Cosmic Ray Astrophysics with AMS-02 Daniel Haas - Université de Genève on behalf of the AMS collaboration

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1 Cosmic Ray Astrophysics with AMS-02 Daniel Haas - Université de Genève on behalf of the AMS collaboration Overview of AMS-02 Cosmic ray studies p/he, Z>2, p/e +, γ-rays Comparison AMS vs. GLAST AMS vs. Bess/Pamela Schedule Outlook & Conclusions

2 AMS-02 is a magnetic spectrometer to be installed on the ISS: 108 x 80m, 420 t, 400km, Incl. = , revolutions/day Overview Precision Measurements of Charged Cosmic Particles To reach them, we need: High Energy γ-rays Determination of energy Search for Dark Matter with high resolution (e+, p-, γ,... see Th. Siedenburg) Large statistics Search for Cosmic Anti-Matter Very good particle ID (Anti-He, Anti-C) D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 2

3 Overview - AMS-01 pilot experiment June on STS-91 Main goal: resupply MIR Qualification and test mission for AMS days of data taking 10 8 events registered Detector worked without faults Interesting physics results: primary fluxes of p, He, e ± detection of secondary fluxes geomagnetic field effects Antimatter sensitivity extended He/He ~ publications, review in Phys. Rep. 366 (2002) AMS Lessons learned: need better particle ID, more redundancy and better trigger D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 3

4 NASA is back on track STS-121 Launched on U.S. Independence Day The Biggest Firecracker they could find! next flights foreseen in 06, Dec 06 August and 2006, FebPage 074 D. Haas, Aug 6th Rencontres du Vietnam,

5 Overview - Detector layout Acceptance ~ 0.45 m 2 sr Weight ~ 7 tons Power < 3 kw Superconducting Magnet 14 coils, total dipole moment=0 Reservoir for 3 years, B ~0.87 T Tracker 2264 sensors, ~6.4m 2 ~200k channels on 8 layers Transition Radiation Det. (TRD) 328 modules (straw t./fleece r.) 20 layers on octagonal shape Time Of Flight (TOF) 4 scintillator planes, 34 paddles 2/3 PMs at both ends Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) aerogel and sodium fluoride pixel granularity 8.5 x 8.5 mm 2 Electromagn. Calorimeter (ECAL) lead-scintillating fibers sandwich 9 superlayers, ~15 X 0 D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 5

6 Overview - Detector performance ECAL σ(e)/e ~ 100 GeV e - ToF: σ(β)/β = 3.5% (for β=1) RICH: σ(β)/β ~ 0.1% for p σ(m)/m = 2% Tracker σ(r)/r = 1.5% for 10 GV Max. Dynamic Range 1 TV D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 6

7 Physics - Galactic Cosmic Rays High energy CR are produced, accelerated and propagated in the Galaxy and provide information about the sources and the matter content and magnetohydrodynamical properties of our Galaxy AMS-02 will provide: Very accurate data of H & He spectrum (R 1 TV) Chemical abundances (from H to Fe) The ratio of spallation products such as Boron to the primary nuclei such as Carbon as a function of energy (E 1 TeV) The energy dependence of the fraction of antiparticles (E~100GeV) Isotopic ratios of elements (E 10 GV) D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 7

8 GCR - p & He protons p and He are the most abundant elements (~99% of GCR) Spectral index: Origin and acceleration, differences between both species Used to determine the expected fluxes of Antiprotons and e +, atmospheric neutrinos... High precision of measurement also over time AMS expectations (6 hrs) Helium AMS expectations (3 days) D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 8

9 GCR - Abundances and Evolution NASA - JSC, Francis A. Cucinotta Fe He Abundance of Cosmic Nuclei p B Ne P Ca Mn Co Production of Secondary Particles Time & Energy Dependence of the Flux Solar Modulation Effects D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 9

10 GCR - Z>2 Precise measurement of primary CR such as C, N and O Secondary CR (via spallation) give important input to the amount of matter traversed by the CR (diffusion, confinement volume and time) AMS expectations (6 months) D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 10

11 GCR - Radio-Active Isotopes Info about confinement time Half-time of 10 Be of the same order than confinement time of CR τ( 10 Be) = 1.6 Myr size of galactic halo confinement time AMS-02 will collect ~ Be in 3 years with σ(m)/m = 2% AMS expectations (1 year) D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 11

12 GCR - Antiparticles currently Antiprotons Positrons No conclusive data Data consistent with secondary CR D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 12

13 GCR - Antiparticles with AMS-02 Good sensitivity to dark matter in several scenarios 10 6 Antiprotons 10 6 Positrons AMS expectations (1 year) χχ e + + X V. Choutko, Nucl. Phy. B (Proc.Suppl) 113(2002) D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 13

14 GCR - γ-rays 6% 3% 2 complementary modes for photon detection δe/e~ GeV γ e + + e - γ EM Shower Single Photon Mode γ EM Shower σ θ ~ 0.02 GeV 1.0 o γ EM Shower 0.02 o γ e + + e - Conversion Mode γ e + + e - D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 14

15 γ-rays - AMS vs. GLAST Similarities: Silicon for Tracker, Coverage GeV GLAST: quasi-independent detector operation, charged particle vetoing, conversion-optimized D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 15

16 GCR - AMS vs. Bess/Pamela BESS-Polar PAMELA AMS-02 Acceptance (m 2 sr) MDR (GV) Flight duration (days) Flight Altitude (km) Residual air (g/cm2) Weight (tons) ~7 Power consumption (W) < 3000 Magnetic field (Tesla) Flight latidude (deg.) 80 ±70 ±52 Energy region (GeV) > 0.1 > 0.1 ~ > 0.5 Flight vehicule Balloon Satellite ISS # of events for: protons (range in GeV/n) ( ) ( ) ( ) antiprotons (0.2-4) ( ) ( ) e ( ) ( ) e ( ) (1-400) Anti-He/He D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 16 Anti-D/D

17 Subdetector/Magnet Assembly ( ) Schedule AMS CERN (2008) Installation on ISS (2009) AMS Space ESTEC (2008) and delivery to KSC KSC (2009) D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 17

18 Outlook & Conclusions NASA is back on track AMS assembly on track as well PAMELA up in space, will give important inputs to AMS-02 AMS-02 will provide CR measurements of excellent precision starting from 2009 AMS-02 complements GLAST for γ-rays Dark Matter and Antimatter sensitivities leave room for discoveries D. Haas, 6th Rencontres du Vietnam, August 2006, Page 18

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