Applied Behavior Analysis Speech Practices for Autism Spectrum Disorders

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1 Applied Behavior Analysis Speech Practices for Autism Spectrum Disorders November 16, 2007 Douglass Developmental Disabilities Center Renee Downing-Van Ness M.A., CCC- SLP Stacey Liebross M.S., CCC-SLP

2 Our goals for today Discuss ABA and how it s s application is relevant to SLP s s in the clinical setting Discuss a variety of teaching methods within the field of ABA Discuss effective ways to support the various teaching methods Discuss the conceptual framework of B. F. Skinner s s Verbal Behavior Theory and it s s implications for teaching language to learners on the Autism Spectrum

3 ABA Definition Applied Behavior Analysis is the science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree and to demonstrate experimentally that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement in behavior. Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987

4 What does this mean?????? ABA makes meaningful changes in people s s lives through use of procedures that have been demonstrated to work

5 Core Characteristics of ABA Interventions based upon empirically validated research Includes direct observation Highly individualized instruction Ongoing assessment and data collection Data-driven decision making

6 Core Characteristics of ABA Assessment of outcome is based on skill acquisition, maintenance over time, and generalization to real-life life settings A humanistic approach focused on quality of life and meaningful change Utilize antecedent strategies, positive reinforcement, and other consequences to produce behavior change

7 What makes ABA effective? Specificity of goals Linked to thorough assessment Data based decision making Dynamic programming Intensity Ratio Hours Number of learning opportunities

8 The important role of ABA within the field of Speech Language Pathology School Districts are currently moving towards including ABA classes SLP s s are required to collaborate within ABA programs To collaborate effectively SLP s need to have a working knowledge of ABA

9 The important role of a Speech Language Pathologist within the field of ABA SLP s s have an expertise in speech and language that is necessary for a comprehensive ABA program Anatomy and Language Disorders Developmental patterns and norms Augmentative communication

10 Current practices of Speech Language Pathologist s Establish Rapport Shaping Reinforce Behavior Management Activity-Based Instruction Incidental Teaching Data Collection

11 Teaching methods implemented in the field of ABA Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI) Natural Environment Teaching Naturalistic Teaching Strategies Incidental Teaching Shaping Task Analysis/Chaining Fluency-Based Instruction it s not stuttering

12 Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI) The term discrete stresses the need to recognize each individual teaching moment as separate and distinct Each trial has a definite beginning and end DTI breaks down tasks into specific, focused instructional demands The format of Discrete Trial Instruction is very conducive to systematic data collection and tracking the student s performance Relies on intensity and structure

13 Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI) Antecedent-Behavior Behavior- Consequence SD Stimulus or setting event that occurs prior to the behavior of interest Response The specific instance of a particular behavior

14 Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI) Consequence An environmental change (stimulus) that follows a given behavior in a relatively immediate temporal sequence and alters the future probability of that behavior

15 The evolution of DTI Move from traditional block trials to task interspersals previously mastered materials interspersed with targets Errorless procedures prevention and interruption of errors antecendent strategy Most to least prompting

16 Natural Environment Teaching Takes place in typical environment Based on Learner s s interest and current motivation Developed by Sundberg and Partington Uses Skinner s s Verbal Behavior to develop an instructional model and curricular progression

17 Natural Environment Teaching Item chosen by child Variation in instructional targets every few trials Loose shaping contingencies Natural reinforcers Playful interactions

18 Incidental Teaching The student initiates the teaching by indicating an interest Based on the interest expressed strategies are used to evoke a elaboration of the response The elaboration provides access to the item of interest

19 Incidental Teaching Makes use of the natural environment Capitalizes on periods of high motivation to facilitate learning Makes use of naturally occurring reinforcers Reinforces an important class of behaviors (initiations)

20 Shaping The differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a specified target behavior One member of a response class is reinforced while others previously emitted members of the same response class is not (e.g., /b/ vs. ball)

21 Task Analysis/Chaining A specific sequence of responses each associated with a particular stimulus condition. Dirty hands Each response in the sequence changes the environment so as to produce reinforcement for the preceding response as well as to serve as the SD for the next response within the chain When individual responses are linked together the result is a behavior chain Washing hands

22 Task Analysis/Behavior Chains Definition: a detailed description of each behavior needed to accomplish a behavioral objective specific to the student s s ability level. Steps in the chain specify in order the exact behavior the student must perform to reach the behavioral objective.

23 Fluency Based Instruction Definition: The fluid combination of accuracy plus speed that characterizes competent performance (Binder, 1966) Fluency is achieved by procedures such as ratebuilding/precision teaching

24 Fluency Based Instruction SEAR checks stability (in distraction) endurance (over longer periods of time) application (with novel materials or instructors) retention of the skill over time

25 Best Practices within the Field of ABA Motivational Operations Pairing Manding Pace of instruction Latency Behavioral Momentum Errorless Learning Data Collection

26 Motivational Operations What is It? What is wanted What s s it s s importance? An Sd will not evoke a particular response (and subsequently access reinforcment) if there is no MO in effect for the reinforcement

27 Motivational Operations How do I contrive and capture MO s? Create a rich environment Organize the environment so that items are not easily accessible to the student Observe behavior to see if MO continues to be effective Knowledge of Deprivation and Satiation

28 Pairing The process of making the person working with the student a conditioned reinforcer by pairing themselves with delivery of reinforcement

29 Pairing Pairing can be achieved by Limiting free access to rewards Embedding self into highly preferred activities to improve the quality of the reinforcment Limiting demands placed on student

30 Pairing Pairing should be done During first interaction with the student When the student becomes satiated on current MO Should be ongoing

31 REMEMBER!!!! Identifying the MO and pairing lay the foundation for instructional control in the future

32 Pace of Instruction Rate of demands per minute High rates of demand Decrease opportunity for challenging behavior Capitalize on behavioral momentum Relates to fluency Helps student maintain attention Variables that effect pace Data collection Setting up next trial

33 Latency Time between the SD and the initiation of the response Short latency Strengthens SD-R R relationship Promotes fluency Promote short latencies by prompting quickly training to fluency differentially reinforcing shorter latency

34 Behavioral Momentum The increase of the future probability of correct responding by establishing a high rate of successful responding Behavioral momentum will lower error rate reduce learner frustration Promote behavioral momentum by individualizing the ratio of demands to reinforcement Task interpersals-mixing mastered skills with more difficult skills (80-20)

35 Errorless Learning Goal of errorless learning is to establish the relationship of the response and the natural stimulus by minimizing the execution of errors Accomplished through the fading of prompts Prompt is an extra stimulus presented simultaneously with the SD or immediately after the SD to facilitate a correct response from the student Systematically used to promote skills For skill acquisition prompts go from most to least For acquired skills prompts go from least to most

36 Errorless Learning For non-verbal responses: full physical partial physical shadowing spatial fading stimulus fading For verbal responses: verbal models full faded

37 Error Correction Procedure Error correction consists of a controlling prompt paired with a natural stimulus Pairing the SD with controlling prompts maintains the relationship between the SD and the correct response which prevents errors from becoming part of the response chain

38 Error Correction Procedure General Error Correction Flow Student responds incorrectly Staff represents SD with a controlling prompt Intersperse with acquired skills Staff represents SD with a controlling prompt Intersperse with acquired skills Staff tests effectiveness of prompts (allows opportunity to respond without prompt) If prompt not successful, staff repeats SD again with a different controlling prompt or teaching strategy Prompts are faded as quickly as possible

39 Data Collection Data collection provides information for program planning and decision making for analyzing the effects of environmental arrangements on behavior

40 Data Collection Percentage data Data is collected for every learning opportunity Total is calculated at the end of the session Staff can still mix trials in this format

41 First trial data Data Collection Interested in first learning opportunity of a session (twice a day, twice a week, etc) Recently associated with verbal behavior

42 Answers What questions about current activity 90/2 Sessions Ga=90/3 What are You doing? a. m. p. m. Receptive ID of item given function 80/3 Sessions Ga=80/3 Touch.. Show me.. Where s.. pic/obj field of 8-10 a. m. p. m. Receptively Identifies familiar People 90/2 Sessions Ga=80/3 Touch.. Show me.. Where s.. pic/person field of 5-7 a. m. p. m. Receptively identifies reinforcing and common items 90/2 Sessions Ga=90/3 Touch.. Find.. pic/obj field of 8-10 a. m. p. m. p. m.

43 Data Displays Graphing Provide visual picture of student performance Organizes results Allows for communication of progress Aids in data-based decision making

44 Sits in chair and eats during meals (at home) Set 3 Set 2 Set 1 Baseline 10/31/ /29/ /27/ /25/ /23/ /21/ /19/ /17/ /15/ /13/ /11/ /9/ /7/ /5/ /3/ /1/2007 9/29/2007 9/27/2007 9/25/2007 9/23/2007 9/21/2007 9/19/2007 9/17/2007 9/15/2007 9/13/2007 9/11/2007 9/9/2007 9/7/2007 9/5/2007 9/3/2007 9/1/2007 8/30/2007 8/28/2007 8/26/2007 8/24/2007 8/22/2007 8/20/2007 8/18/2007 8/16/2007 8/14/2007 8/12/2007 8/10/2007 8/8/2007 8/6/2007 8/4/2007 8/2/2007 7/31/2007 7/29/2007 7/27/ Date Percent Independent

45 Verbal Behavior: Introduction Where are we now? ABA is empirically validated as an effective treatment for students with ASD Within ABA, Skinner s s analysis of verbal behavior has received increased attention over the past several years With respect to VB, professionals have become educated in regards to its history, conceptual framework, terminology and implementation into curriculum VB is a conceptual language framework, NOT an instructional framework

46 Verbal Behavior: Introduction Incorporate concepts of VB with empirically validated teaching strategies to create a comprehensive ABA program

47 Advantages of using Verbal Behavior Classifications Verbal Behaviors teaches us about the functions of language When all functions are addressed, language programming is more comprehensive Research indicates skills do not transfer across functions (i.e., a child may be able to label but not request for an item)

48 Verbal Behavior Language is Behavior It is influenced by reinforcement, motivation, extinction, and punishment Concerned with the behavior of the speaker Listener is the mediator of reinforcement for the speakers behavior

49 Verbal Behavior It is social It involves more than one person, not just the learner and the environment Any response form that involves a social interaction between speaker and listener is verbal behavior Crying Clapping for attention Gestures Writing

50 Verbal Behavior Verbal operant: types or parts of language defined by their function Echoic/Mimetic (sign) Mand Tact Intraverbal

51 Verbal Behavior It is what determines or controls the response or behavior What is the antecedent? What is the consequence? What is the form of the response?

52 Brief descriptions of Skinner s expressive behaviors Echoic: verbal imitation Mand: request Tact: label Intraverbal: to and fro conversational exchange, answering questions, filling in missing words of songs and phrase

53 Echoics Matches what the person hears Echoing sounds, words and phrases without prompts with strong reinforcers

54 Echoic Antecedent Behavior Consequence Verbal or vocal stimulus Cookie Verbal or vocal stimulus Cookie Educational Great job!!! MMMM MMMM Tickles and super

55 Manding A mand names its reinforcer A mand benefits the speaker by satisfying MO s s by obtaining specific reinforcement A mand allows the learner to effect his or her environment

56 Importance of manding Mand training enables the instructor to know what functions as a reinforcer Mand training enables the instructor to establish oneself as an agent of reinforcement Manding has traditionally received little attention in DTI programs

57 Elements of manding Can be verbal, sign language, PECS or ACS Increase learners vocabulary Increase mean length of utterance Use carrier phrases Teach attributes, actions, etc. Increase use of advanced mands Asking wh questions

58 Manding Antecedent Behavior Consequence Motivation (EO/MO) Hunger Verbal or vocal stimulus, gesture, sign Cookie Receive item indicated by behavior Gets a cookie Difficult task I I need help Receives help

59 Tacting The ability to label common items and actions Communicates what the person sees, hears, tastes, and smells Involves child as speaker vs. child as listener Involves coming up with correct words and pronouncing it correctly

60 Tacting Antecedent Behavior Consequence Items in the environment Sees a dog Sees a ball Verbal stimulus, or sign Says Doggie Signs ball Social/Educati onal That s s right a doggie Your right, that s s a ball

61 Intraverbals Allows the speaker to talk about objects and events even though those objects and events are not present Includes conversations (answering questions, participating in reciprocal conversation) Early intraverbals include filling in the blanks and finishing song lines and association pairs

62 Intraverbals Antecedent Behavior Consequence Someons else s s verbal behavior What s s your name? What did you eat for lunch? Verbal stimulus, sign Says Mary Signs pizza Social/Educati onal That s s right or Nice to meet you That sounds good

63 Skinners receptive behaviors Receptive Imitation - Copying someone s motor movements RFFC

64 Skinners receptive behaviors Receptive The ability to understand and act upon specific words Following instructions or complying with the mands of others Daily routine Doing actions Touching items

65 Skinners receptive behaviors Receptive by function, feature and class Identifies the ability to react to an object not by name, but when told something about the object (its feature, function or class) or when given a verbal instruction that varies from the specifically trained instruction Learners must be able to respond to the many variations in verbal instructions that are related to everyday objects and actions in the environment

66 Activity Verbal Operant activity Read the example and identify the verbal operant: Teacher asks the student, What is your name? and the student exchanges an icon that has a picture of him and the name, Michael underneath it. During snack time, child walks up to their parent and signs, more chips While walking outside with the babysitter, the child hears fire engines in the distance and says to the babysitter, a firetruck! Teacher says to the student, ball and the student responds, ball. ball. At home, the parent is setting the table. They turn to their child and say, go to the kitchen and get something to eat with. Give an example for the following verbal operants: Tact Echoic/Mand Expressive ID of an item by feature, function, or class

67 Why is this important in Autism? Deficits in all functions of language are common Manding is important to increase spontaneity and balance other teacher directed ABA teaching methods Intraverbals build reciprocity and the foundation of social interaction Echoics can address issues of articulation, intelligibility and pacing Tacting can increase commenting skills

68 Sample Lesson Plan for Snack Manding - child requests napkin, snack, drink from adults as well as peers Receptive - child points to, giving peers objects either by label or by feature, function or class Tact - child labels objects, actions, or people. Intraverbals - WH questions (What are some things you drink?)

69 References Sundberg,, M.L, & Partington,, J.W. (1998). Teaching Language to Children with Autism or Other Developmental Disabilities. Behavior Analysts, Inc.

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