected subsets In the proof of the previous theorem, the following properties of maximal connected spaces are needed. Theorem [Neumann-Lara, Wilson; 1986] Let X be an essentially connected space. If A, B X are connected, then A B is connected as well. Corollary Let X be an maximal connected space. If A, B X are disjoint and connected, then A B 1. Proof. We have A B (A \ A) (B \ B), which is a closed discrete set since X is submaximal.

24 Towards characterization of maximal connected I-spaces Proposition Every maximal connected space having only finitely many nonisolated points is an I-space satisfying D 1 < ω and D 2 1. Therefore, it is a finite tree sum of free ultrafilter I-extensions of finitely generated maximal connected spaces. Because of the previous results, a maximal connected I-space X such that D ρ(x ) 1 may be called inductive. We shall conclude with an example of a non-inductive maximal connected I-space.

25 Towards characterization of maximal connected I-spaces Example Let f : X Y be a bijection between two disjoint sets, let U be a free ultrafilter on X. Let X be the I-extension of X with discrete topology by the family F y : y Y where F y := {U U : f 1 (y) U} for every y Y The space X is an example of a non-inductive maximal connected I-space.

26 References I Arhangel skii A. V., Collins P. J., On submaximal spaces. Topology Appl. 64 (1995), Cameron D. E., Maximal and minimal topologies, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 160 (1971), Guthrie J. A., Reynolds D. F., Stone H. E., Connected expansions of topologies, Bull. Austral. Math. Soc. 9 (1973), Guthrie J. A., Stone H. E., Spaces whose connected expansions preserve connected subsets, Fund. Math. 80 (1973), Guthrie J. A., Stone H. E., Wage M. L., Maximal connected expansions of the reals, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 69 (1978), Hildebrand S. K., A connected topology for the unit interval. Fund. Math. 61 (1967), Kennedy G. J., McCartan, S. D., Maximal connected principal topologies, Math. Proc. R. Ir. Acad. 101A (2001), no. 2,

27 References II Neumann-Lara V., Wilson R. G., Some properties of essentially connected and maximally connected spaces. Houston J. Math. 12 (1986), Simon P., An example of maximal connected Hausdorff space, Fund. Math. 100 (1978), no. 2, Thomas J. P., Maximal connected topologies, J. Austral. Math. Soc. 8 (1968),

28 Thank you for your attention.

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