# 1. To perform a potentiometric titration of a sample of Liquid Drano with hydrochloric acid.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. To perform a potentiometric titration of a sample of Liquid Drano with hydrochloric acid."

Transcription

1 INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF DRAIN CLEANER (Revised: ) Many common household cleaners contain acids or bases. Acidic cleaners, such as toilet bowl cleaners, often contain hydrochloric acid or sodium bisulfate to remove alkaline scale deposits or stains. Basic cleaners are designed to dissolve grease, hair, or foodstuffs. In this eperiment a ph meter will be used to monitor the titration of a drain cleaner. This is a potentiometric titration and the ph will be measured as specific volumes of acid are added. Therefore, it is not necessary to use an acid-base indicator. Drano contains two bases, sodium hydroide and sodium hypochlorite, and therefore there will be two end points. These end points will be determined from a graph of ph vs ml of HCl added. Since sodium hydroide is the stronger base, it will be neutralized first. The molarity of the hydrochloric acid will be known, so the volume of hydrochloric acid added at the first end point will allow us to calculate the moles of sodium hydroide in our sample. Once the sodium hydroide has been neutralized, the hydrochloric acid will start to neutralize the weaker base, sodium hypochlorite. The volume of acid added between the first and second end points will allow us to calculate the moles of sodium hypochlorite in the sample. The masses of sodium hydroide and sodium hypochlorite can then be calculated. Then, if the mass of the sample of Drano is known, the percentages can be calculated and compared with the values given on the label. OBJECTIVES 1. To perform a potentiometric titration of a sample of Liquid Drano with hydrochloric acid. 2. To determine the end points (neutralization points) from a graph of the ph of the solution vs the ml of hydrochloric acid added. 3. To calculate the mass of sodium hydroide and sodium hypochlorite in the sample of Liquid Drano. 4. To calculate the percentage of sodium hydroide and sodium hypochlorite in the sample of Liquid Drano and to compare the calculated values with the percentages listed on the label.

2 SAFETY 1. Wear your goggles and apron at all times during this eperiment. 2. Liquid Drano contains strong base. If any of the material is spilled, notify your teacher so that it can be cleaned up as soon as possible. 3. Follow the other standard safety procedures as eplained by your teacher. MATERIALS Liquid Drano distilled water 50 ml buret balance 10 ml graduated cylinder ph meter 0.10 M HCl 250 ml beaker 2 other beakers for solutions magnetic stirrer and stirring bar PROCEDURE 1. Obtain about 100 ml of 0.10 M HCl in a clean, dry beaker. This beaker should be labeled. Never pour any solution back into this beaker. Once the solution has been poured into the buret, it should be discarded into the sink or waste container. 2. Rinse your buret with distilled water. Then use a small amount of the 0.l0 M HCl solution to rinse the buret. (Pour about 10 ml of the HCl solution into the buret. Let some of it flow through the tip. Pour the rest of the HCl solution out the top of the buret, rotating the buret as you pour.) The rinsing solution should be discarded into the sink. Repeat this rinsing procedure twice more. Fill the buret to some point higher than the markings with the HCl solution and then carefully let the HCl solution out into a waste container until the bottom of the meniscus is on the 0.00 line. 3. Standardize the ph meter (Refer to the specific instructions for the ph meter that you will be using) 3. Determine the mass of a clean, dry 250 ml beaker and record this mass in your data table. Using a 10 ml graduated cylinder measure out approimately 3 ml 2

3 of Liquid Drano and add it to the beaker. Determine the mass of the beaker with the Liquid Drano and record this mass in your data table. 4. Add about 75 ml of distilled water to the beaker with the Liquid Drano. Carefully drop in a magnetic stirring bar. Set the beaker on the magnetic stirring motor and position the buret and ph electrode as shown in the diagram. Carefully turn on the stirring motor and make sure that the stirring bar does not hit the electrode. Adjust the stirring speed as directed by your teacher. 5. Set up your data table to include ml of HCl added and the ph of the solution. You should allow for as many as 50 ml of solution. 6. Measure and record the ph of the solution before any HCl has been added. 7. Add 1.0 ml of HCl solution carefully from the buret. Record the ph when it has stabilized. Add another 1.0 ml of HCl and record the ph. Continue adding HCl in 1.0 ml increments until you have obtained a ph reading less than 3.5. If you get to 50 ml, carefully refill the buret. 8. Remove the ph electrode from the solution, rinse it with distilled water, and store it as directed by your teacher. 9. The solutions may be discarded down the sink. Rinse the buret with distilled water and place it upside down in the buret holder to drain. 3

4 CALCULATIONS 1. Make a graph of the ph vs ml of HCl added. The ph should be on the vertical ais and the ml of HCl should be on the horizontal ais. The graph should be of such a size that 1 ml is represented by 1 square on the graph and the ph scale is spread out as much as possible. 2. Determine the end points of the titration. There should be two regions on your graph where the slope changes rapidly. The end point is the midpoint of the region. Since sodium hydroide is the stronger base, it is neutralized at the first end point. Then sodium hypochlorite, the weaker base, is neutralized at the second end point. Determine the number of ml of HCl required to neutralize the sodium hydroide and the number of ml of HCl required to neutralize the sodium hypochlorite. Remember that the sodium hypochlorite is not neutralized until after all the sodium hydroide, so the ml of HCl required will be the difference in the two end points. 3. Calculate the number of moles and then the mass of sodium hydroide, NaOH, and sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, present in your titrated sample. 4. Calculate the mass percent of sodium hydroide and sodium hypochlorite in your titrated sample. 5. Record the percentages of sodium hydroide and sodium hypochlorite from the label on the Liquid Drano container. 6. Calculate the percent difference for each of these substances. LAB WRITTEN BY: PRU PHILLIPS 4

5 TEACHERS' GUIDE ANALYSIS OF DRAIN CLEANER CLASSROOM USAGE This eperiment should not be used as an introduction to titration, and is, therefore, probably more appropriate for a second year course. CURRICULUM INTEGRATION Acid, base and ph Stoichiometry PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE Titration Stoichiometry Acid, Base and ph TIME The titration itself has to be done in one day. There is no way to stop in the middle of the titration and pick up where you left off. If students are not familiar with the set-up and procedure, another class period should be provided for practice. PREPARATION You, the teacher, need to provide the buffer solutions for standardization of the ph meter. The titration goes from ph 13 to ph 4. Buffer ph 7 has to be used. Buffer ph 10 would be good for the second one, although buffer ph 4 would also work..10 M HCl (8.5 ml of concentrated (12 M) HCl per liter) Each group of students will need about 150 ml SAFETY AND DISPOSAL 5

6 Standard safety procedure should be followed. Students should wear goggles and aprons. All materials may be disposed of by pouring down the drain with water. SAMPLE DATA Mass of 250 ml beaker: Mass of beaker and Liquid Drano : Mass of Liquid Drano titrated: g g 3.40 g ml HCl added ph ml HCl added ph

7 ml HCl added ph SAMPLE CALCULATIONS 1. End Point #1 (NaOH) 10 ml of HCl added End Point #2 (NaOCl) 40 ml of HCl added ml of HCl required to neutralize the NaOH: 10 ml ml of HCl required to neutralize the NaOCl: = 30 ml 2. Determination of the mass of sodium hydroide in the titrated sample: 1 L 0.10 moles H 1 mole NaOH 10 ml H H 1000 ml H 1 L H 1 mole H 40 g NaOH = g NaOH 1 mole Determination of the mass of sodium hypochlorite in the titrated sample: 7

8 1 L 0.10 moles H 1 mole NaOCl 30 ml H H 1000 ml H 1 L H 1 mole H 74.5 g NaOCl = g NaOCl 1 mole NaOCl 3. Mass percent of sodium hydroide in the titrated sample: g NaOH 3.40 g sample 100=1.2% NaOH Mass percent of sodium hypochlorite in the titrated sample: g NaOCl 3.40 g sample 100=6.55% NaOCl 4. Percentages listed on the bottle of Liquid Drano : 2.4 % sodium hydroide 6 % sodium hypochlorite 5. Percent Differences sodium hydroide: = 50% = 9.2% sodium hypochlorite: Comment: This is actual student data from an initial run for this eperiment. It was disappointing that the first end point wasn't sharper because it was difficult to determine the mid point of the segment. Nevertheless this is a good eperiment and is one worth doing. REFERENCE 8

9 Central Pennsylvania Association of Chemistry Teachers in Cooperation with NSF, Juniata College, and Private Industry. (1990). Student Laboratory Instrumentation Manual for Ecellence. 9

### 15. Acid-Base Titration. Discover the concentration of an unknown acid solution using acid-base titration.

S HIFT INTO NEUTRAL 15. Acid-Base Titration Shift into Neutral Student Instruction Sheet Challenge Discover the concentration of an unknown acid solution using acid-base titration. Equipment and Materials

### DETERMINATION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID CONTENT IN SOFT DRINKS

DETERMINATION OF PHOSPHORIC ACID CONTENT IN SOFT DRINKS LAB PH 8 From Chemistry with Calculators, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000 INTRODUCTION Phosphoric acid is one of several weak acids that present

### Acid Base Titrations

Acid Base Titrations Introduction A common question chemists have to answer is how much of something is present in a sample or a product. If the product contains an acid or base, this question is usually

### Evaluation copy. Titration of a Diprotic Acid: Identifying an Unknown. Computer

Titration of a Diprotic Acid: Identifying an Unknown Computer 25 A diprotic acid is an acid that yields two H + ions per acid molecule. Examples of diprotic acids are sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4, and carbonic

### To determine the equivalence points of two titrations from plots of ph versus ml of titrant added.

Titration Curves PURPOSE To determine the equivalence points of two titrations from plots of ph versus ml of titrant added. GOALS 1 To gain experience performing acid-base titrations with a ph meter. 2

### ph units constitute a scale which allows scientists to determine the acid or base content of a substance or solution. The ph 0

ACID-BASE TITRATION LAB PH 2.PALM INTRODUCTION Acids and bases represent a major class of chemical substances. We encounter them every day as we eat, clean our homes and ourselves, and perform many other

### Household Acids and Bases

Household Acids and Bases GRADE LEVEL INDICATORS Experiment Demonstrate that the ph scale (0-14) is used to measure acidity and classify substances or solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral. 21 Develop

### 18 Conductometric Titration

Lab Activity 18 CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATION LAB ACTIVITY 18 Conductometric Titration Background Titration is the a method of determining the concentration of an unknown solution (the analyte) by reacting

### Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions

Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT: Reading: Chapter 4.-4.3 in Brown, LeMay, Bursten & Murphy.. Using Table in this handout, determine which solution has a higher conductivity,.

### Chemistry 119: Experiment 7. Potentiometric Titration of Ascorbic Acid in Vitamin C Tablets

Chemistry 119: Experiment 7 Potentiometric Titration of Ascorbic Acid in Vitamin C Tablets Vitamin C is another name for ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6, see below ), a weak acid that can be determined by titration

### STANDARDIZATION OF A SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION EXPERIMENT 14

STANDARDIZATION OF A SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION EXPERIMENT 14 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment will be the standardization of sodium hydroxide using potassium hydrogen phthalate by the titration

### Acid Dissociation Constants and the Titration of a Weak Acid

Acid Dissociation Constants and the Titration of a Weak Acid One of the most important applications of equilibria is the chemistry of acids and bases. The Brønsted-Lowry acid-base theory defines an acid

### Determining the Identity of an Unknown Weak Acid

Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to observe and measure a weak acid neutralization and determine the identity of an unknown acid by titration. Introduction The purpose of this exercise is to identify

### Dissolving of sodium hydroxide generates heat. Take care in handling the dilution container.

TITRATION: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE AND ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS 2009, 1996, 1973 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright

### Acid-Base Titrations Using ph Measurements

Acid-Base Titrations Using ph Measurements Introduction According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, an acid is a substance that donates a hydrogen ion and a base is a substance which will accept a hydrogen

### TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS

TITRATION CURVES, INDICATORS, AND ACID DISSOCIATION CONSTANTS Adapted from "Chemistry with Computers" Vernier Software, Portland OR, 1997 INTRODUCTION Titration is the volumetric measurement of a solution

### EXPERIMENT INTRODUCTION TO INDICATORS AND ACID-BASE TITRATIONS

EXPERIMENT INTRODUCTION TO INDICATORS AND ACID-BASE TITRATIONS By Dale A. Hammond, PhD, Brigham Young University Hawaii LEARNING OBJECTIVES The objectives of this experiment are... an introduction to ph

### Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow.

Chem 121 Lab Clark College Experiment 9: Acids and Bases Adapted from: Chemistry, Experimental Foundations, 4th Ed. Laboratory Manual, by Merrill, Parry & Bassow. Content Goals: Increase understanding

### ph: Measurement and Uses

ph: Measurement and Uses One of the most important properties of aqueous solutions is the concentration of hydrogen ion. The concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) affects the solubility of inorganic and organic

### (1) Hydrochloric acid reacts with sodium hypochlorite to form hypochlorous acid: NaOCl(aq) + HCl(aq) HOCl(aq) + NaCl(aq) hypochlorous acid

The Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleach Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 156-159. We will study an example of a redox titration in order to determine the concentration of sodium

### Analyzing the Acid in Vinegar

Analyzing the Acid in Vinegar Purpose: This experiment will analyze the percentage of acetic acid in store bought vinegar using titration. Introduction: Vinegar can be found in almost any home. It can

### PART I: PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS AND STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE

TITRATION: STANDARDIZATION OF A BASE AND ANALYSIS OF STOMACH ANTACID TABLETS 2009, 1996, 1973 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Reproduction permitted for education use provided original copyright

### The introduction of your report should be written on the on the topic of the role of indicators on acid base titrations.

Experiment # 13A TITRATIONS INTRODUCTION: This experiment will be written as a formal report and has several parts: Experiment 13 A: Basic methods (accuracy and precision) (a) To standardize a base (~

### Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid

1 Experiment 7: Titration of an Antacid Objective: In this experiment, you will standardize a solution of base using the analytical technique known as titration. Using this standardized solution, you will

### CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators

CHM 130LL: ph, Buffers, and Indicators Many substances can be classified as acidic or basic. Acidic substances contain hydrogen ions, H +, while basic substances contain hydroxide ions, OH. The relative

### Experiment 17: Potentiometric Titration

1 Experiment 17: Potentiometric Titration Objective: In this experiment, you will use a ph meter to follow the course of acid-base titrations. From the resulting titration curves, you will determine the

### Chem 1B Saddleback College Dr. White 1. Experiment 8 Titration Curve for a Monoprotic Acid

Chem 1B Saddleback College Dr. White 1 Experiment 8 Titration Curve for a Monoprotic Acid Objectives To learn the difference between titration curves involving a strong acid with a strong base and a weak

### EXPERIMENT 10: TITRATION AND STANDARDIZATION

EXPERIMENT 10: TITRATION AND STANDARDIZATION PURPOSE To determine the molarity of a NaOH solution by titrating it with a standard HCl solution. To determine the molarity of acetic acid in vinegar using

### Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets This lab will be completed individually! Make sure you come prepared!

Ascorbic Acid Titration of Vitamin C Tablets This lab will be completed individually! Make sure you come prepared! Introduction Vitamin C (also known as ascorbic acid, HC6H7O6) is a necessary ingredient

### Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet Computer 34 As biochemical research becomes more sophisticated, we are learning more about the role of metallic elements in the human body. For example,

### Lab #10 How much Acetic Acid (%) is in Vinegar?

Lab #10 How much Acetic Acid (%) is in Vinegar? SAMPLE CALCULATIONS NEED TO BE DONE BEFORE LAB MEETS!!!! Purpose: You will determine the amount of acetic acid in white vinegar (sold in grocery stores)

### Household Acids and Bases

Household Acids and Bases Computer 28 Many common household solutions contain acids and bases. Acid-base indicators, such as litmus and red cabbage juice, turn different colors in acidic and basic solutions.

### Lab 25. Acid-Base Titration and Neutralization Reactions: What Is the Concentration of Acetic Acid in Each Sample of Vinegar?

Lab 25. Acid-Base Titration and Neutralization Reactions: What Is the Concentration of Acetic Acid in Each Sample of Vinegar? Introduction Vinegar is basically a solution of acetic acid (CH3COOH). It is

### MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Chemistry 5.310 Laboratory Chemistry THE POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF AN ACID MIXTURE 1

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Chemistry 5.310 Laboratory Chemistry EXPERIMENT #5 THE POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF AN ACID MIXTURE 1 I. PURPOSE OF THE EXPERIMENT In this experiment

### GA/7 Potentiometric Titration

Rev. 7/99 7-1 INTRODUCTION GA/7 Potentiometric Titration The potentiometric titration is a useful means of characterizing an acid. The ph of a solution is measured as a function of the amount of titrant

### PERCENT ACETIC ACID IN VINEGAR EXPERIMENT 15

PERCENT ACETIC ACID IN VINEGAR EXPERIMENT 15 PURPOSE A will be titrated using a standardized to determine the percent acetic acid by mass. INTRODUCTION In order to determine the concentration of a, there

### Neutralizing an Acid and a Base

Balancing Act Teacher Information Objectives In this activity, students neutralize a base with an acid. Students determine the point of neutralization of an acid mixed with a base while they: Recognize

### To see how this data can be used, follow the titration of hydrofluoric acid against sodium hydroxide below. HF (aq) + NaOH (aq) H2O (l) + NaF (aq)

Weak Acid Titration v120413 You are encouraged to carefully read the following sections in Tro (2 nd ed.) to prepare for this experiment: Sec 4.8, pp 158-159 (Acid/Base Titrations), Sec 16.4, pp 729-43

### TITRATION OF VITAMIN C

TITRATION OF VITAMIN C Introduction: In this lab, we will be performing two different types of titrations on ascorbic acid, more commonly known as Vitamin C. The first will be an acid-base titration in

### Juice Titration. Background. Acid/Base Titration

Juice Titration Background Acids in Juice Juice contains both citric and ascorbic acids. Citric acid is used as a natural preservative and provides a sour taste. Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin

### Determination of Citric Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes

Determination of Citric Acid in Powdered Drink Mixes Citric acid and its salts (sodium citrate and potassium citrate) are found in many foods, drinks, pharmaceuticals, shampoos, and cosmetics. The tartness

### ph and Acidity in Wine and Fruit Juice

ph and Acidity in Wine and Fruit Juice DOC316.52.93089 Endpoint potentiometric titration Scope and application: Wine and fruit juice 1. Introduction This working procedure refers to the titration of total

### ph and Acidity in Tomato Sauce

ph and Acidity in Tomato Sauce DOC316.52.93100 Endpoint potentiometric titration Scope and application: Tomato sauce 1. Introduction This working procedure refers to the determination of titratable acidity

### TITRATION OF AN ACID; USING A ph METER. The ph meter is an instrument that measures the ph of a solution and affords a

62 Experiment #5. Titration of an Acid; Using a ph Meter TITRATION OF AN ACID; USING A ph METER Introduction The ph meter is an instrument that measures the ph of a solution and affords a direct method

### Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances. Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances

Experiment 18: ph Measurements of Common Substances and Experiment 17: Reactions of Acids with Common Substances What is this lab about? You mean what ARE THESE labs about? Ok, so what are THESE labs about?

### Acid Base Titration: ph Titration Curve

Acid Base Titration: ph Titration Curve OVERVIEW In this experiment, you will perform a ph-monitored titration of acetic acid and of an unknown acid. From the ph titration of the acetic acid, you will

### Acid-Base Titrations. Setup for a Typical Titration. Titration 1

Titration 1 Acid-Base Titrations Molarities of acidic and basic solutions can be used to convert back and forth between moles of solutes and volumes of their solutions, but how are the molarities of these

### Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration

Determination of the Amount of Acid Neutralized by an Antacid Tablet Using Back Titration GOAL AND OVERVIEW Antacids are bases that react stoichiometrically with acid. The number of moles of acid that

### ph Measurements of Common Substances

Chem 100 Section Experiment 10 Name Partner s Name Introduction ph Measurements of Common Substances The concentration of an acid or base is frequently expressed as ph. Historically, ph stands for the

### Chem 100 Lab Experiment #9 - ACID/BASE INDICATORS

Lab #9 Chem 100 Lab Experiment #9 - ACID/BASE INDICATORS Name: Purpose: In this laboratory we will investigate how indicators can be used to test for the presence of acids or bases in a number of common

### Properties of Acids and Bases

Lab 22 Properties of Acids and Bases TN Standard 4.2: The student will investigate the characteristics of acids and bases. Have you ever brushed your teeth and then drank a glass of orange juice? What

### The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar

The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 153-156. Goals We will use a titration to determine the concentration of acetic acid in a sample of

### Experiment 13H THE REACTION OF RED FOOD COLOR WITH BLEACH 1

Experiment 13H FV 1/25/2011(2-run) THE REACTION OF RED FOOD COLOR WITH BLEACH 1 PROBLEM: Determine the rate law for the chemical reaction between FD&C Red Dye #3 and sodium hypochlorite. LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

### Experiment 4 (Future - Lab needs an unknown)

Experiment 4 (Future - Lab needs an unknown) USING A ph TITRATION TO DETERMINE THE ACID CONTENT OF SOFT DRINKS 2 lab periods Reading: Chapter 9, 185-197; Chapter 10, pg 212-218; Chapter 14 pg 317-323,

### Volumetric Analysis. Lecture 5 Experiment 9 in Beran page 109 Prelab = Page 115

Volumetric Analysis Lecture 5 Experiment 9 in Beran page 109 Prelab = Page 115 Experimental Aims To prepare and standardize (determine concentration) a NaOH solution Using your standardized NaOH calculate

### Target Mole Lab. Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation. For each student group Hydrochloric acid solution, HCl, 3 M, 30 ml

elearning 2009 Introduction Target Mole Lab Mole Relationships and the Balanced Equation Publication No. A common chemical reaction used in chemistry class is zinc and hydrochloric In this lab, students

### Hands-On Labs SM-1 Lab Manual

EXPERIMENT 4: Separation of a Mixture of Solids Read the entire experiment and organize time, materials, and work space before beginning. Remember to review the safety sections and wear goggles when appropriate.

### EXPERIMENT 12 A SOLUBILITY PRODUCT CONSTANT

PURPOSE: 1. To determine experimentally the molar solubility of potassium acid tartrate in water and in a solution of potassium nitrate. 2. To examine the effect of a common ion on the solubility of slightly

### ACID-BASE TITRATIONS: DETERMINATION OF CARBONATE BY TITRATION WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID BACKGROUND

#3. Acid - Base Titrations 27 EXPERIMENT 3. ACID-BASE TITRATIONS: DETERMINATION OF CARBONATE BY TITRATION WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID BACKGROUND Carbonate Equilibria In this experiment a solution of hydrochloric

### Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate

Recovery of Elemental Copper from Copper (II) Nitrate Objectives: Challenge: Students should be able to - recognize evidence(s) of a chemical change - convert word equations into formula equations - perform

### Enzyme Pre-Lab. Using the Enzyme worksheet and Enzyme lab handout answer the Pre-Lab questions the pre-lab must be complete before beginning the lab.

Enzyme Pre-Lab Using the Enzyme worksheet and Enzyme lab handout answer the Pre-Lab questions the pre-lab must be complete before beginning the lab. Background: In this investigation, you will study several

### THE ACTIVITY OF LACTASE

THE ACTIVITY OF LACTASE Lab VIS-8 From Juniata College Science in Motion Enzymes are protein molecules which act to catalyze the chemical reactions in living things. These chemical reactions make up the

### Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, BATTERIES, & THE NERNST EQUATION Experiment partially adapted from J. Chem. Educ., 2008, 85 (8), p 1116 Introduction Electrochemical cell In this experiment,

### Neutralization Reactions. Evaluation copy

Neutralization Reactions Computer 6 If an acid is added to a base, a chemical reaction called neutralization occurs. An example is the reaction between nitric acid, HNO 3, and the base potassium hydroxide,

### AIRMoN, ph and Conductivity Field Measurement

AIRMoN, ph and Conductivity Field Measurement Items needed: Sample to be measured (sample volume 50 ml) Field Observer Form (FOF) for the sample to be measured conductance cell ph vials, 4 conductivity

### POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF A WEAK ACID

POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION OF A WEAK ACID A Weak Acid/Strong Base Titration For this experiment: 1. Complete the Prelab and obtain a stamp before you begin the experiment. 2. Write your lab notebook prelab

### COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS

COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS Beakers are useful as a reaction container or to hold liquid or solid samples. They are also used to catch liquids from titrations and filtrates from filtering operations. Bunsen

### EXPERIMENT 2 THE HYDROLYSIS OF t-butyl CHLORIDE. PURPOSE: To verify a proposed mechanism for the hydrolysis of t-butyl Chloride.

PURPOSE: To verify a proposed mechanism for the hydrolysis of t-butyl Chloride. PRINCIPLES: Once the Rate Law for a reaction has been experimentally established the next step is its explanation in terms

### Experiment 6 Titration II Acid Dissociation Constant

6-1 Experiment 6 Titration II Acid Dissociation Constant Introduction: An acid/base titration can be monitored with an indicator or with a ph meter. In either case, the goal is to determine the equivalence

### Drop Counter Sensor Product Number: ENDRP-AD100

imagine explore learn Drop Counter Sensor Product Number: ENDRP-AD100 Overview The Drop Counter sensor is an optical sensor that accurately records the number of drops of titrant added during a titration.

### EXPERIMENT 7. Identifying a Substance by Acid-Base Titration

EXPERIMENT 7 Identifying a Substance by Acid-Base Titration SAFETY WARNING In this experiment you will be working with NaOH pellets and using 0.25 M NaOH as a titrant. Sodium hydroxide is extremely basic,

### HOW TO MAKE STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMISTRY

HOW TO MAKE STANDARD SOLUTIONS FOR CHEMISTRY Phillip Bigelow Chemists make two common types of "standard solutions": Molar solutions Normal solutions Both of these solutions are concentrations (or strengths

### Experiment 6 Coffee-cup Calorimetry

6-1 Experiment 6 Coffee-cup Calorimetry Introduction: Chemical reactions involve the release or consumption of energy, usually in the form of heat. Heat is measured in the energy units, Joules (J), defined

### Where the exp subscripts refer to the experimental temperature and pressure acquired in the laboratory.

Molar Volume of Carbon Dioxide Reading assignment: Julia Burdge, Chemistry 3rd edition, Chapter 10. Goals To determine the molar volume of carbon dioxide gas and the amount of sodium carbonate in a sample.

### Pre-Lab Notebook Content: Your notebook should include the title, date, purpose, procedure; data tables.

Determination of Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression M. Burkart & M. Kim Experimental Notes: Students work in pairs. Safety: Goggles and closed shoes must be worn. Dispose of all chemical in the plastic

### Calcium Analysis by EDTA Titration

Calcium Analysis by EDTA Titration ne of the factors that establish the quality of a water supply is its degree of hardness. The hardness of water is defined in terms of its content of calcium and magnesium

### Luminol Test PROCESS SKILLS SCIENCE TOPICS VOCABULARY

EXPERIMENT: LUMINOL TEST Luminol Test Visitors mix a solution of luminol with fake blood (hydrogen peroxide) to produce a reaction that gives off blue light. OBJECTIVES: Visitors learn that some chemical

### Direct ISE Method Method 8359 10 to 1000 mg/l Na + Sodium ISE

Sodium DOC316.53.01240 Direct ISE Method Method 8359 10 to 1000 mg/l Na + Sodium ISE Scope and application: For drinking water and process water. Test preparation Instrument-specific information This procedure

### EDTA Titrations 1: Standardization of EDTA and Analysis of Zinc in a Supplement Tablet. by Professor David Cash. September, 2008

CHEMICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND BIOTECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT EDTA Titrations 1: Standardization of EDTA and Analysis of Zinc in a Supplement Tablet by Professor David Cash September, 2008 Mohawk College is the

### Introduction. ph = log [H + ]

Visualizing ph 2010, 1992 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission granted for classroom use. All reproductions must include original copyright. David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator,

### Determination of a Chemical Formula

1 Determination of a Chemical Formula Introduction Molar Ratios Elements combine in fixed ratios to form compounds. For example, consider the compound TiCl 4 (titanium chloride). Each molecule of TiCl

### 9. Analysis of an Acid-Base Titration Curve: The Gran Plot

9. Analysis of an Acid-Base Titration Curve: The Gran Plot In this experiment, you will titrate a sample of pure potassium hydrogen phthalate (Table 10-4) with standard NaOH. A Gran plot will be used to

### AP CHEMISTRY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

AP CHEMISTRY 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 5 (9 points) A solution of 0.100 M HCl and a solution of 0.100 M NaOH are prepared. A 40.0 ml sample of one of the solutions is added to a beaker

### Analysis of Vitamin C Using Iodine. Introduction

Analysis of Vitamin C Using Iodine Introduction Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid using a mild oxidizing agent such as iodine. The oxidation is a two- electron process, following

### Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity Experiment 6A Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. Enzymes are globular proteins, responsible for most of the chemical activities

### Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration

Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical

### IODINE CLOCK. A Study of Reaction Rates.

IODINE CLOCK A Study of Reaction Rates. In this lab you will be studying the Law of Mass Action. Please review that law in your text in the chapter on Chemical Kinetics. Basically, the law states that

### AP FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS ACIDS/BASES

AP FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS ACIDS/BASES 199 D A chemical reaction occurs when 100. milliliters of 0.200molar HCl is added dropwise to 100. milliliters of 0.100molar Na 3 P0 solution. (a) Write the two net

### Related concepts Kohlrausch s law, equivalent conductivity, temperature dependence of conductivity, Ostwald s dilution law.

Conductivity of strong and weak electrolytes TEC Related concepts Kohlrausch s law, equivalent conductivity, temperature dependence of conductivity, Ostwald s dilution law. Principle It is possible to

### Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety of solutions, and classify these as acidic, basic or neutral

Chemistry: 9. Acids and Bases Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety

### HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE

303 HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE OBJECTIVES FOR THE EXPERIMENT The student will be able to do the following: 1. Calculate the change in enthalpy (heat of reaction) using the Law of Hess. 2. Find

### Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

CHEM 311L Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Revision 2.3 Calibration of Volumetric Glassware In this laboratory exercise, we will calibrate the three types of glassware typically used by an analytical chemist;

### Unit A: Studying Materials Scientifically

ITEM BANKS Unit A: Studying Materials Scientifically Multiple choice: Circle the best answer. 1. What safety rules should you always follow while doing a science laboratory? a. Wear safety goggles at all

### Auto-ionization of Water

2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?

### Determining the Free Chlorine Content of Swimming Pool Water. HOCl H + + OCl. Evaluation copy

Determining the Free Chlorine Content of Swimming Pool Water Computer 33 Physicians in the nineteenth century used chlorine water as a disinfectant. Upon the discovery that certain diseases were transmitted

### EXPERIMENT 10 Chemistry 110. Solutions Part 2 ACIDS, BASES, AND ELECTROLYTES

EXPERIMENT 10 Chemistry 110 Solutions Part 2 ACIDS, BASES, AND ELECTROLYTES PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the properties of solutions of acids, bases and electrolytes. Students

### Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions. Evaluation copy. Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq) H 2 (g) + MgCl 2 (aq)

Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions Computer 1 Many chemical reactions give off energy. Chemical reactions that release energy are called exothermic reactions. Some chemical reactions absorb energy and

### Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual

Making Biodiesel from Virgin Vegetable Oil: Teacher Manual Learning Goals: Students will understand how to produce biodiesel from virgin vegetable oil. Students will understand the effect of an exothermic