1 Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University
2 Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas used to transfer shapes from an oval surface (the Earth surface more accurately, a model of it) onto a flat surface. (Map) Projection: a systematic presentation of intersecting coordinate lines on a flat surface upon which features from the curved surface of the earth or the celestial sphere may be mapped (Merriam Webster Dictionary). The two main reasons why map projections are needed: Maps and GIS data are most often displayed on flat surfaces, be it a paper sheet or a computer screen. Spatial calculations, such as distance, can be much easier performed within a two-dimensional coordinate system of a flat surface than a three-dimensional coordinate system of an oval (ellipsoid) surface.
3 Although GIS features are a model of real-world features existing on an oval surface, their positional references, i.e., x, y, coordinates, are stored and displayed in a GIS software within a plane coordinate system. The employed plane coordinate system is either projected or geographic. Projected coordinate systems are derived from map projections and geographic coordinate systems from latitude and longitude degrees. Coordinate systems are referenced to the physical earth surface through the use of datums. x y y x y x
4 The Shape of the Earth and the Model Representing It 6356 km The Earth is an irregular body. The shape of the Earth is given the form of a surface that is everywhere perpendicular to the direction of gravity so called equipotential surface. The force and direction of gravity are affected by irregularities in the density of the Earth s crust and mantle, therefore the Earth s form is somewhat irregular. The true shape of the Earth is described as a geoid, defined as that equipotential surface that most closely corresponds to mean sea level. The geoid, with its local irregularities, remains a difficult surface for spatial calculations, which is why a more simple model was chosen to represent the Earth the ellipsoid. The ellipsoid is an ellipse that has been rotated about its shortest (the minor) axis the reason why an ellipsoid is used as the model for the Earth is that the Earth is flattened at the poles, not by much though, 22 km over 6378 km km
5 Datum When creating an ellipsoid model, the goal is to get a model that best fits the Earth geoid. The mechanism through which an ellipsoid model, i.e., its coordinate system, is related to the Earth geoid is called geodetic datum, or just datum. A datum is realized by establishing physical monuments on the ground, which have x,y,z coordinates assigned to them, forming a geodetic coordinate reference system. Historically, the practice was to develop an ellipsoid model and a datum that make a good local fit to the Earth geoid; meaning that this level of fit would be lost in other areas on the Earth. With the advent of satellites, a global ellipsoid has been developed (as part of GRS 1980) that has been internationally accepted as the best fit globally and by the majority of countries as the model used locally as well. Local Ellipsoid Global Ellipsoid Source: Ilifee and Lott (2008).
6 Positions on the ellipsoid are expressed through a coordinate system. Ellipsoidal Coordinate System Source: Ilifee and Lott (2008). Latitude: the angle north or south from the equatorial plane. Longitude: the angle east or west from an identified meridian..
7 The formulae involved in computations based on ellipsoidal coordinates are complex and inappropriate when considering observation made to or from satellites. More appropriately, a set of Cartesian axes is defined with its origin at the centre of the ellipsoid. The center of the Geocentric Cartesian Coordinate System is at the centre of the model of the Earth, which may not coincide with the centre of the Earth. Geocentric Cartesian Coordinate System Source: Ilifee and Lott (2008).
8 International Terrestrial Reference System ( is realized through a geocentric Cartesian coordinate reference set known as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. It doesn t require an ellipsoid, the centre of the ITRS is at the mass centre of gravity of the Earth. Because tectonic plates are constantly moving, the physical stations with ITRF coordinates are constantly moving as well and their coordinates get updated for the velocity of the plate (of the location on the plate). GIS/index.php
9 Datums Commonly Used in Resource Management GIS in Canada WGS84 (World Geodetic System of 1984) - geodetic coordinate reference system (datum) developed and used by GPS. -WGS84 gets aligned with the ITRF, meaning that at high levels of accuracy it departs from the datums tied to a particular plate. - no physical monuments. NAD83 (North American Datum of 1983) -developed based on GRS 1980 the ellipsoid defined through the use of satellites. - tied to the North American tectonic plate, meaning that over time it diverges from WGS84 currently by ~1.5-2 m. NAD27 (North American Datum of 1927) - developed based on the Clarke Ellipsoid of discontinued from use but there are still quite a few GIS datasets with it. - its coordinate difference from NAD83 depends on the location ~20 m around Thunder Bay. To be measured in a different datum, the x,y position on the Earth needs to be transformed between the two datums. The datum transformation is especially important between the datums that significantly differ (for particular practical purposes); it can be very specific and needs to be paid attention to.
10 Map Projections - Distortions Projection refers to the notion of shining light through the earth surface and projecting latitudes, longitudes and geographic features onto a developable surface. Because of the transfer from an oval to a flat surface a degree of distortion is inevitable. A developable surface is such a surface that can be unravelled without increasing distortion a cylinder, cone, plane. However, a developable surface is not a necessary intermediary step in designing map projections some projections are defined in pure mathematical terms. Cylindrical Plane Conic Source: Ilifee and Lott (2008).
11 Distortions do not have to happen across all spatial aspects, they can be eliminated or drastically reduced in one aspect while recognizing their existence in other aspects. Preserving distances along the meridians Preserving shape Preserving areas Source: Ilifee and Lott (2008).
12 Map Projection Categories and Resulting Distortions Map Projection Category Maintained Distorted Equivalent (Equal-area) areal scale angle, shape, distance Equidistant Azimuthal Conformal distance (over some portions) angular relationships from a central point small shapes and because of that angles as well direction, area shape, distance, area large area
13 Secant projections, compared to tangent projections, result in increased low and decreased high distortion. Conical tangent and secant projection Cylindrical tangent and secant projection The points (lines) where the ellipsoid and the developable surface are in common become part of the map projection s parameters.
14 Projected features are placed within a plane, Cartesian coordinate system grid. The graticule represents meridians and parallels. Source: Ilifee and Lott (2008).
15 UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator) Projection Cylindrical, secant, conformal projection UTM projection is derived by positioning the cylinder east-west. Transverse indicates that the cylinder is perpendicular to the one in the standard Mercator projection, where it is positioned north-south. Universal points to the fact that the projection is world-wide UTM is made of 60 zones, 6 degrees of longitude wide (360/6 = 60), around the world, positioned north-south. Small shapes and local angles accurate. Area minimally distorted within each zone.
16 UTM Zone and Its Coordinate System 6 degrees of longitude wide ~ 672 km on the Equator, becoming narrower towards north and south. x and y coordinates are expressed in meters. The central meridian has a false easting of m to avoid negative values within a zone. x coordinates are expressed relative to the central meridian x coordinate; e.g., x = 400,000 in a zone means that the point is 100 km west from the zone s central meridian, and x = 600,000 means that the point is 100 km east from the zone s central meridian. The equator has a false northing of 10,000,000 m to avoid negative values in the southern hemisphere. Y coordinates in the northern hemisphere represent the distance from the Equator; in the southern hemisphere they represent 10,000,000 distance in meters from the equator. Stretches from 84 N to 80 S. Scale factor = 1 along secant meridians and along the central meridian. Secant longitude 180 km from the central meridian on the Equator. Secant meridians
17 The central meridian for each of the UTM zones lies on one of geographic meridians, six degrees apart from the central meridians on each side. UTM in Canada Canada stretches across 16 zones, 7-22 Ontario stretches across 4 zones, Thunder Bay is in UTM zone 16, which has meridian 87 for its central meridian; the central meridian for UTM zone 15 is at 93 (six degrees apart), and so on.
18 UTM Projection (cont d) UTM is suitable as a map projections for areas whose width is similar to the width of one UTM zone. Because many administrative areas cross UTM zone boundaries but are stored as features in a same dataset, a decision is then made in which UTM zone should the dataset be projected. Features covering an area that is wider than two UTM zones should be projected in another, more suitable, map projection, such as Canada Lambert Conformal Conic, in Canada. MNR used to apply false northing (y shift) of ,000 m to GIS datasets. These datasets would also have NAD27 for their datum.
19 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection Conformal, often secant projection, with two added parallels. Small shapes and local angles are accurate. Area minimally distorted near the standard parallels. Correct scale along the standard parallels. Parameters: Units 1 st standard parallel 2 nd standard parallel Central meridian Latitude of projection s origin Suitable for areas or countries extending east-west (Canada, USA), large and medium scales (widths of two or more UTM zones). Extremely widely used LCC and Transverse Mercator between them account for 90% of base map projections world wide. ESRI s Canada Lambert Conformal Conic is a customized map projection package that includes the datum NAD 1983 and is designed with parameters that suit the geographic extent of Canada.
20 Web Mercator Projection Started by Google in 2005 and has become the standard Web map projection, used in Google Maps, Bing Maps, OpenStreet Map, Web map services. Google Maps A mathematical formula that is a variant of the Mercator, cylindrical, projection. Ellipsoid coordinates are transferred onto a developable surface using the formulas of the spherical Mercator (Stefanakis 2015). Advantages: north-up orientation, quicker computation, easier tiling. Disadvantage: large deviations away from the Equator - ~40 km at 70 latitude (Stefanakis 2015). Should be used for visualizations only (correct spatial calculations on the Web are done on servers by transferring the coordinates back to the ellipsoid coordinates). Mercator projection of the world between 82 S and 82 N (
21 Meridians (Longitudes) and Parallels (Latitudes) Meridians lines of equal longitude, running pole to pole on the surface of the ellipsoid Parallels lines of equal latitude, running parallel to the equator on the surface of the ellipsoid. Source: (ArcGIS 10 Help 2012)
22 Geographic Coordinate System Not a map projection, it is a Cartesian coordinate system composed of longitudes (meridians) and latitudes (parallels), and expressed in decimal degrees. Longitudes range 180 degrees, start from Greenwich, positive to the east and negative to the west (International Date Line is on the opposite side of Greenwich). Latitudes range 90 degrees, start from the Equator and end on the poles, positive to the north and negative to the south. Decimal degrees (DD) are converted from degrees according to DD = deg + min/60 + sec/ (-180) (-90) As a standard point of geographic reference, GCS is often used in GIS datasets stored in broadly shared databases; however, GCS should never be used for display or for spatial calculations.
23 Contrary to datums, map projection positions (GIS data) can be straightforward converted (projected) between map projections (and back) without a loss in accuracy. This assumes that the datum stays the same. If the datum stays the same, no specification of transformation is required. E.g., a shapefile in UTM, Zone 16, NAD83, can be projected to a new shapefile, in the Canada Lambert Conformal Conic projection, and back, and features x,y coordinates should stay the same. As well, speaking of projecting data, GIS data geographically laying in UTM zone 16, for example, can be projected to any other UTM zone.
24 GIS Datasets and Map Projections in ArcGIS The description of the map projection of a shapefile is stored in its.prj file. GIS datasets can come in several different states with respect to map projections: (a) Dataset s projection is properly defined. (b) Dataset s projection is undefined. (c) Dataset s projection is improperly defined. thunder_bay.shp thunder_bay.shp thunder_bay.shp Y = X = thunder_bay.prj UTM, Zone 16, NAD83 Fix: - Y = X = ? Define the shapefile with the proper map projection. Y = X = thunder_bay.prj UTM, Zone 15, NAD83 Delete in Win. Expl. the.prj and the.xml files and define the shapefile with the proper map projection
25 Important tips in dealing with coordinate systems in GIS: - A dataset needs to have a defined coordinate system (map projection) in order to be projected into a different map projection. - A dataset which does not have a defined map projection (it lacks the projection,.prj, file) has to have its map projection defined to the map projection in which its features coordinates are. - A very common and grave mistake is to attempt to project a GIS file with an undefined map projection into a new map projection by assigning through the Define function the new map projection to the undefined file. A GIS file with an undefined map projection first needs to be properly defined (with the map projection in which the file`s features are), and then projected into a new map projection i.e., into a new file that now has features in the new map projection. - If a mistake is made in defining a projection for a shapefile, erase the projection file (.prj extension) and the metadata file (.xml extension) in the Microsoft file manager. - X and y values shown in ArcCatalog can be used to get a general idea about the projection if the definition is missing: y shift issue, UTM versus Lambert, decimal degrees versus x and y values, etc. - Try to create a habit of having all datasets with a defined projection.
26 Sources: ArcGIS 10 Help About Map Projections q htm (January 22, 2012) Ilifee J. and R. Lott Datums and Map Projections: For Remote Sensing, GIS and Surveying. Whittles Publishing. Furuti C. A Cartographical Map Projections. (January 20, 2011) Stefanakis, E Web Mercator: the de facto standard, the controversy, and the opportunity. Gogeomatics Magazine. mercator-the-de-factostandard-the-controversy-and-the-opportunity.htm#.
Map Projection and Coordinates The shape of the earth Models Sphere with radius of ~6378 km Ellipsoid (or Spheroid) with equatorial radius (semi-major axis) of ~6378 km and polar radius (semi-minor axis)
Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems Jamie Wolfe CITE Marshall University Huntington, WV - 25755 304-696-6042 Jawolfe@marshall.edu IS 645 Introduction to GIS Lecture 03, May 23, 2000 Today s class
Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose
SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical
EX 2 GEOREFERENCING Introduction A coordinate system (CS) provides a fundamental spatial framework to support the planning and development of a nation. All spatial data has a coordinate system to define
GIS 211 Map Projections & Coordinate Systems Chang Chapter 2 Dr W Britz Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter how much computers seem to have automated the
Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems key concepts Projections and Coordinate Systems Data Quality Meta Meta Data Projections and Coordinate Systems: Geographic Coordinate System Uses Uses 3D spherical
LA561 Computer Applications in LA (GIS) Map Projection Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview 1. Geographic coordinate
G492 GIS for Earth Sciences Map Projections and Coordinate Systems I. Introduction A. Fundamental Concern with Map Work 1. Maps / GIS a. 2-D representation of Earth surface b. locations of map features
UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and
GIS for Disaster Management Week 04 These slides are taken form Hongjie Xie; Earth shape models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short enough so that earth curvature
FieldGenius Technical Notes GPS Coordinate Systems Definition of a Datum A datum is a reference coordinate system which is defined by an origin, orientation and is physically tied to the surface of the
Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map
Georeferencing How do we make sure all our data layers line up? Georeferencing: = linking a layer or dataset with spatial coordinates Registration: = lining up layers with each other Rectification: =The
Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel
Geographic Coordinates or longitude/latitude will vary depending on the assumed shape of the globe 1 Latitude is the angle north or south (think ladder going north south) Longitude is the angle east or
Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections
Decoding the Mystery of Coordinates NHLSA TOWN MONUMENT LOCATION WORKSHOP UNH DURHAM, N.H. 8-11-2007 PART 1: THE DIFFERENT COORDINATE SYSTEMS Bob Moynihan UNH - TSAS Coordinate Systems 1 Decoding the Mystery
Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems A coordinate system is a 2- or 3-D reference frame used to specify locations on the earth. Many different coordinate systems exist, and each is defined by an origin,
Representing The Shape of the Earth Geoids Ellipsoids Datums Coordinate Systems Projections The Shape of the Earth 3 ways to model it Topographic surface the land/air interface complex (rivers, valleys,
GIS FINAL EXAM Projecting GIS data & map projections Plannimetric coordinates - systems that are expressed in measures of x and y values. Geographic coordinates - systems, on the other hand, are expressed
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic
Success with GPS Angie Schmidt, IDFG Geographic Coordinate Systems and Projections. Decimal Degrees and Degrees Minutes Seconds DNR Garmin for GPS waypoint management GPS tips Submitting coordinate information
Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework
GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,
State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS
1 TeachGIS White Paper Number 1: A Few Words on Locations, Coordinate Systems, and Projections When we hand draw a map on the back of an envelope or a napkin, it usually doesn t matter that the position
Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9-04-2012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 2-1 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes
Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running east-west lines of latitude (parallels)
GEODESY AND TOPOGRAPHY Andreas Illert Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy, Germany Keywords: Geoid, ellipsoid, map projection, control point network, global positioning system, survey, topographic
MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections All too often emphasis in map production is placed on becoming operational with GIS software while neglecting basic, yet important, map design principals. For many mapmakers,
NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 2014-02-18 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC
From Topographic Maps to Digital Elevation Models Anne Graham Daniel Sheehan MIT Libraries IAP 2013 Which Way Does the Water Flow? A topographic map shows relief features or surface configuration of an
Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the
Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems You will always find parallels and meridians on largescale maps This is done to make the map a very close approximation to the size and shape of the piece of
OBJECTIVES This exercise involves understanding map scale and coordinate systems. You will learn to read geographic coordinates in latitude/longitude, the State Plane Coordinate System, and the Universal
UTM and UPS James R. Clynch 2003 I. Introduction The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection coordinates occur on most topographic maps. This is the Northing and Easting coordinates discussed below.
Coordinate Systems, Datum and Map Projection Dr. Maher A. El-Hallaq Lecturer of Surveying The Islamic University of Gaza Every map user and maker should have a basic understanding of projections no matter
An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March 2013 S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University Agenda What is GIS? Basic GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcGIS Coordinates
Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial
The following is an appendix from: Strindberg, S. In prep. Optimized Automated Survey Design in Wildlife Population Assessment. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of St. Andrews. Appendix B: Geographic
PTV VISUM TIPS & TRICKS: HOW TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE COORDINATE SYSTEM? I imported network data in WGS84, calculated my link lengths, but they are all still zero. Why is that and how can I get to correct
Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from
The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones
internal report WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications JBC Lowry Hydrological and Ecological Processes Program Environmental Research
An introduction to Coordinate Reference Systems 27/11/2009 1. Introduction A coordinate that defines a position on the Earth is ambiguous unless its coordinate reference system (CRS) is defined. This ambiguity
The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems Intro to Mapping & GIS The Earth is Flat Day to day, we live life in a flat world sun rises in east, sets in west sky is above, ground is below
Earth Models and Maps James R. Clynch, Naval Postgraduate School, 2002 I. Earth Models Maps are just a model of the world, or a small part of it. This is true if the model is a globe of the entire world,
G302 Review of Maps / Topographic Maps I. Introduction A. Map- a 2-d, scaled representation of the earth's surface, 1. Model of Earth's Surface 2. Basic functions: to represent horizontal distance, direction,
An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa Centuries ago people believed that the earth was flat and notwithstanding that if this had been true it would have produced serious problems for mariners
INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences September 13, 2010 Outline What is geographical / spatial analysis and why do we care? Different types
C H A P T E R 1 IDENTIFYING THE TYPE OF COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR DATA USING ARCMAP My boss told me to make a map using ArcMap, but when I add the data, I get an error message that says missing spatial reference
WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS N & E State Plane Coordinates for Control Points AZIMUTHS - True, Geodetic, or Grid - Conversion from Astronomic to Geodetic (LaPlace Correction)
CANVAS 11 GIS+ blends native support for Geographic Information System (GIS) data with the full range of illustration tools and features found within CANVAS 11 Professional Edition. This tutorial describes
Geodesy and Datums Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system Defining the Ellipsoid The Earth is not perfectly round Fatter around the waist (equator) Flattened at the Poles To define this unique
Lab 9: Topographic Maps 151 Lab 9: TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS Topographic maps are rich sources of geographic information. Geologic maps are commonly constructed upon topographic base maps, and much geological mapping,
State Plane Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular
An ArcGIS Tutorial Concerning Transformations of Geographic Coordinate Systems, with a Concentration on the Systems Used in Lao PDR. Introduction...3 PART 1, A Theoretical Background about Coordinate Systems...3
Version 2 A technical guide to datums and projections in New Zealand Government of South Australia Adapted by Graeme Blick, Land Information New Zealand from Where in the World Are We Australia by Andrew
Plotting GPS derived Coordinates on a Map Introduction to GPS Global Positioning Systems (GPS) is a technology whereby a constellation of satellites sends out signals which can be received by a GPS receiver
GPS Conversions by Lloyd Borrett (www.borrett.id.au) There are many problems associated with locating dive sites using a GPS receiver. But first it helps if you understand the way the position is given.
TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTIONS AND U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DIGITAL PRODUCTS Larry Moore U.S. Geological Survey ABSTRACT A common question about U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital raster graphics (DRG)
European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June
2 GIS concepts To use GIS effectively, it is important to understand the basic GIS terminology and functionality. While each GIS software has slightly different naming conventions, there are certain principles
What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map Types of Maps: (just a few that we may be using) Political Maps Shows borders of states,
Aligning Local Transverse Mercator (LTM) Grids with UTM Grids such as the Papua New Guinea Map Grid (PNGMG) Richard Stanaway Quickclose Pty. Ltd., Box 1364, Carlton, VIC, 3053, Australia email: email@example.com
Reading Assignment Geography 12: Maps and Mapping Lecture 10: Map Projections I Monmonier, Drawing the Line, The Peters Projection Controversy (handout) No Battersby and Montello article But an interesting
PART IV: COORDINATES AND MAP PROJECTIONS 4.1 Introduction As it is well known, the earth is a spherical surface. For most small-area projects, surveyors treat the earth as a plane. The differences between
COMPOSED AND PRODUCED BY : Chris Rule. Permission is granted for use by acknowledging the author s name. UTM stands for Universal Transverse Mercator which is a technical term for the type of map projection.
Week 6 More About UTM Universal Transverse Mercator UTM Developed by US Army Corps Eng. & Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) in 1947 Originally used Clarke 1866 ellipsoid used for the U.S. (International Ellipsoid
P-153 CONVERSION OF COORDINATES BETWEEN THE GAUSS-KRÜGER AND UTM CARTOGRAPHIC PROJECTION SYSTEMS ON TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS IN ROMANIA AND REPUBLIC OF MOLDAVIA FOR GIS USE NICA D.C. Al. I. Cuza University, IASI,
Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 I. Latitude and Longitude on Spherical Earth Latitude and longitude are the grid lines you see on globes. For a spherical earth these are
DATUM SHIFTS AND DIGITAL MAP COORDINATE DISPLAYS Larry Moore U.S. Geological Survey firstname.lastname@example.org Revised March, 2001 Paper maps may be printed with reference points for several different grid systems.
Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5 Coordinate reference system definition recommended practice Revision history Version Date Amendments 2.1 January 2009 In example c corrected value for inverse flattening
Maps and Cartography: Map Projections A Tutorial Created by the GIS Research & Map Collection Ball State University Libraries A destination for research, learning, and friends What is a map projection?
THE STATUS OF THE GEODETIC INFRASTRUCTURE FOR JAMAICA Trevor Shaw Director of Surveys and Mapping National Land Agency Jamaica Trevor.email@example.com Contents Introduction The National Triangulation of
GMT TECHNICAL REFERENCE & COOKBOOK 5 14 5.4 Cylindrical Projections 5.4.1 Mercator Projection ( Jm or JM) Probably the most famous of the various map projections, the Mercator projection takes its name
Surveying and Mapping coastal zones and local level coastal zone management plans ( CZMP) Dr.S.S.Ramakrishnan Professor INSTITUTE OF REMOTE SENSING, ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI. Steps involved Demarcation
MANAGING COMMON OREGON MAP PROJECTIONS IN ARC MAP I. Common Map Projections Used in the State of Oregon The following text blocks provide a listing of the critical parameters for UTM Zone10 N, StatePlane
EECS467: Autonomous Robotics Laboratory Prof. Edwin Olson Map Projections and GPS Cartography Several purposes of maps Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - Where is stuff? Measure distances, etc. Navigation
PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH D M STILLMAN Abstract Detail surveys measured with a total station use local coordinate systems. To make the data obtained from such surveys compatible with Google
What is GPS? Global Positioning System (GPS) The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere
WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams -Laboratory- TAs and Lab Instructors: Chris McGinty firstname.lastname@example.org Office: JQL 146 Office Hours: W 2:30 3:30 or by appt. Alex Hernandez email@example.com
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) regarding NAD 83(NSRS2007) 1. Why is the readjustment important? The National Geodetic Survey (NGS) readjusted 67,693 GPS survey control points in the U.S. to the nationwide