QUANTITATIVE MARKETING RESEARCH

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1 Masaryk Univrsiy Facly f Ecnics and Adinisrain Fild f sdy: Bsinss Managn QUANTITATIVE MARKETING RESEARCH Dipla wrk Thsis sprvisr: Ing. Radslav ŠKAPA, Ph.D. Ahr: Ilya SHAIDEROV Brn, 2012

2 ii Masaryk Univrsiy Facly f Ecnics and Adinisrain Dparn f Crpra Ecny Acadic yar 2010/2011 ASSIGNMENT OF DIPLOMA THESIS Fr: Fild: Til: Shaidrv Ilya Bsinss Managn Qaniaiv Marking Rsarch P r i n c i p l s f h s i s w r i i n g: Objciv f h hsis: Th bjciv f h hsis is cndc an individal rsarch prjc. Apprach and hds sd: Th ahr is xpcd : 1. sggs a arking-rlad rsarch pic (.g. cnsr rsarch), 2. prpar a rsarch dsign ha ilizs h qaniaiv analyical hds, 3. cllc h daa, 4. analyz h daa sing saisical hds and 5. inrpr h rsls.

3 ii Th xn f graphical wrks: accrding h sprvisr's gidlins, h asspin is ab 10 chars and graphs Th hsis lngh wih appndics: pags Lis f spcialis lirar: Cpr, Dnald R. - Schindlr, Pala S. Bsinss rsarch hds. 8h d. Bsn: McGraw-Hill, xix, 857 s. ISBN Sih, Sc M. - Alba, Grald S. Fndanals f arking rsarch. Thsand Oaks: Sag, xii, 881 s. ISBN Malhra, Narsh K. Marking rsarch: an applid rinain. 6h d., Glbal diin. Bsn: Parsn, s. ISBN Hair, Jsph F. - Bsh, Rbr P. - Orina, David J. Marking rsarch: wihin a changing infrain nvirnn. 3rd d. Bsn: McGraw-Hill, xxvii, 700. ISBN Skaran, Ua - Bgi, Jhan Rgr Gisbr. Rsarch hds fr bsinss: a skill bilding apprach. 5h d. Chichsr: Wily, xx, 468 s. ISBN Dipla hsis sprvisr: Ing. Radslav Škapa, Ph.D. Da f dipla hsis assignn: 20/3/2011 Sbissin dadlin fr Dipla hsis and is nry in h IS MU is prvidd in h valid Acadic Calndar. Dparn Had Dan In Brn n 20/3/2011

4 iii Absrac Th bjciv f his papr is analyz h rasns fr chsing Masaryk Univrsiy ang inrnainal sdns sdying in English langag; and idnify h ways n hw iprv Masaryk Univrsiy vrall aracivnss ang his ark sgn basd n bs pracic slins in his sphr and baind priary daa. Th rnd f h wrk rprsns hrical analysis f arking rsarch insighs and hir frhr applicain in pracical par. Pracical par cnsiss f srvy dsign and is iplnain alng wih cllcd daa analysis and fr rcndains. Explrary rsarch has bn chsn as a rsarch dsign in rdr clarify rlvan isss and ncvr variabls assciad wih a rsarch gal. Priary daa was cllcd hrgh srcrd qaniaiv qsinnairs which gahrd 26 rspndns. Daa was cdd and ablad by Micrsf Excl spradsh applicain. Rsls sggs ha crrn and prspciv sdns prciv w s ipran criria fr chsing Masaryk Univrsiy: ppl which is cpiiv acadic saff and plyabiliy afr gradain. Tw hr criria: prcsss and physical vidnc wr n in sdns ain cncrn, vn hgh Masaryk Univrsiy has abv avrag scrs f hs w criria. S i has bn rcndd iprv prvis w criria ( ppl and plyabiliy) alng wih prin h hr w ( prcsss and physical vidnc ). KEYWORDS: arking rsarch, highr dcain, qaniaiv rsarch, arking ix, viral arking, wbsi analyics, blgs, arking Dclarain I dclar ha his wrk has bn cpld by indpndnly ndr h dircin f Ing. Radslav Škapa, Ph.D. I hav sd n srcs r aids hr han hs cid. Brn, Ilya Shaidrv

5 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This wrk wld n gain sch acadic and pracical wigh as i wld n b ndr cnsan crdinain f Ing. Radslav Škapa, Ph.D.: his prsisnc and painc. Chsing a pic and frhr hrical and pracical iplicains in his wrk wr spprd by y inrnal ivain rly cndc all sps f arking rsarch. Tpic Qaniaiv arking rsarch, prpsd by Ing. Radslav Škapa, Ph.D. was indd shing I was lking fr. I ncpasss w ain sps in any rsarch: hry and is iplicain which y pin f viw prpars a gd spcialis fr h prfssinal carr. I a als grafl all rspndns wh paricipad in y srvy fr hir i and sris apprach his prcss. Brn, in April 2012 Ilya Shaidrv Nbr f wrds:

6 v ACRONYMS HE Highr dcain MU Masaryk Univrsiy

7 vi Tabl f Cnns INTRODUCTION... 1 LITERATURE REVIEW THEORETICAL PART Marking vrss Mark rsarch Qaniaiv vrss Qaliaiv Rsarch Marking Rsarch Prcss Th Rsarch Plan Masrn Dsigning Qsinnairs Inaccracy Abigiy Hins iprv qaliy f qsinnair: Sapling prcdrs in Marking Rsarch Ediing, Cding and Dscripiv Analysis Rsarch Errrs PRACTICAL PART Marking Rsarch Prcss Applid Analysis and inrprain f daa Scndary daa Priary daa RESEARCH REPORT CONCLUSION REFERENCES Appndix A: Qsinnair... 54

8 1 INTRODUCTION Th lns f glbalizain in highr dcain (HE) ar widsprad and lifacd and h HE ark is nw wll sablishd as a glbal phnnn, spcially in h ajr-english spaking nains: Canada, h US, Asralia and h UK. In h cnx f incrasing cpiin fr h-basd and vrsas sdns, highr dcainal insiins nw rcgniz ha hy nd ark hslvs in a clia f inrnainal cpiin. (Hsly-Brwn J.V. and Oplaka, I.,2006) Th ain ida f his rsarch is analyz scndary infrain ab HE arking arnd h wrld dc pnial slins MU (Masaryk Univrsiy) prbl (aracin f inrnainal sdns). Afr his s f pnial slins will b dvlpd, hr will b nx sp vrificain n h xn f hs slins ach wih ral MU siain. T g his vrificain rsarchr shld prcd bain priary daa inclding qsins ha will prv r disprv wrld pracics in HE arking slins. Th final rsl f his prcdr will b ix f prvd MU prbls which xis in wrld pracics (slins will b applid accrding scndary daa) and prbls which inhrn nly in MU nivrsiy (in his cas rsarchr shld prps pnial slins which will iprv crrn siain). In rdr incras accracy f priary daa cllcin cn rsarch rrrs will b akn in cnsidrain and vrifid accrding prpsd prcdrs. Errrs ar brifly nind in h pracical par b h daild xplanain f s f h will ak plac nly if n f hs will aris dring h rsarch prcss. Rsarch gal f his sdy is idnify ways n hw incras sdns` inflw in MU by ans f dcing gnral prfrncs f MU csrs (prspciv and crrn sdns). Th ivain rach his gal is cing fr h scndary infrain gahrd. Dspi h fac ha HE arking is a nw sra in arking islf, hr ar any ls n hw incras sdns nrlln. Univrsiy pnial incras inrnainal sdns inflw drivs fr nivrsiy iag, rpain, branding, bil arking, Ggl analyics and any r which is xplaind in scndary infrain par. Mivain iprv MU HE arking aciviis cs fr h pin ha crrn sdns hav r pssibiliis ravl abrad. I has bn siad ha r han 1.6

9 2 illin sdns sdy sid f hir h cnris, wih r han 547,000 sdying in h Unid Sas. (Pipa, 2003) S hr is a hg pnial fr nivrsiis arac inrnainal sdns hrgh arking capaigns. In his wrk MU cnsidrs as an rganizain which has a gal incras qaniy f sdns nrlld fr abrad. Fr his rasn any cpany shld ndrsand is csr (nds, hras, and pprniis). Usally cpany has svral cagris f csrs. S by bcas hy find yr pric b h lws, s bcas hy find yr srvics b sanding, whil s prchas fr y bcas f yr rpain in h indsry. (Rdrigz, 2004) Evn hgh hr is s f cagris f csrs, h ain far always xiss. S, his wrk is dvd dpic h ain csr fr Masaryk Univrsiy. Fr his prps qaniaiv arking rsarch is a l slv his. Diffrn cagris f csrs giv criria iprv sals fr a cpany. I is ipran ha y knw wha csrs cnsidr s valabl ab yr prdcs r srvics. (Rdrigz, 2004). Tha is why qaniaiv arking rsarch wld bring p hs vals f h MU dcain fr frhr iprvn. Mrvr i will display disadvanags f MU highr dcain which afr all shld b iprvd ak h as advanags. Rsls f arking rsarch hav svral cnsqncs. Th firs n, cpany gs clsr is csr and i can pr is prdcs accrding csr characrisics in scial class, lifsyl, arial sas and c. Th scnd n, cpany igh rdsign is prdc r srvic accrding spcific advics f csrs. And las n is ha a cpany can find n r arg ark which rspnds cpany arking ix. All hs is allw arking anagr crysalliz is arg ark and giv ways incras sals. B h final dsinain fr a cpany is ransfr fr ark drivn niy ark driving n. An aricl pblishd by Jarwski, Khli and Sahay in 2000 yar Mark-Drivn Vrss Driving Marks sas ha in gnral hr ar w ain sragis ark rinain: 1) radiinal ark drivn apprach basd n ndrsanding and racing h prfrncs f csrs and acins f playrs (csrs, cpirs) wihin a givn ark srcr and 2) driving arks by inflncing h srcr f h ark and/r h bhavir f ark playrs (csrs, cpirs) in a dircin which wld nhanc h psiin f h fcal bsinss. (Khli, Sahay 2000) Thy als argd ha hs w apprachs ar cplnary bcas a cpany can in h bginning s ark drivn

10 3 apprach sppr is sals and gnra prfi and afr shif r ark driving apprach. In gnral i is difficl sa ha ark driving apprach is h fr fr all cpanis which sk sccss fr a lng r. B hr is crainy ha if a cpany kps rack n crrn ndncis n h ark i igh prps s prdcs which wld b highly dandd in h shrs fr. Vyas and Schn (2003) argd ha xprinc in spcific arks igh lad iniiv ndrsanding f csrs` fr nds r wans ha wld facilia a ark driving apprach fcsd n said csrs` nsad r nknwn nds. Onc a cpany nds knw is csr, h nly way d i is ask a csr. I can b dn by ans f priary r scndary rsarchs which hav svral prs and cns. Als priary rsarch has w pins qaniaiv r qaliaiv arking rsarch. LITERATURE REVIEW Th dfiniin f dcain arking was crad by (Klr and Fx, 1985) in h fllwing fr: Th analysis, planning, iplnain and cnrl f carflly frlad prgras dsignd bring ab vlnary xchangs f vals wih a arg ark achiv rganizainal bjcivs. Th cncpin f a clin in h riary dcain sphr was n f h ain pics in 1990s. Fr xapl, (Cnwy, 1994) highlighs ha hr ar w prspcivs f appraching a nivrsiy clin. In h firs cas, h clins ar sdns wh ar ffrd sdy prgras by nivrsiis. In h scnd nin, h clins ar plyrs and cpanis wh sdns prsn h prdc f h nivrsiy. Sdns rain as a ain arg grp fr nivrsiis and arking cnicains dircd hir nds and prfrncs. Fr his pin applicabiliy f radiinal arking rsarch prcss aks plac. Thrgh dscripin is givn by (Sih and Alba, 2005) wh gav clar and sipl pah f sags in arking rsarch prcss. In h prbl frlain sag (Barabba, Zalan, 1991) gav srng argns fr diffrniaing anagn prbl fr a rsarch prbl. Thy phasiz n h abiliy f rsarchr ransla anagn prbl in rsarch prbl.

11 4 (Rbr S Michal, 2002) gav h s prfnd characrisic f scinific hd f inqiry which has bn chsn fr his sdy. Tw sags f his prpsd hd f inqiry ar n incldd d diffrn rsarch dsign akn fr his sdy xplraiv. (Cpr, Schindlr, 2003) sad svral cplling rasns fr sapling. Thy nind w yps f sapling, n f h has bn incrprad in his wrk prbabiliy sapling. Masrn f variabls in his wrk has bn dn accrding (Hair, Bsh, Orina, 2006) by assigning nbrs and labls lipl chic answrs in qsinnair. Th ars f abigiy and inaccracy in rsarch hav bn cvrd by (Sih, Alba, 2005), (Hair, Bsh, Orina, 2006) and (Skaran, Bgi, 2009). Rsarch qsins ars fr w aricls wr by (Jnahan Ivy, 2008) and anhr n by (Hsan-F H, Chia-Chi Hng, 2008). (Jnahan Ivy, 2008) argd in his aricl ha hr ar hr r lns in arking ix whn alking ab srvic rind bsinss lik nivrsiy. Ths lns wr givn nas as Ppl, Prcsss and Physical vidnc. (Hsan-F H, Chia-Chi Hng, 2008) incldd anhr ipran facr fr nivrsiy prin and i is h xn f plyabiliy afr gradain fr nivrsiy. (Dr. D.J. Tncich,2008) is alking ab dviains in nivrsiy slgans and ral nivrsiy sanding. In his aricl hr is als xplanain f h ways n hw pr diffrn pars f nivrsiy iag. Alng wih his (Ngyn and L Blanc,2001) phasiz n ark psiining. (Bnardi & Ekwlg, 2003) claid csr rind apprach ha nivrsiy shld ak in prin and dvlpn dcainal prcss. Parially (Harry Hayward, 2011) chd h ar f vid clips as ffciv l pr nivrsiy iag. Wih sppr f (Brc Snydr, 2011) wb analyics bca anhr ffciv l f kping rack f diffrn arg arks and csr prfrncs ndncis. (Jarvis J, 2008) phasiz n vrall arking pliics which ncpass xising blgs analysis, crain f inrnal and xrnal blgs fr sharing idas, prbls and hghs ang sdns and nivrsiy saff. H als prpss incld sfl links in cpany wbsi.

12 5 1. THEORETICAL PART 1.1. Marking vrss Mark rsarch I is ssnial diffrnia hs w rs in rdr n b isakn in rsarch prcss. In h aricl Mark rsarch vrss arking rsarch by Jacqlin Od, ark rsarch prvids r gnral infrain ab h ark. This rsarch can answr sch qsins as: cnry spcificains, ark pnial and accssibiliy, vrall csr infrain (wh, wha, whr, whn and hw). On h hr hand, arking rsarch has r daild and dp infrain ab csrs and hir aid ward cpany prdcs. This rsarch can b dn hrgh inrviws, csrs fdbacks afr prdc rials, fllw-p f h cnsr and is bhavir. I ans ha arking rsarch can incld ark rsarch b n vic vrsa. Usally hs w rs ar sd ghr bcas ark and arking rsarch can inrcnnc dring h prcss f idnifying prdc psiining. S, his sdy is cncnrad ainly n cndcin arking rsarch. If fr h srvy i bcs bvis ha s rasns f MU chic rlad nivrsiy nvirnn (.g. cnry spcificains) i will b ad parial ark rsarch sing scndary daa Qaniaiv vrss Qaliaiv Rsarch Th priary ai f a Qaliaiv Rsarch is prvid a cpl, daild dscripin f h rsarch pic. Qaniaiv Rsarch n h hr hand fcss r in cning and classifying fars and cnsrcing saisical dls and figrs xplain wha is bsrvd. Th rsarchr srvs as h priary daa gahring insrn in Qaliaiv Rsarch. Hr, h rsarchr plys varis daa-gahring sragis, dpnding pn h hrs r apprach f his rsarch. Exapls f daa-gahring sragis sd in Qaliaiv Rsarch ar individal in-dph inrviws, srcrd and nn-srcrd inrviws, fcs grps, narraivs, cnn r dcnary analysis, paricipan bsrvain and archival rsarch.

13 6 On h hr hand, Qaniaiv Rsarch aks s f ls sch as qsinnairs, srvys and hr qipn cllc nrical r asrabl daa. Qaliaiv Rsarch is priarily sbjciv in apprach as i sks ndrsand han bhavir and rasns ha gvrn sch bhavir. Rsarchrs hav h ndncy bc sbjcivly irsd in h sbjc ar in his yp f rsarch hd. In Qaniaiv Rsarch, rsarchrs nd rain bjcivly sparad fr h sbjc ar. This is bcas Qaniaiv Rsarch is bjciv in apprach in h sns ha i nly sks prcis asrns and analysis f arg cncps answr his inqiry. (Exprin-Rsrcs.c, 2009) Th qsin rains wha hd shld b sd afr all. This sdy ais find h answr an inqiry hrgh nrical vidnc, s qaniaiv rsarch is applicabl in his cas. If in h fr rsarchr wld lik xplain frhr why his pariclar vn happnd, r why his pariclar phnnn is h cas, hn Qaliaiv Rsarch cs in pracic Marking Rsarch Prcss Accrding Karl Fridann (2003), Dircr f Prdcs and Srvics fr h arking srvics cpany Mark Rsarch Prjc Managn, Inc., arking rsarch prjc will b ffciv nly if h infrain i prvids lads br bsinss acins, dcisins, prdcs, r sragis. In gnral arking rsarch is crrlad wih dcisin sppr sys whn cpany xciv dcrass h risk f ncrainy by cndcing rsarch. Sccssfl arking rsarch prvids pins fr fr acins in cpany sragy. High qaliy arking rsarch is prprinal high qaliy dcisin. Marking rsarch is h sysaic and bjciv sarch fr, and analysis f, infrain rlvan h idnificain and slin f any prbl in h fild f arking. Thr ar svral ipran pins in his dfiniin. Firs, arking rsarch is a sysaic sarch fr, and analysis f, infrain. Carfl planning hrgh all sags f h rsarch is a ncssiy. Rsarchs s sar wih a clar and cncis san f h prbl b rsarchd. Gd rsarch pracic rqirs ha h infrain sgh, h hds sd cllc h infrain, and h chniqs plyd analyz h infrain b sysaically and carflly laid in advanc. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Als

14 7 bjciviy f arking rsarch plays anhr ipran rl in sccssfl arking rsarch. This cririn allws iing scalain f cin and clarly rflcing crrn siain. Thr ar pifalls dring arking rsarch prcss. Th s cn ns ar psdrsarch and advcacy srvys. Psd-rsarch is dn siply c p wih dsird rsls. Thr is n bjciv and hical apprach. Advcacy srvys ar dvlpd in sch a way ha srvs h ndd answr. Alng wih hs w pifalls h ajr n fr ding sccssfl rsarch is scalain f cin, whn rsarchr is nabl cnsidr hr varians f rsarch rsls. All hs drawbacks igh lad was f i and ny spn fr rsarch. Marking rsarch prcss cnsiss f nin sps: Prbl frlain Mhd f inqiry Rsarch hd Rsarch dsign Slcin f daa cllcin chniqs Sapl dsign Daa cllcin Analysis and inrprain f daa Rsarch rpr (Sih, Alba, 2005) Prbl Frlain Fr h rsarchr`s pin f viw, prbl frlain ans ranslaing h anagn prbl in a rsarch prbl An accra prbl frlain spcifis h yps f infrain ndd hlp in slving anagn prbl h qaliy f hinking ab an iss (i.., a prbl siain) prir daa cllcin largly drins h qaliy f hinking (i.., analysis and prbl slving) afr h daa hav bn cllcd. (Barabba, Zalan, 1991) Prbl islf cnains svral cpnns: 1) Th anagr(s)/dcisin akr(s) and his, hr, r hir bjcivs 2) Th nvirnn r cnx f h prbl 3) Th nar f h prbl

15 8 4) Alrnaiv crss f acin 5) A s f cnsqncs ha rla crss f acin and h ccrrnc f vns n ndr h cnrl f h anagr 6) A sa f ncrainy as which crs f acin is h bs (Sih, Alba, 2005) Objcivs hav wid scp f variabiliy saring fr prfi incras srvic/prdc iprvn. Th fwr h bjcivs f any sdy h asir i is kp rack f prgrss ward h bjcivs Objcivs vary fr jinly agrd-pn crpra bjcivs h individal bjcivs f ach ply (Sih, Alba, 2005) Envirnn f h prbl can b rlad h ark rsarch bcas i ncpasss sch aspcs as lvl f inc and ra f grwh in h ark, dgr f cpiin and gvrnn rglain. Upn ha i igh als cnsidr cnsr ass and prfrncs. Envirnn has a wid s f facrs, s rsarchr shld dfin hs facrs which ar rlvan h prbl. Mhd f Inqiry Th nx sag in arking rsarch prcss is hd f inqiry r hd f invsigain. Th s bjciv and rliabl is scinific hd. This hd is ffciv dring h saring pin and dring h prcss f rsls chck. Th ain and s prfnd characrisic f his hd is bjciviy. I cnsiss f h sps lisd blw: 1. Obsrvain and dscripin f a phnnn r a grp f rlad phnna. An invsigar has lil f prir infrain. This is h sag whn qaliaiv hds ay prvid cnsidrabl infrain ab wha-is. 2. Frlain f a hyphsis xplain h phnna. In dcainal rsarch, h hyphsis is fn a qsin ab h rlainship bwn r ang variabls ha ay inflnc larning. Th hyphsis ay b n ha rly asks whhr a rlainship xiss (crrlain rsarch), r h hyphsis ay sa a cas-and-ffc rlainship. 3. Prdic h xisnc f hr phnna sing h hyphsis, r prdic h rsls f nw bsrvains. 4. Cndc xprinal ss f h prdicins by svral indpndn xprinrs wh s prpr xprinal hds. (Rbr S Michal, 2002)

16 9 Rsarch Mhd In addiin hd f inqiry rsarchr shld slc rsarch hd. Thr ar w yps f rsarch hds: xprinal and nnxprinal. In frr yp f hd rsarchr can inrvn in rsarch xprin and cnrl xrnal variabls. I is vic vrsa in nnxprinal hd. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Rsarch Dsign Anhr sp in arking rsarch prcss is rsarch dsign which is cnsidrd as spcific hds and prcdrs bain infrain ndd. Rsarch dsign siplas wha infrain cllc, fr wha srcs and sing wha prcdrs. Th ky arkr f sccssfl dsign is whhr infrain cllcd rlas rsarch prbl alng wih bjciviy and fficincy. Thr ar hr classs f dsigns xplrary, dscripiv, and casal. In xplrary dsign rsarchr idnifis and frlas prbl alng wih dvlpn f alrnaiv crss f acin. I is als cnsidrd as a firs sp in a brad sdy in rdr g sfficin knwldg and narrw dwn h prbl ara. Sqnc in xplrary sdis lad hr sps: Sarch f scndary infrain Inrviw xprs in a givn fild Chcking siilar siains Dscripiv rsarch dsign is r narrwd in cnras xplrary n. In frr spcific rsarch qsins ar pslad alrady. Th rsarch prbl is failiar and spcific. This rsarch is prplannd and srcrd. Dscripiv rsarch cvrs sch aras as prdc rsarch, prin rsarch, disribin rsarch and pricing rsarch. Casal sdis hlp prdic cass f driving sch hyphsis. Th ky prps hr is dfin rlainships f casal facrs h ffcs f r prdicin. Rsarchr igh bild a char dpicing svral pssibl facrs ha brgh siain a crrn cndiin. If hr is nly n facr his wld dircly hav inflnc n h siain. If hr is r han n facrs i is i vrify which n f hs ld siain chang. This apprach is calld casal rlainship. If hr is nly n facr hr igh b applicabl drinisic casain. Anhr yp f casal sdis in prbabilisic casain which is xpandd vrsin f drinisic casain wih r han n variabl. (Sih, Alba, 2005) In arking rsarch, srcs f infrain vary b srv as a l dcras ncrainy and chck hyphsis. Thr ar scndary srcs, rspndns, naral xprins,

17 10 cnrlld xprins and silain. Scndary srcs ar akn fr xrnal rganizains which cndcd rsarch wih siilar prpss. Usally i is saisical cis, gvrnn bdis, NGO`s and c.. Rspndns als srv as a src f infraiv and bhaviral infrain. Exprin sag igh als bring valabl infrain. Sis i is br (high xpnss, i shrag) ipln silain a crain siain. Silain is cnsidrd as a s f chniqs fr aniplaing a dl f s ral wrld prcss find nrical slins sfl in h ral prcss bing dld. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Slcin f daa cllcin chniqs Infrain islf is dividd in hr cagris: priary, scndary and crcial. Scndary infrain is gahrd by passing acal rsarch cndcin. Priary infrain is cing fr daa cllcd by invsigar and srv as a ain answr rsarch qsin. Crcial daa is cllcd by arking agncis and cnains priary and scndary infrain. I is br sar cllcing scndary infrain firs bcas i is lss xpnsiv and i can ffs h nd f ding wn rsarch. Evn hgh if i will n slv h prbl, scndary infrain can clarify h prbl in r dail and hlp dvlp advics rsarch qsins. Als hlp in planning h gahring f priary daa and dfining h pplain and slcing h sapl. Scndary Infrain Scndary infrain has w yps inrnal and xrnal. Inrnal infrain can b fnd wihin h cpany pas rsarchs and rpr whras xrnal is sid f h cpany. Using inrnal scndary infrain will shd ligh n: dl and siz f prdc by ara, kind f accn and indsry; di an f sals by ara, sals vl; prcnag shar f sals by prdc dl; prdc siz c. Exrnal scndary infrain allws vrifying vrall siz f ark, characrisics f ark, fars f cpir prdcs, prics, and prin. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Priary Infrain Th ajr src f arking rsarch is priary daa. In h prcss f gahring his daa rsarchr dals wih rspndn. Rspndn is a prsn wh prvids answrs h

18 11 qsinnair dvlpd by rsarchr. Answrs ar n h nly findings ha can b cllcd in priary daa cllcin. Rspndns bhavir is anhr ky aspc bsrv and analyz fr chic f cnsr. Th ain advanag f priary daa cllcin is i s p da infrain which rspnd rsarchr s ain criria h xn f h bslscnc f cllcd daa. Tha is why priary daa givs r ralisic viw h rsarchr. Anhr advanag is ha priary infrain can b cllcd in varid ways fr inrviw ail qsinnair. This givs rsarchr flxibiliy in chsing prcss. Cs and i spnd acqir his yp f infrain varis. I can b aribd h qaniy f rspndns shld b askd, hir accssibiliy in rs f lcain and c. S, i is h rsarchr wh dcids whhr cllc priary daa r n basd n availabiliy f scndary daa, i and bdg f rsarch. Th ain disadvanag f priary daa cllcin is incrrc qsinnair dsign (qsins, answr pins, plac f srvy and c.). If ding s rsarchr ay islad hislf in daa analysis and c p a wrng cnclsin. Ti igh b anhr aspc cnsidr as disadvanag fr cllcing priary daa. Thr is highr pssibiliy bain saisical/ark rsarch fr s agncy alrady prpard, rahr han spnding i in cllcing srvys, analyz h and synhsiz ak final cnclsin. Th bs pin is f crs aain scndary infrain ab h pic and hn basd n is cs cllc priary infrain. In his sdy will nly b incldd qaniaiv chniqs. Qsins will b incldd driv aid cnprary high dcain ang sdns. Sapl Dsign I is rar ha in arking rsarch h whl pplain is analyzd. Sapl is ainly a sall rprsnaiv grp f ppl ha rflcs all pnial cnsrs. Sapl slcin is drivd fr cnsidrain f h rlvan sysaic and variabl rrrs ha igh ccr dring h rsarch prcss. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Thr ar svral cplling rasns fr sapling, inclding: (1) lwr cs, (2) grar accracy f rsls, (3) grar spd f daa cllcin, and (4) availabiliy f pplain lns. Thr ar w yps f sapling chs: nnprbabiliy and prbabiliy sapling. Prbabiliy sapling is basd n h cncp f rand slcin a cnrlld prcdr ha assrs ha ach pplain ln is givn a knwn nnzr chanc f slcin. In cnras, nnprbabiliy sapling is

19 12 arbirary and sbjciv. Each br ds n hav a knwn nnzr chanc f bing incldd. (Cpr, Schindlr, 2003) Analysis and Inrprain f Daa Cllcd Th firs sp in prcssing f daa is diing f cpl schdls/qsinnairs. Ediing is a prcss f chcking dc and r crrc rrrs and issins. Ediing is dn a w sags: firs a h fildwrk sag and scnd a ffic. Fild diing Dring h srss f inrviwing h inrviwr cann always rcrd rspnss cplly and lgibly. Thrfr afr ach inrviw is vr, h shld rviw h schdl cpl abbrviad rspnss, rwri illgibl rspnss and crrc issins. Offic diing All cpld schdls/qsinnairs shld b hrghly chckd in h ffic fr Cplnss, accracy and nifriy Cding Cding ans assigning nrals r hr sybls h cagris r rspnss. Fr ach qsin a cding sch is dsignd n h basis f h cn d cagris. Th cding schs wih hir assignd sybls ghr wih spcific cding insrcins ay b assbld in a bk. Afr h ranscripin f daa is vr, daa ar sarizd and arrangd in a cpac fr fr frhr analysis. This prcss is calld ablain. Tablain Ths, ablain is h prcss f sarizing raw daa and displaying h n cpac saisical abls fr frhr analysis. I invlvs cning f h nbr f cass falling in ach f svral cagris. Tablain can b dn by hand r by chanical r lcrnic dvics. Th chic dpnds pn h siz and yp f sdy, cs cnsidrains, i prssrs and h availabiliy f ablaing achins r cprs. In his prjc ablain and saisics will b dn by sing Micrsf xcl sprad sh. (Dbka, 2003) Th Rsarch Rpr Rsls f h rsarch can b dscribd in shr r in lng rprs. Shr rprs ar apprpria whn h prbl is wll dfind, is f liid scp, and has a sipl and sraighfrward hdlgy. Shr rprs ar ab fiv pags. Lng rprs ar f w

20 13 yps. Tchnical rpr is wrin fr an adinc f rsarchrs. And anagn rpr, wrin fr h nnchnically rind anagr r clin. (Cpr, Schindlr, 2003) This papr is cnsidrd b a l fr a anaging dircr (dan) f h nivrsiy wh igh n hav rsarch backgrnd, s h rsls f h rsarch will b rprsnd as anagrial rpr Th Rsarch Plan Rsarch plan is ndd rganiz vryhing in a way ha ach sag wld clarly driv fr h prvis n. I is a l cnrl and fllw p all prcdrs f rsarch prjc. I sars ff wih saing bjcivs (priary and scndary) hn prbl analysis (inclds rsarch prbls, qsins, hyphss, inrcnncin bwn bjcivs and prbl). Rsarch dsign is nx n. I has fr sbss: (1) rsarch hdlgy (hw h rsarch will b ad); (2) rsarch chniqs (hds and prcdrs fr daa gahring); (3) sapl dsign and slcin (wha is h siz f sapl, is hr any sbsapls, hw y will ak sr ha i is rprsnaiv sapl. Hw h sapl siz was drind). Th frh sag f rsarch plan is prpsd analysis (ablain prcdrs, crss-analysis ablains and hir rasns, yp f saisical analysis). (Sih, Alba, 2005) 1.5. Masrn In arking rsarch asrn plays a ky rl. Accra asrn f variabls brings righ rsls and hrfr righ anagn dcisins. Th ain gal f accra asrn is characriz csrs` aid ward a prdc. Rsarchrs s h asrn prcss by assigning ihr nbrs r labls (1) ppl`s hghs, flings, bhavirs, and characrisics; (2) h fars r aribs f bjcs; (3) h aspcs f idas; r (4) any yp f phnnn r vn sing spcific rls rprsn qaniis and/r qaliis f h facrs bing invsigad. Fr xapl, gahr daa ha will ffr insigh ab ppl wh shp fr abils nlin (a arking phnnn), rsarchr cllcs infrain n h dgraphic characrisics, aids, prcpins, pas nlin prchas

21 14 bhavirs, and hr rlvan facrs assciad wih hs ppl. (Hair, Bsh, Orina, 2006) Tw f h priary criria f valain in any asrn r bsrvain ar: Whhr w ar asring wha w innd asr. Whhr h sa asrn prcss yilds h sa rsls. Ths w cncps ar validiy and rliabiliy. Rliabiliy is cncrnd wih qsins f sabiliy and cnsisncy - ds h sa asrn l yild sabl and cnsisn rsls whn rpad vr i. Validiy rfrs h xn w ar asring wha w hp asr (and wha w hink w ar asring). T apply hs cncps scial rsarch, w wan s asrn ls ha ar bh rliabl and valid. W wan qsins ha yild cnsisn rspnss whn askd lipl is - his is rliabiliy. Siilarly, w wan qsins ha g accra rspnss fr rspndns - his is validiy. (Sih, Alba, 2005) 1.6. Dsigning Qsinnairs Afr drining sablishd s f scal asrns i is h i fra h in an insrn fr cllcing raw daa fr rspndns. Th prps f dsigning rliabl qsinnair is cllc high qaliy priary daa which can b asily ransfrd in h infrain fr h anagr. Th ain principl in dvlping qsinnair is is lgic, bjciv and cnsisn apprach rahr han craiv way f qsins dvlpn. Evryn ndrsands ha wrds g in qsins and ha qsins g in qsinnairs, b n vryn ndrsands ha wriing qsins ds n giv y a qsinnair. (Hair, Bsh, Orina, 2006) Dring h prcdr f frlaing and asking qsins rspns/ nnrspns rrrs ccr. Nnrspns rrrs can ccr d h lngh f qsinnair r qsins, hir cplxiy r inclsin f prsnal qsins. T avid sch yp f rrr i is ncssary s innvaiv way f qsins frlain by kping h cncis and in h sa i sfficin ngh. Th nx sp is shffl p h fras f qsins kp inrs f rspndn answr. Kping rspndn wll infrd ab dircins f ach par f qsinnair is als ipran. Rsarchr shld p phasis n syl and fra f qsinnair (fn, clr f papr, graphic aribs c.). Th final aspc is nbring h qsins hlp kp rack fr bh rsarchr and rspndn.

22 15 Rspns rrr ris whn h acal val f variabl cnradics wih n in h rpr. This rrr can ris fr bh sids: rsarchr r rspndn. Rspndn is cnsidrd as a prsn wh prvids infrain hrgh cnicain (inrviws, qsinnair) r bsrvain (rsarchr bsrv bhavir f rspndn). Rspns rrr hgh can ccr dring n r bh f hs prcsss. T vrify rasns f rrrs rsarchr shld analyz sps in dlivring infrain. Th firs n is infrain frlain and h scnd is infrain ransfr. Inaccracy happns dring frlain sp and abigiy dring infrain ransfr rspndn. (Sih, Alba, 2005) 1.7. Inaccracy Inaccracy as a cas f qsinnair dsign ans ha fals rpr is baind fr h aids, prfrncs, blifs, flings f rspndn. Qsins and scals s b sd ha nabl g h whl picr f rspndn prcpin n h ar rahr han g a fragn f his prcpin. Accracy islf rfrs h dgr which h daa prvid h rsarchr wih a dscripin f h r sa f affairs. Fr his pin qsinnair dsign prcisin ris p which is h xn which a qsinnair dsign can rprdc siilar rsls vr rpad sags. (Hair, Bsh, Orina, 2006) Thr ar w yps f inaccracis: prdiciv and cncrrn. Frr n is casd by inaccra innins f rsarchr dring prbl frlain. Cncrrn inaccracy happns whn rspndn inninally prvids inaccra infrain. Inabiliy rspnd and nwillingnss rspnd ar h s cn cncrrn inaccracis. Inabiliy rspnd happns whn qsin is psd h way i is hard answr wih crain acins f rspndn (chck, lk p s fars f prdc in qsin). Ths prbls igh ccr if rspndn ds n rbr prdc fars; qsinnair is nralisic, badly dsignd r dircd iprpr prsn. Als if cnsrcin f qsins is dvlpd wih iss f wrds r gnral rs. Unwillingnss rspnd dals wih ivain f rspndn. Rspndn will n prvid accra r any infrain d svral css. On f h is i css which rqir rspndn spnd i fr qsinnair cplin. S, if rspndn is bsy r qsinnair is lng sh wld answr h qsins as qick as sh can wih paying anin accracy. Fr his rasn qsinnair scin will cnain his phras: D y

23 16 hav i nw answr qsins, r wld y rahr s a i whn I cld cnac y again? Scnd prbl is prcivd lss f prsig. S qsins igh inflnc prsig f rspndn and hn h nds answr in a way n ls his prsig which lads inaccra answr. Exapls f aras which invlv prsig lvl is ag, inc, dcainal lvl and jb psiin. Th ain ky slin f his prbl is ask fr infrain wic in diffrn ways. Third ara f qsins ha igh bring nwillingnss rspnd is invasin f privacy. If qsins ch priva infrain ab rspndn inaccracy and nnrspns ak plac. Sch ara inclds qsins ab faily ars, inc and ny aid, financ, rspndn hygin, pliical viws, rligin and c. In his cas indirc qsins can hlp r in cas f dirc qsins sill hav placd hy shld b incldd in h nd f qsinnair. (Sih, Alba, 2005) 1.8. Abigiy Abigiy is cnsidrd as rrrs in cnsrcing wrin and ral wrds r bhavir. Inaccracy rrrs ccr dring h frlain f infrain whras abigiy rrrs happn dring ransfr f infrain hrgh cnicain r bsrvain. Unabigs siain is h n whr rsarchr asks qsin and rspndn answr basd n h sa aning f wrds. In his cas w phas prcss aks plac. Whn qsin inrprd by rspndn has h sa aning as i is in inrprain f rsarchr. And answr by rspndn is ndrsd h sa way as by rsarchr. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Th langag f h qsinnair shld apprxia h lvl f ndrsanding f h rspndns. Th chic f wrds will dpnd n hir dcainal lvl, h sag f rs and idis in h clr, and h fras f rfrnc f h rspndns. If s qsins ar ihr n ndrsd r ar inrprd diffrnly by h rspndn, h rsarchr will bain h wrng answrs h qsins, and rspnss will hs b biasd. Hnc, h qsins askd, h langag sd, and h wrding shld b apprpria ap rspndns` aids, prcpins, and flings. (Skaran, Bgi, 2009) Als iplicar is an iss rlad abigiy whn rsarchr is sing llipical snncs (saring wih Why, Wha, Hw ) and rspndn fill in h issing cnn

24 17 by hrslf. In sandardizd inrviws rspndn shld inrpr qsins as h can which lads iscnicain and wrng rsls. S, cnvrsainal inrviwing is whn rsarchr is rying xplain h aning f qsin and n inflnc h answr. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Inrviw rfrs qaliaiv hd bain daa; his sdy has qaniaiv rsarch, s i bcs crcial cnsrc clar and cncis qsins. Fr his prps hr will b prs f qsinnair rsarch by giving i y frinds and g fdback. Anhr way rack ndrsanding lvl f rspndn is s sb qsins in qsins which cnain highs prbabiliy islad rspndn. By siply asking h lvl f qsin cprhnsin (gd r fair) rsarchr can idnify h lvl f abigiy in answrs and rack hs answrs which ar answrd wih gd lvl f ndrsanding. Qsin fr and qsin wrding has crain rlainship abigiy. Thr ar fr qsin/answr yps: 1. Fr answr (pn-ndd x) 2. Dichs and lipl chic answrs (slc k f n) 3. Rank rdr answrs 4. Cnsan s answrs 1. Fr answr qsins iply ha rspndn will giv fll answr h qsin in his wn wrds. This yp f qsins rqir rspndn hav abiliy xprss cplly and cncisly. Tha is why fr answrs hav gra xn f abigiy dring inrprain prcss. 2. Dichs and lipl chic answrs ar h s cn in qsinnairs dvlpn. Gnral fr fr bh f hs answr yps is slcin f k pinal answrs f n availabl. Slc xacly 1 f n Answrs is n f sch yp f answrs. This is sipl fr whr k=1 and n is p rsarchr dsir. In dichs qsin pins (n vals) rang in w xrs ( Ys / N, In favr / N in favr, By/D n by, c). Mlipl chic answrs ar js an xnsin f dichs qsins. Mlipl chic qsins ay rqir slcin f svral k f n pssibl answrs, r slcin nliid an f k answrs f givn n pins. 3. Rank rdr answrs allw p gradain answr pins. This yp f answrs characrizs daa n h s prvailing pin and h n which has h las ipranc

25 18 rspndn. Typical qsins can incld drining ranking f prfrncs, firs las, s crrn las crrn and c. Th s cn bias hr is ha firs pinal answr in h qsin has r chancs b slcd. Als id rankings ay cas anhr prbl f daa wakning. Whn i is allwd rank svral answr pins in n ranking lvl i is ipssibl drin rsls f his answr. Fr h fficincy prpss axi f answr pins givn in rank rdr qsins vary fr fiv svn. If i is r han svn i is hard fr rspndn idnify clarly h righ ranking rdr. 4. Cnsan s qsin is h fr f ranking sing allcain f n hndrd prcn h pins cnaining rasns fr h san askd. I can b pins fr h rasns f cpany prdc prchas. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Als cra a gd qsinnair rsarchr shld incld psiivly and ngaivly wrdd qsins. Insad f dvlping all qsins psiivly i is br ix h wih ngaivly wrdd qsins rdc h prbabiliy f chanical filling h qsinnair by rspndn. A rspndn wh is n pariclarly inrsd in cpling h qsinnair is r likly say invlvd and rain alr whil answring h qsins whn psiivly and ngaivly wrdd qsins ar inrsprsd in i. Fr insanc, if h rspndn has circld 5 fr a psiivly wrdd qsin sch as, I fl I hav bn abl accplish a nbr f diffrn hings in y jb, h cann circl nbr 5 again h ngaivly wrdd qsin, I d n fl I a vry ffciv in y jb Th s f dbl ngaivs and xcssiv s f h wrds n and nl shld b avidd in ngaivly wrdd qsins bcas hy nd cnfs rspndns. (Skaran, Bgi, 2009) 1.9. Hins iprv qaliy f qsinnair: A. Nraliy and dn` knw r n pinin I is an pin givn rspndn rain nral h qsin prvidd. Onc hird pin is incldd rsarchr ds n frc rspndn answr and i aks qsinnair r pli rspndn. Basd n h nar f h qsin rsarchr ay incld sch pins lik dn` knw, n pinin, r n applicabl. Dn` knw igh b aribd qsin daling wih s facs whras n pinin can b aribd a

26 19 crain aid f rspndn. If sch yp f pin will b incldd i is ipran incras sapl siz bcas f incrasd prbabiliy fr rspndn chs nral answr. B. Dichs qsins I is h asis yp f qsins fr rspndns. I is cnsidrd as a qsin wih avrag prbabiliy fr bing abigs. B i has h lws prbabiliy f bing abigs ang fr-answr qsins and lipl-chic qsins. C. Mlipl chic qsins Th rsarchr has w pins if sh wans r daild infrain in a crain qsin. I is cra lipl chic qsin r fr-answr qsin. Usally lipl chic qsins ar r cplx and lngr han h hr w (dichs and franswr). Abigiy in sch yp f qsins drivs fr inabiliy frla ally xclsiv alrnaivs. Anhr rasn fr abigiy is liiain f h chsn answr. Rspndn shld slc nly n pin which s widly answrs h qsin. Fr his rasn rsarchr ay ffr slc as any pins as rspndn wishs. Thr is a abl blw which shws rlaiv prbabiliy f abigiy rlad fr f qsin. Tabl 1 Fr f Qsin and Rlaiv Prbabiliy f Abigiy (Sih, Alba, 2005) Rlaiv Prbabiliy f Abigiy Fr f Qsin Qsin Answr Fr-answr Lws Highs Dichs Avrag Lws Mlipl-chic Highs Avrag D. Qsin wrding Slcin f righ wrds plays ipran rl in qsins dvlpn. S, in wrding chs rsarchr shld b xrly carfl. Abigiy in wrding has svral srcs: Qsin lngh Rspndn nfailiariy wih s wrds

27 20 Abigiy f cnx Tw qsins incldd in n snnc T brad qsins If qsins ar lng his will cnfs rspndn and affc daa accracy. Fr his rasn rsarchr shld kp qsins cncis and clar. If s wrds in qsin ar nfailiar h rspndn his will als lad cnfsin and inabiliy prvid righ infrain. S, in cas f scinific wrding in qsinnair and nn-hgns backgrnds f rspndns lw lvl f vcablary shld b sd. Als rsarchr shld vrify whhr qsins iply nly n ar in rdr n islad rspndn. Qsins ha lack spcificiy shld als b avidd. Ths qsins ar dvlpd wih gnral wrds lik hw fn fr xapl. In gnral rsarchr s prvid alrnaiv qsin wrding, prsing and vrificain by bsrvain. In alrnaiv qsin wrding firs hav f sapl grp ay g pins in n rdr and h scnd n in rvrs rdr. Onc qsinnair is rady prsing is anhr gd way dcras abigiy. Only n cncrn hr is chs rlaivly h sa grp f rspndns as i will b in h ral rsarch. By cls cnicain wih rspndn in prsing sp rsarchr can drin s rbls, isndrsandings ars dring his sp. And las advic is vrificain by bsrvain. Rsarchr can (whr i is pssibl) vrify answrs f rspndns by bsrving hir acins rlad qsins answrd. I is n h asy aciviy, s nly hs qsins will b vrifid whr i is pssibl d s. (Oppnhi, 1992) Sapling prcdrs in Marking Rsarch Sapling is a slcin f sall nbr lns fr a largr dfind arg grp f lns and xpcing ha h infrain gahrd fr h sall grp will allw jdgns b ad ab h largr grp. Th ain ida f sapling is ha a dcisin is basd n h asspin ha h sallr prin, r sapl, is rprsnaiv f h largr pplain. (Hair, Bsh, Orina, 2006) Thr shld b a sric rdr in dfining sapl fr rsarch.

28 21 Char 1 Dfining Sapl Dfin pplain Cnss vs. Sapl Sapl dsign Sapl siz Esia css f sapling Exc sapling prcss Sapling prcdr sars wih dfining f pplain. Pplain is an f nis (individals, lgal niis, hshlds) which has n r r siilar far ang ach hr. In rdr spcify pplain rsarchr shld answr sch qsins as wha kind f nis (lns f analysis) b incldd, whr hy rsid r hir rigin and whn (dinsin f nis in rs f ifra). Pplain shld b dfind as prcisly as pssibl. A h n f finalizing pplain dfiniin invsigar dcids whhr i is ncssary invsiga h whl an f pplain (cnss) r a par f i (sapl). Th chic dpnds n h siz f pplain. If h siz f pplain is sall cnss can b an pial pin hrwis shld b crad sapl. Sapl dsign inclds yp f sapl, sapling ni and sapl fra. Majriy f sapls ar slcd by chic f invsigar as nn-prbabilisic hd. Whr invsigar slcs lns f sapl in rs f cnvninc, availabiliy and wn jdgn. Rsarchr ss abl r any hr rand slciv dvic fr h prbabl hd. (Sih, Alba, 2005)

29 22 Sapling ni is h basis f h acal sapling prcdr. I is ha sgn f h pplain acally chsn by h sapling prcss. Th sapling ni ay cnain n r r pplain lns. Tha is, hs nis ay b individal lns r aggrgas f individal lns. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Sapl fra is cnsidrd as a lis f lns f h pplain. Fr insanc i can b lis f characrisics f lns which ar xpcd pass h inrviw r fill qsinnair. In a prfc cas sapl fra shld drin ach pplain ln nc and shld n incld hs lns which ar n in h pplain criria. Thr svral pins blw f inaccra sapl fraing prcss. Char 2 Sapl Fraing Prcsss A. Incpl Sapling fra Pplain B. T Cprhnsiv Pplain Sapling fra C. Cbinain Pplain Sapling fra

30 23 Thr is als s f qsins ask dring gnrain f sapling lis: Ds h lis cnain vryn in h srvy pplain? Ds h lis incld nas f ppl wh ar n in h sdy pplain? Hw is h lis ainaind and pdad? Ar h sa sapl nis incldd n h lis r han nc? Ds h lis cnain hr infrain ha can b sd iprv h srvy? (Dillan, 2000) Thr ar fr radiinal apprachs fr h drining sapl siz: 1. Arbirarily r jdgnally drind 2. Mini cll siz in analysis 3. Basd n bdg Thr ar w yps f css in sapling prcss: fixd and variabl. Fixd css ar hs which ar drind and cnsan. Variabl css dpnd n h vl f sdy bing cndcd. Th dashd lin in h ppr graph shws inrrlain bwn css and sapl dsign. If css ar high rsarchr rcnsidrs sapl dsign r sapl siz. Th las sp is acal chic f sapl. Thr ar w ain criria fr his prcss: sapl s b adqa and rprsnaiv. Fr h sapl bing rprsnaiv ans ha i rflcs vrall characrisics f h whl pplain. Adqacy is sgh in sfficin an f lns slcd prvid sabl rsls. Als hr ar w yps f sapling dsigns: prbabiliy and nn-prbabiliy sapls. Nn-prbabiliy sapling diffrs fr prbabiliy sapling n h basis ha in nn-prbabiliy sapling, h sapl lns d n hav a knwn, nnzr chanc f bing slcd fr h sapl. In prbabiliy sapling ach ln has a knwn and qal prbabiliy f slcin. This sdy incrpras prbabiliy dsign bcas hr ar n any prdispsd rspndns. (Sih, Alba, 2005) Ediing, Cding and Dscripiv Analysis Cpld qsinnairs r hr asrn insrns s b did, cdd, nrd in a daa s fr prcssing by cpr, and carflly analyzd bfr hir cpl anings and iplicains can b ndrsd. (Sih, Alba, 2005)

31 24 Th ain rasn fr his prcss is cnvring daa baind in infrain which will prvid infrncs and answrs rsarch qsin. A crain sqnc is ndd prfr sccssfl daa analysis. In shr, hr shld b dfiniin f rspns cagris a firs, hn diing and cding and a las ablain. All hs hr sps will b iplnd in h pracical par Rsarch Errrs In any rsarch rrrs will ccr, s anagn f rrrs s apply. Errrs can aris in any sag f arking prcss fr prbl frlain rpr dvlpn. I is a gal f invsigar iniiz hs rrrs. Th val f al rrr is cprisd f sapling rrr pls nn-sapling rrr. Sapling rrr (sally calld as rand sapling rrr) is h diffrnc bwn plannd sapl and h lis f inrviws i is frd. Nn-sapling rrrs ar hs which ar n rlad h sapl islf. Usally nn-sapling rrrs rlad sr f bias as h diffrnc bwn h r val f ha which is bing asrd and h avrag val drivd fr a nbr f indpndn asrns f i. Thr ar igh ajr yps f rrrs: Pplain spcificain diffrnc bwn rqird pplain and pplain chsn. Whn rsarchr chss inapprpria pplain fr h daa cllcin. Sapling diffrnc bwn rqird sapl and h n ha has bn slcd. Whn sapl ds n rprsn h pplain slcd by sing prbabiliy sapling hd. Slcin rrr sally ccrs whn rsarchr pick p rspndns wh sh knws, wh is r plasan, in gnral wh is asily rachd. This ndncy dvias ral pplain slcd. Fra rrr. Sapl fra is a s f rprsnaivs f pplain wh rla rqird sapl. Th fra rrr ccrs whn lns which ar n in h sapl grp ar invsigad. Nnrspns rrr ccrs whn all brs f h sapl cann b rachd r hy rfs rspnd. Srrga infrain rrr ccrs whn invsigar is nabl bain rspnss and rplac i wih prxy answrs lading srrga infrain.

32 25 Masrn rrr ccrs in svral sags f rsarch: ransial, rspns, analysis. In gnral, rsarchr rprsns infrain ha h wans rahr h ral n. Exprinal rrr. Whn invsigar is asring h inflnc f indpndn variabls n dpndn n whil cnrlling xrans variabls. (Sih, Alba, 2005) 2. PRACTICAL PART 2.1. Marking Rsarch Prcss Applid Fr his sdy i has bn idnifid ha h prbl f crrn siain in MU is is inabiliy arac r inrnainal sdns. Prbl Frlain: Prspciv sdns d n chs MU fr dgr bainn. Rsarch gal: T idnify ways n hw incras sdns inflw in MU by ans f dcing gnral prfrncs f MU csrs (prspciv sdns and crrn sdns). Rsarch qsins: Basd n h sdy f 7P apprach, ad by Jnahan Ivy, n rsarch qsin ariss. 1. On wha ln f arking ix sdns rlid r whn chsing MU: Ppl, Physical vidnc r Prcsss? Fr anhr sdy ad by Hsan-F H and Chia-Chi Hng scnd rsarch qsin ariss: 2. Ds h pssibiliy f dsic ark plyabiliy afr gradain plays h ky rl fr chsing MU?

33 26 Mhd f Inqiry As bn nind in h hrical par h firs sp in hd f inqiry is bsrvain and dscripin f a phnnn r a grp f rlad phnna. This sp is knwn fr is qaliaiv hds f applicabiliy. Hav bn sdying fr als w yars in MU and cnicaing wih dzns f inrnainal sdns I fnd svral aspcs cnsidr fr MU aracivnss iprvn. Sdns wh say lngr han a ssr diffr fr hs wh ca js fr n ssr ndr Erass xchang prgra. This rsarch dals wih h firs cagry f sdns and fr h i is ipran hav r frqn nivrsiy-sdn crrspndnc. Kping h fac ha dcain prcss in Masaryk nivrsiy diffrn and cplicad in rs f Infrain Tchnlgy (sdn infrain sys is vry cnfsing wih n English vrsin f s pags) hr shld b prpard an rinain sinars n hw ffcivly s all nivrsiy priss and srrnding ciy faciliis. I can b asily dn wih h hlp f Inrnainal Sdns Clb which has xclln iag ang sch clbs in Erp. Thr is rinain wk fr sdns b fr h sdns pin f viw is r prpard ak hings dn (lik ISIC card iss, rgisr infrain sys) rahr han prviding sdns wih ls n hw achiv wha hy nd. This can asily b dn by infrain sys addiinal applicains f ciy, nivrsiy ap, sdn frs, and discssin grps. Th infrain sys shld b dn in r clin frindly way wih gd English ranslain f h wb pags. This wrk wld n incld any hyphsis bcas f h chsn rsarch dsign xplraiv. Rsarch Mhdlgy In his will b applid nnxprinal hd bcas f bjciviy prpss. Thr is high risk f islad and isinrprain h rspndn which will affc h srvy rsls. Qsin nbr 1, 2, 3 in h srvy (can b fnd in appndix f his wrk) was incldd fr h rasn find addiinal infrain fr prspciv sdns wh innd cnin hir sdy. Qsin nbr 11 givs ida n h ffciv dia channl ha sdns g infrain fr. Qsin nbr 12 and 13 will hlp sariz gnral sdn pinin n MU and find s dviains fr h rs f h qsins.

34 27 Blw ar h qsins in h srvy which rla rsarch qsin nbr 1: On wha ln f arking ix sdns rlid r whn chsing MU: Ppl, Physical vidnc r Prcsss? Qsin nbr 4, 6,7 was adpd fr lirar src (Jnahan Ivy, 2008) f hrical par. This qsin idnifis h lvl f Prcsss ln f arking ix. Qsin nbr 5 basd n h sa lirar src was adpd vrify anhr ln f arking ix Ppl. Qsin #8 ncvrs h lvl f hird ln Physical vidnc. Qsin nbr 10 ncpasss all hr lns dbl chck h ain criria ha sdns chs r cnsidr MU sdy. Blw ar qsins in h srvy which rla rsarch qsin nbr 2: Ds h pssibiliy f dsic ark plyabiliy afr gradain plays h ky rl fr chsing MU? Qsins nbr 14 and 15 will hlp idnify h lvl f sdns ivain nr MU fr h rasn f highr chanc f plyabiliy afr gradain. Ths qsins wr adpd fr lirar src prvidd by Hsan-F H and Chia-Chi Hng. Qsin nbr 9 rlas bh rsarch qsins bcas i cvrs h scal f significan facrs ha igh affc sdn chs MU. Rsarch Dsign Th sdy nild Qaniaiv Marking Rsarch aps accla h sqnc f prcdrs cndc sccssfl arking rsarch. I has bn chsn s qaniaiv rsarch fr h rasn ha sdy ais find h answr f a rsarch qsins hrgh nrical vidnc. This hd nabls rsarchr gahr xising infrain and daa rgarding inrrlainship bwn lw ra f sdns rgisrain MU. Th sdy will hlp answr n w rsarch qsins psd in his wrk. Slcin f daa cllcin chniqs Th sdy incrpras w chniqs f daa cllcin: scndary and priary cllcin. Scndary infrain rvals crrn siain f HE arking wrldwid and priary infrain hlps find h ach p fr slin f MU prbl and scndary infrain findings.

35 28 Sapl dsign Rsarchr ss prbabiliy sapl dsign wih qaniy f rspndns qal 26. Daa cllcin Fr sdy prpss daa will b cllcd by giving qsinnairs crrn and prspciv sdns wh sdy r innd sdy in English in MU. Hard cpy qsinnairs will b cllcd afr rspndns finish answring h. Tal cllcd qsinnairs an 26. Rsarch rrrs Pplain Spcificain rrr is asrd by qsining pnial rspndn whhr sh/h sdis in English. Sapling diffrnc rsarchr will vrc by kping h highs lvl f variy f rspndns (by cnry f rigin). Slcin rrr is f h ar bcas rsarchr is n inrdcd h ajriy f sdns sdying in English. Nnrspns rrr ay ccr, fr h frhr prpss f h rsarch rspndns wld b askd h rasns fr rjcing fill qsinnair. Th sa prcdr is fr h srrga infrain if rsarchr will n b abl g answrs fr rspndns hy will b askd ab h rasn f rjcin Analysis and inrprain f daa Scndary and Priary daa is analyzd and inrprd in scin 2.3 and 2.4 blw Scndary daa Marking cnicain f nivrsiis As has bn nind prvisly in his wrk h bs pin cllc rlvan priary daa is rly firs n scndary infrain and hn dlv dwn in crain aspcs by cllcing priary infrain. In his i i will b xplaind wha has bn dn in arking cnicain f nivrsiis arnd h wrld. This par will als cvr h qsin f wha cnicain sragis and ls h inrnainal nivrsiis s arac hir sdns.

36 29 Fr h firs finding sar, nivrsiis all vr h wrld pracicing advrising capaigns wih sch wrds as: Inrnainally rnwnd, Award winning, Prsigis, Prd hisry, Carr rind, c. B n all h i hs sparkling wrds ar ral rh. Ds i acally ar whhr a nivrsiy has radiin if is crrn pracic is pr? Ds i ar if a nivrsiy is inrnainally rnwnd if h pariclar crs ha is bing cnsidrd is knwn b badly prad by lcal sandards? Ds i rally ar if a nivrsiy has a prd hisry if h prsn isn vry gd? (Dr. D.J. Tncich,2008) Asralian prfssr Dr. D.J. Tncich in 2008 pblishd a bk Sdy and Larning in h Asralian Univrsiy Sys whr h clarly sad varis frs f Marking in nivrsiis f Asralia. Th s cn xapl f nivrsiis slling h sizzl rahr han h sasag appars in aras sch as scinc, nginring and archicr, whr pnial sdns ar bbardd wih glars iags f spaccraf, sky-scrapr bildings; nclar racrs, and s n Thr ar diffrn ways hw nivrsiis arac hir sdns. Thr is a abl prvidd by Dr. D.J. Tncich which xplains h ways n hw pr diffrn pars f nivrsiy iag. Tabl 2 Ways n hw pr lns f nivrsiy iag

37 30 A Tl is a par f cpany (nivrsiy in his cas) iag which shld b prd. And Vhicl is h way par f h iag can b prd. S ky pins n ar ha h ass dia ls (nwspapr, lvisin and radi), having h brads adinc, ar gnrally rsrvd fr big picr arking, inclding h nivrsiy s brand and cnfidnc/rinfrcn sragis. Slf-vidnly, pring h brads adinc is h s csly way f ging a ssag, s h ssag nds b sipl and clar. Th r spcializd h adinc, hwvr, h r daild h infrain fr xapl, nivrsiy crs gids and handbks hav h s spcific adinc and, sbsqnly, h highs lvl f infrain dnsiy. In hs vhicls, hr is gnrally lss cnn rlad h big picr isss f cnfidnc and brand. (Dr. D.J. Tncich, 2008) Ngyn & L Blanc (2001) fcsd n h iag and rpain f h insiin and rfrrd h crcial rl hs facrs playd in h dvlpn f ark psiining hy drw n h wll sablishd cncps and hris in bsinss scr arking fr hir sdy. Bnsardi & Ekwlg (2003), wh claid ha a cnrally ipran principl f arking is ha all arking aciviis shld b gard wards h csr, als rlid n h lirar sd in bsinss scr arking, and applid i h cnx f highr dcain. Branding is ipran fr nivrsiy sand in h ark. In CnncEd Sypsi fr h arking f Highr Edcain (Chicag, Nvbr, 2011) Rich Lyns (Dan, Haas Schl f Bsinss, Univrsiy f Califrnia Brkly) argd ha: Wha passs fr branding in highr dcain is fn nhing r han a cachy slgan and lg. Branding prjcs in nivrsiis sis vk hsiliy, indiffrnc, r bh r rais h qsin f why a gd schl wld nd b s cncrnd ab is iag ha i wld rsr crpra asrs. B whn branding rachs dp agnify a schl s diffrniain and is cr ssnc, h rsl can b a pwrfl bs n lipl dinsins sdn rcrin, alni inrs, fnd raising, dia inrs, and s n. And i can rsna wih ky adincs inally align wha h schl ds wih hir passin chang h wrld. Dan Rich Lyns has ld h Haas Schl f Bsinss a UC Brkly in branding h schl, basd n cdifying is disinciv clr, driving ha clr hrgh is bsinss prcsss, and rfring is crricl prdc a pariclar yp f ladr a pah-bnding ladr. Th prcss is lnghy, difficl, and risks ar high. Larn why h rwards f an ahnic brand ar wrh h ffr.

38 31 Accrding his spch, srng brand is cing fr h clr f inracin ang sdns and all nivrsiy saff. Mainly sdns and prfssrs shld clarly ndrsand wha ars sly aracd h in chsn nivrsiy (vals, blivs, aids c. shld ach p wih sdn`s). Anhr aspc fr nivrsiy arking sar p prcdr is rpsiin cnicains as a sragic fncin in a r praciv aid. This ar has bn cvrd by Dr. Mark Pna, Prsidn, Cnral Cllg, IA in his aricl D y driv h agnda r g alng fr h rid. In his aricl ahr sgh chang h viw f h arking and cnicains a fr csr srvic prvidrs sragiss. H s a gd xapl wih prsidnial blg, sing i lva h lvl f discrs a Cnral. Pna has a rack rcrd fr his kind f chang anagn. As snir vic prsidn a Nrhasrn Univrsiy (Bsn), h wrkd wih h cnicains a dca h nivrsiy ab h sragic rl f arking and branding. H cs by his prspciv narally. (Dr. Mark Pna, 2011) T iprv nivrsiy chnical ls in aracing sdns, bil arking is a gra way. Mbil arking brings challngs and pprniis highr dcain whn scarc rsrcs lii h abiliy add nw chnlgis and chniqs cnicain plans. W xain h bil arking landscap in sarch f wha's s rlvan highr dcain day, wih spcial anin sdn rcrin and brand srngh. Aras cvrd incld si dsign fr bs ask cplin, wriing righ fr bil sis, niring wb analyics, and ingraing wih "radiinal" and scial dia wbsis. (Bb Jhnsn, 2011) Anhr chnical l is digial vid clips. Vid in is any frs is bcing a ajr facr in r cllciv livs. (80 illin hrs f vid ladd YTb vry in, fr xapl). As digial srylling, i is als bing sd in a variy f ways bild brand qiy wih inrnal and xrnal adincs. Ocs will b a br awarnss f h crrn rnds in sing vid as a brand bilding l, and a fild gid fr aching hrs wihin h rganizain ak pwrfl digial sris. I' crrnly sing h wrkshp a h UW rain sdns wh will sdy abrad ak and disrib gd qaliy vid ab hir xprincs (Harry Hayward, 2011). In cas f brand bilding sing vid assisanc viral arking capaign igh wrk. And h las ida which will incras nivrsiy prfi is wb si analyics. Th wbsi is n nly a cndi fr s f yr arking ffrs day i s als an incrdibl l fr asrn and arking analysis.

39 32 Wih wb analyics, y can br qanify h ipac f yr arking capaigns, iprv h ffcivnss f yr wbsi, sgn visirs fr icr-arking ffrs and gnra valabl arking inllignc. (Brc Snydr, 2011) Marking is h prcss f csr idnificain (nds, viws, prfrncs, financial pssibiliy by crain prdc). This ask will b dn hrgh priary infrain analysis. Anhr ask in arking is dvlpn f analyics-drivn apprach hlp rach a argd sdn hrgh sarch ngins, bil sarphns, x ssaging, ail nwslrs and scial dia. (Highr Edcain Marking Cpany). This cpany has a sraigh and lgic viw n arking prcss in nivrsiy which prvids a wid scp f srvics: Ggl Analyics, Sarch Engin Opiizain, Pay Pr Click Marking, Scial Mdia Marking, Ggl Maps & Lcal Sarch Wb Dsign & Dvlpn, Mbil Marking, Shr Mssag Srvic (SMS). Anhr vry ffciv l is SEO (sarch ngin piizain) which allws bdding in h cpany wbsi pin fr h s ipran (s likly ndd) wrds, phrass whil craing cpany wb pags. This s f wrds wih high pssibiliy ha pnial csr will dial p will giv pprniy fr h cpany wbsi pp p in h p lis f h sarch ngin (Ggl chr, yah, c.). Undr rsarch prbl lw nrlln f sdns, h rsarchr shld lk fr h findings f hr sdis rlvan his sdy prbl. Th qsins sar wih ar: Wha facrs in nivrsiy arking pracics ar issing achiv cnsan nrlln grwh? ; Is hr any inrrlainship f hs facrs and nivrsiy aracivnss grwh? On f h sdis has bn cndcd ang sdns rgisrd sa sbsidizd nivrsiis in Sh Africa. Th prps f his papr was prsn a nw arking ix basd n MBA sdns aids and pinins wards h arking iniiaivs f bsinss schls in Sh Africa. Th findings f his sdy rvald shwd svn qi disinc ndrlying facrs in h arking aciviis f hs bsinss schls, s cvring h sa lns f h radiinal arking ix: ppl, prin, and pric. Thr wr, hwvr, fr diffrn lns: prgra, prinnc, prspcs and pris. Th arking ix is a s f cnrllabl arking ls ha an insiin ss prdc h rspns i wans fr is varis arg arks. I cnsiss f vryhing ha h nivrsiy can d inflnc h dand fr h srvics ha is ffrs. Tangibl prdcs hav radiinally sd a 4Ps dl, h srvics scr n h hr hand ss a 7P apprach in rdr saisfy h nds f h srvic prvidr s csrs: prdc, pric, plac, prin, ppl, physical faciliis and prcsss. Th prdc is wha is bing sld. I is

40 33 r han a sipl s f angibl fars; i is a cplx bndl f bnfis ha saisfy csr nds. Th pric ln f h srvics arking ix is dinad by wha is bing chargd fr h dgr r iin fs ha ar rqird nrll a h nivrsiy. Plac is h disribin hd ha h nivrsiy adps prvid h iin is ark in a annr ha s, if n xcds, sdn xpcains. Prin ncpasss all h ls ha nivrsiis can s prvid h ark wih infrain n is ffrings: advrising, pbliciy, pblic rlains and sals prinal ffrs. (Jnahan Ivy, 2008) This radiinal dl ncpasss ls which dal wih angibl prdcs. In cas f nivrsiy, i prvids inangibl prdc which nds r ls fr prin. Fifh l is ppl wh ar cnsidrd as a saff in nivrsiy (acadic, adinisraiv and sppr saff). T hav a prinn iag nivrsiy shld hav: aching saff rpains, PhD hldrs, Prfssrial il hldrs. Als adinisraiv saff can als play an ipran rl aain prspciv sdns by siply prviding prfssinal phn call inqiry. Th nws addiin h arking ix is physical vidnc and prcsss. Physical vidnc is aribd inrnal and xrnal apparanc f h niy (fr aching arials facad f h bilding and lcr rs). Prcsss ar all h adinisraiv and bracraic fncins f h nivrsiy: fr h handling f nqiris rgisrain, fr crs valain xainains, fr rsl dissinain gradain, na b a fw. Dring h prid ha h sdn is rgisrd, prcsss nd b s in in nsr ha h sdn rgisrs fr h crrc crss, has arks r grads crrcly calclad and nrd agains h sdn s na and is lialy awardd h crrc qalificain. Whil his igh s qi sraigh frward, hr ar nrs hr prcsss ha nd b iplnd cncrrnly (wih h financ sys, accdain, i abling and h library) nsr h highs lvl f sdn saisfacin. Th findings f his rsarch sggs ha h radiinal 4-, 5- and indd 7P arking srvics arking ix ay n b h bs way apprach h arking f MBA prgras in Sh Africa. Using principal cpnns facr analysis n 25 cnly sd arking ls indicas ha fr nw disinciv and indpndn lns xis alng wih hr lns fr h radiinal arking ix. (Jnahan Ivy, 2008) Th s ipran ln fr h arking ix was prgra ln (h rang f lcivs in h dgr, chic f ajrs). Th scnd was prinnc f h dgr (acadic saff rpains, psiin n lag abls r MBA rviws in h pplar prss). Th radiinal prins ln f h arking ix was spli in w aras, sandard ass dia

41 34 advrising and hard cpy prinal arials, sch as h nivrsiy prspcs and dirc ail psd prspciv sdns, calld prspcs in h MBA arking ix. Th pric ln is dinad by flxibl payn f iin fs which ans ha sdns ar pric snsiiv and lking fr payn flxibiliy. Th ppl ln has had a sall dificain, wih fac--fac aching bing incldd alng wih prsnal cnac wih gradas and pn day andanc. Th final ln f h nw arking ix is calld pris. This is a divrs ln f h ix, which incldd accdain, h nbr f dls in h dgr, sdn xchang prgras, nivrsiy cpr faciliis and class sizs. Whil his ln was cnsidrd h las ipran f h arking ls, n ffring s f hs is cld srisly daag h rcrin prspcs f a bsinss schl. Indd s is wld b cnsidrd a sandard ffring f a nivrsiy and xpcd by a sdn wih frhr cnsidrain r valain. (Jnahan Ivy, 2008) S, fr his sdy rsarchr ay answr n h psd qsins bfr. Thr is indd s hr facrs f h sandard arking ix which in his cas (highr dcain arking) play a ky rl. In rdr finally apply hs facrs in h pracical iplnain rsarchr shld chck whhr all f hs facrs rain ipran fr MU. Fr his prps priary daa shld b cllcd by craing qsinnair which inclds nw arking ix ls. Anhr sdy cndcd in h ral f arking cnicains in Taiwan inclds hr findings. Th prps f his sdy was xain hw a grada insi a Nainal Chiayi Univrsiy (NCYU), by sing a dl ha ingras analyic hirarchy prcss, clsr analysis and crrspndnc analysis, can dvlp ffciv arking sragis. This rsarch rvald ha vn hgh nivrsiis and cllgs in Taiwan hav incrasingly ralizd h ipranc f having snd arking sragis say cpiiv, hy hav cncnrad hir arking sragis n prin advrising, iin rdcin, schlarships, c. This rnd has fn bscrd h fac ha arking shld b basd n csr nds, wih br ffrs ad flfill hs nds. Alhgh ark sgnain and psiining nabl arkrs and insiinal plannrs in highr dcain ndrsand csr nds, and visaliz insiinal advanags in rlain hir cpirs psiins, hs ar rlaivly nw ndavrs in dcainal arking in Taiwan. Th rsls display ha h fiv s ipran facrs fr sdns schl slcin wr: plyabiliy, crricl, acadic rpain, facly, and rsarch nvirnn.

42 35 Sdns prcivd NCYU b srngly assciad wih lwr iin, fwr nranc-xa sbjcs, lwr nranc-xa pass ras, and asir gradain rqirns. (Hsan-F H, Chia-Chi Hng, 2008) In rdr vrify whhr sch criria ar als indispabl prcndiins fr chsing MU as a pnial riary insiin hy shld b incldd in h sdy qsinnair. As w can s ha in scndary infrain hr ar any ways n hw iprv nivrsiy sanding and hw rach a csr. B his infrain ds n giv s h picr f Masaryk Univrsiy csr, why sh chs MU, wha wr h prfrncs chs i, whr sh firs i g knw ab i and c. Tha is why fr his par g h picr f MU csr fr priary daa cllcin and hn apply apprpria ls ha hav bn nind bfr wld b a gd cbinain fr a sccssfl arking capaign Priary daa Fr h prps f his sdy incras MU aracivnss, priary daa has bn cllcd. Rsarchr dvlpd qsinnair which cnsiss f 15 qsins and randly gav inrnainal sdns. Th ain gal f his qsinnair is answr w rsarch qsins s by rsarchr: 1. On wha ln f arking ix sdns rlid r whn chsing MU: Ppl, Physical vidnc r Prcsss? 2. Ds h pssibiliy f dsic ark plyabiliy afr gradain plays h ky rl fr chsing MU? Ths w rsarch qsins will hlp g a cl n hw spcifically iprv aracivnss f MU. Daa is analyzd by sing xcl Micrsf ffic applicain wih sppr f varis graphs and abls. I has bn calclad ha ajriy f rspndns ar crrn sdns in MU which givs r in dph daa dscribing nivrsiy aracivnss.

43 36 Graph 1 Idnificain f sdns` sas I is 62% f rspndns sad ha hy ar crrnly sdy in MU. This will bring r in dph daa fr h srvy. Spcializains hav widr spli p wih w ajr lns: Infraics and Mdicin an 32% and 27% accrdingly. Unfrnaly hr ar n any sdns fr spr facly. As i has bn nind rspndns wr chsn randly, s i can b bvis ha hr is big an f sdns sdying r innd sdy dicin and infraics. Graph 2 Idnificain variabiliy f spcializains

44 37 Cnry f rigin abl shws ha sdns fr Slvakia hav ajriy. Prbably bcas f cnry and nainal clsnss Czch Rpblic. Th scnd biggs ajriy is sdns fr Unid Kind, afr h sdns fr Rssia and Hngary. Graph 3 Cnry f rigin spli p Qsin nbr 4 rlas firs rsarch qsin (On wha ln f arking ix sdns rlid r whn chsing MU: Ppl, Physical vidnc r Prcsss?) which spcifis h lvl f Prcss ln in MU. In gnral h lvl f handling phn call/ail is accpabl wih 14 rspndns answrd as cplly sfficin r cplly sfficin wih addiinal infrain. This shws ha ajriy f sdns ar saisfid wih firs iprssin f cnacing MU.

45 38 Char 3 Lvl f handling call/ail inqiry Qsin nbr 5 xplains anhr ln in firs rsarch qsin which is Ppl. I is vidn ha fr ajriy f sdns acadic xprinc is h s ipran knw ab prfssrs prfssinalis. B i is als a big qaniy f hs wh did n analyz any infrain. Fiv sdns rspndd ha wrk xprinc in bsinss sphr is a ky criria chs MU. Char 4 Criria fr idnifying prfssinalis f nivrsiy aching saff Nbr f crss Qaniy f Wrk xprinc Acadic Prfssinal I didn` analyz achrs ffr pblicain f in bsinss sphr Exprinc il in any infrain achrs bsinss ab acadic saff in MU Th Prcss ln is valad in qsin nbr six which xplains h lvl f adinisraiv and bracraic fncins in MU n h ar f cnvninc and sag.

46 39 Char 5 Cnvninc On h char i is shwn ha sdns ra hs fncins as cnvnin wih nly svral sdns wh prciv i as rahr incnvnin. On h Usag char i has als psiiv rnd rprsning ha MU adinisraiv and bracraic prcss is highly sfl. Char 6 Usag Qsin nbr svn xplains hird ln Physical vidnc. In graph blw i is bvis ha ajriy f sdns d n chck his ln whil chsing MU.

47 40 Graph 4 Idnificain f prcsss ln 69% rplid ngaivly and 31% psiivly which ans ha his facr ds n play a ky rl in slcing nivrsiy. Majriy f sdns ra MU faciliis as cfrabl. I is shwn in h abl blw ha lvn sdns ra faciliis as gd. Char 7 Idnificain f physical vidnc ln Qsin nbr nin ncpasss svral criria which wr akn fr w lns f arking ix: Ppl and Physical vidnc and s wr n fr his arking ix lik abiliy g plyn in h cnry, wrldwid accpabl dipla. Ths w facrs wr akn fr h scnd rsarch qsin: Ds h pssibiliy f

48 41 dsic ark plyabiliy afr gradain plays h ky rl fr chsing MU? Rsls shwd ha sdns highly val abiliy g plyn in h cnry (16 rspndns gav highs scr). Als highly rad MU dipla as wrldwid accpabl (15 rspndns gav h highs scr). Als fr rspndns i is ipran (wih lwr grading scr 4 ) Srng acadic saff and Exclln labrary faciliis. Char 8 MU criria a. Abiliy g plyn in h cnry b. Srng acadic saff c. Exclln labrary faciliis d. Library faciliis. Wrldwid accpabl dipla Qsin nbr 10 inclds s f cn srvics ha nivrsiy prvids sdns. This qsin hlps ndrsand wha srvics MU prvids sfficinly sdns. Rsls shwd ha sfficin srvics ha MU prvids ar als all which hav bn nind in h pins lis. Only Sall class sizs d n big ajriy xpcains.

49 42 Char 9 MU srvics Rasnabl accdain Nbr f dls Exchang prgras Rsarch nvirnn Sall class sizs Inrnship pssibiliy Facly Inrsing rsls gav h rsarchr qsins nbr 11 which shws ha sly sdns g knw ab MU fr inrn sarch ngins and fr rlaivs advic. Graph 5 Mdia channl f MU Qsin nbr 12 and 13 giv vrall saisfacin lvl wih MU. Qsin nbr 12 has bn adpd fr hrical par which asks whhr sdn is rady nr nivrsiy again if h/sh wld hav h sa pprniy. Qsin nbr 13 is dbl-chcking his san. Rsls ar shwing ha ajriy f rspndns wld nr MU again and hy ar saisfid wih vrall MU dcainal srvic.

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