5 ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

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1 5 ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Q.1. Taste the following substances and enter the result in the following table : Substance Taste (Sour / bitter / any other) Lemon juice Orange juice Sour and sweet taste Vinegar Curd Tamarind (imli) Sugar Any other (sweet) Common salt Any other (salty) Amla Baking Soda Grapes Unripe mango Bitter taste Sour and sweet taste 40

2 TEXTBOOK EXERCISES AND ANSWERS Q.1. State differences between acids and bases. Ans. Differences between acids and bases : Acid 1. Acids are sour to taste. 2. Acids burn the skin when touched. 3. An acid turns blue litmus to red. 4. Acids remain colourless with phenolphthalein. 5. Acidic solutions turn dark pink when reacted with china rose indicator. Base 1. Bases are bitter to taste. 2. Bases are soapy to touch. 3. A base turns red litmus to blue. 4. Bases change to pink colour with phenolphthalein. 5. Basic solutions turn green when reacted with china rose indicator. Q.2. Ammonia is found in many household products, such as window cleaners. It turns red litmus blue, what is its nature? 41

3 Ans. It is basic in nature. Q.3. Name the source from which litmus solution is obtained. What is the use of this solution? Ans. Litmus is a natural indicator extracted from lichens. It acts as a natural indicator to test whether a substance is an acid or base. It turns red when added to an acidic solution and when added to a basic solution it turns blue. Q.4. Is the distilled water acidic/basic /neutral? How would you verify it? Ans. Distilled water is neutral. It shows no effect with an indicator. Q.5. Describe the process of neutralization with the help of an example. Ans. The reaction between an acid and a base is known as neutralization, salt and water are produced in this process with the evolution of heat. Acid + Base Salt + Water Example : Hydrochloric acid + Sodium hydroxide (base) (HCl) (NaOH) Sodium chloride + Water (NaCl) (HB2BO) 42

4 Q.6. Mark T if the statement is true and F if it is false: (i) Nitric acid turns red litmus blue. (T/F) Ans. False. (ii) Sodium hydroxide turns blue litmus red. (T/F) Ans. False. (iii) Sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid neutralise each other and form salt and water. (T/F) Ans. True. (iv) Indicator is a substance which shows different colours in acidic and basic solutions. (T/F) Ans. True. (v) Tooth decay is caused by the presence of base. (T/F) Ans. False. Q.7. Dorji has a few bottles of soft drink in his restaurant. But unfortunately, these are not labelled. He has to serve the drinks on the demand of customers. One customer wants acidic drink, another wants basic and third one wants 43

5 neutral drink. How will Dorji decide which drink is to served to whom? Ans. Dorji can check the soft drinks by using litmus paper. If the colour of blue litmus paper changes to red, it is an acidic drink, if the colour of red litmus paper changes to blue, it is a basic drink. However, if no change is observed in litmus paper, it is a neutral drink. Q.8. Explain why : (a) An antacid tablet is taken when you suffer from acidity. (b) Calamine solution is applied on the skin when an ant bites. (c) Factory waste is neutralized before disposing it into the water bodies. Ans. (a) Our stomach contains hydrochloric acid. It helps us to digest food. But too much of acid in the stomach causes indigestion. To relieve indigestion, we take an antacid such as milk of magnesia, which contains magnesium hydroxide. It neutralizes the effect of excessive acid in the stomach. 44

6 (b) The sting of an ant contains formic acid. When an ant bites, it injects the acidic liquid into the skin. The effect of ant sting can be neutralized by rubbing calamine solution, which contains zinc carbonate. It neutralizes the effect of formic acid. (c) Factory waste contains acids. If this waste is allowed to flow into water bodies will kill aquatic animals. The factory wastes are, therefore, neutralized by adding basic substances. Q.9. Three liquids are given to you. One is hydrochloric acid, another is sodium hydroxide and third is a sugar solution. How will you identify them? You have only turmeric indicator. Ans. S.No. Name of substance Effect on turmeric indicator 1. Hydrochloric acid Yellow to yellow and red to yellow. 2. Sodium Hydroxide Yellow to red. 3. Sugar solution No change. Q.10. Blue litmus paper is dipped in a solution. It remains blue. What is the nature of the solution? Explain. 45

7 Ans. Bases change the colour of litmus paper to blue. As the colour of blue litmus paper is not affected, the solution must be basic. The solution can also be neutral as such a solution does not change the colour of litmus. Q.11. Consider the following statements : (a) Both acids and bases change colour of all indicators. (b) If an indicator gives a colour change with an acid, it does not give a change with a base. (c) If an indicator changes colour with a base, it does not change colour with an acid. (d) Change of colour in an acid and a base depends on the type of the indicator. Which of these statements are correct? (i) All four, (ii) a and d, (iii) b and c, (iv) only d Ans. (iv) only d. 46

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