Gamma Rays from Molecular Clouds and the Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays. Stefano Gabici APC, Paris

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1 Gamma Rays from Molecular Clouds and the Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays Stefano Gabici APC, Paris

2 The Origin of galactic Cosmic Rays Facts: the spectrum is (ALMOST) a single power law -> CR knee at few PeVs extremely isotropic, up to very high energies energy density -> ω CR = 1 ev/cm 3 δ = 2.7 CR knee δ = 3.0 extragalactic

3 The Origin of galactic Cosmic Rays Facts: the spectrum is (ALMOST) a single power law -> CR knee at few PeVs extremely isotropic, up to very high energies energy density -> ω CR = 1 ev/cm 3 Most popular explanation: acceleration in SuperNovaRemnants -> CR energy density if efficiency 10% diffusive shock acceleration -> roughly the required spectrum... propagation in the Galaxy -> isotropy δ = 2.7 CR knee δ = 3.0 extragalactic

4 Why is it so difficult? CR...magnetic field... CR source you We cannot do CR Astronomy. Need for indirect identification of CR sources.

5 Gamma-ray astronomy p + p p + p + π 0 π 0 γ + γ CR ISM E γ E CR /10 E peak = m π 0 2 same slope as CR spectrum FERMI IACT knee? 70 MeV 100 GeV 100 TeV

6 The E>100 MeV (FERMI)

7 We need to know: Which are the sources of CRs? which acceleration mechanism? -> injection spectrum total energy in CRs maximum energy of accelerated particles How do CRs propagate? magnetic field in the Galaxy spatial distribution of sources spatial distribution of CRs injected -> observed spectrum Which is the chemical composition of CRs?

8 We need to know: Which are the sources of CRs? which acceleration mechanism? -> injection spectrum total energy in CRs maximum energy of accelerated particles How do CRs propagate? magnetic field in the Galaxy spatial distribution of sources spatial distribution of CRs injected -> observed spectrum Which is the chemical composition of CRs?

9 Why molecular clouds? Molecular Clouds -> sites of star formation dense -> n ~ 100 cm -3 massive -> Mass up to 10 6 M

10 Why molecular clouds? Molecular Clouds -> sites of star formation dense -> n ~ 100 cm -3 massive -> Mass up to 10 6 M Cloud mass L γ σ c dv n CR n ISM = σ c n CR dv n CR n ISM M cl...because they are massive

11 Molecular Clouds are gamma-ray sources The galactic centre ridge as seen by HESS HESS collaboration, 2006

12 Molecular Clouds are gamma-ray sources The galactic centre ridge as seen by HESS good match between CS lines and TeV emission HESS collaboration, 2006

13 Molecular Clouds as CR barometers (Issa & Wolfendale, 1981 ; Aharonian, 1991) Zero-th order approximation: the CR spectrum everywhere in the Galaxy is identical to the spectrum we observe at Earth F γ = A ( Mcl d 2 ) known constant

14 Molecular Clouds as CR barometers (Issa & Wolfendale, 1981 ; Aharonian, 1991) Zero-th order approximation: the CR spectrum everywhere in the Galaxy is identical to the spectrum we observe at Earth F γ = A ( Mcl d 2 ) detectable with EGRET if: Akharonian, 1991 M 5 d 2 kpc > 10 only a few (Orion, Monoceros) -> Digel et al.2001 we need FERMI

15 Molecular Clouds as CR barometers F γ = A ( Mcl d 2 ) Conversely, if we know M cl and d (from CO measurements) we can derive A and estimate both the normalization and spectrum of CRs at the cloud -> Molecular Clouds are CR Barometers Two caveats: error in the determination of the mass (CO -> H2 conversion) effective penetration of CR into the cloud (if not see Gabici et al. 2007)

16 Detectability at TeV energies: the role of CTA Gamma-ray flux from the δ M 5 d 2 kpc T ev/cm 2 /s > ( ɛ CT A 0.1 ) ( ) θ 0.1 T ev/cm 2 /s flux from a passive cloud enhancement with respect to passive cloud mass and distance of the cloud Gabici, 2008

17 Detectability at TeV energies: the role of CTA Sensitivity of δ M 5 d 2 kpc T ev/cm 2 /s > ( ɛ CT A 0.1 ) ( ) θ 0.1 T ev/cm 2 /s HESS sensitivity divided by 10 how much CTA is better than HESS angular resolution Gabici, 2008

18 Detectability at TeV energies: the role of CTA Simplifying assumption: δ M 5 d 2 kpc T ev/cm 2 /s > ( ɛ CT A 0.1 ) ( ) θ 0.1 T ev/cm 2 /s all the clouds have the same density (~ 100 cm -3 ): θ 1 M 1/3 5 d kpc Gabici, 2008

19 Detectability at TeV energies: the role of CTA Detectability condition: d kpc < 2 δ M 2/3 5 HESS cannot detect passive clouds CTA will be able to detect local passive clouds (~ kpc distance scale) CTA (HESS) will probe the Cosmic Ray pressure in regions of the Galaxy where δ >> 1 (δ >> 10) Gabici, 2008

20 Tomography with gamma rays Casanova...SG...et al, 2009 NANTEN: CO (J=1-0) -> tracer of H 2 LAB HI Survey (Karberla et al 05) ASSUMPTION: CR spectrum is universal

21 Tomography with gamma rays Casanova...SG...et al, 2009 NANTEN: CO (J=1-0) -> tracer of H 2 LAB HI Survey (Karberla et al 05) ASSUMPTION: CR spectrum is universal 1 GeV ]!1 s!1 sr!1 TeV!2 Gamma!Ray Profile [ cm sum HI H Galactic Longitude [deg] 10 GeV ]!1 s!1 sr!1 TeV!2 Gamma!Ray Profile [ cm !3 sum HI H Galactic Longitude [deg] structured (clouds) smooth (gas) 100 GeV ]!1 s!1 sr!1 TeV!2 Gamma!Ray Profile [ cm !6 sum HI H2 1 TeV ]!1 s!1 sr!1 TeV!2 Gamma!Ray Profile [ cm ! sum HI H2 there s a peak here <- Gamma ray emission Galactic Longitude [deg] Galactic Longitude [deg]

22 Tomography with gamma rays Casanova...SG...et al, 1 GeV -> FERMI )!1 s!1 kpc!2 (photons cm!8 10 sum!9 10 HI H2 most of the emission comes from a relatively small region at D ~ 1-2 kpc!10 10! Distance (kpc) with FERMI data we will be able to use MCs to probe the CR spectrum in specific regions of the Galaxy

23 Montmerle s SNOBs adapted from Montmerle, 1979 ; Casse & Paul, 1980 Massive (OB) stars form in dense regions -> molecular cloud complexes OB stars evolve rapidly and eventually explode forming SNRs SNR shocks accelerate COSMIC RAYS CRs escape from their sources and diffuse away in the DENSE circumstellar material -> molecular cloud complex and produce there gamma rays! An association between cosmic ray sources and molecular cloud is expected

24 Conclusions Galactic Centre Ridge W28 IC443

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