# Empirical Methods in Applied Economics

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2 It should be obvious from this discussion that selection bias is nothing other than omitted variables bias in this regression context. However, framing the problem by thinking about an underlying random assignment experiment helps in determining what needs to be controlled in a regression. The variables X need to include everything that determines the selection process. Information about how this process happens may come from an economic model (most likely leading to a much more structural approach to identi- cation) or from knowledge of some administrative process. Papers using non-structural identi cation often rely on the latter, a clear description of some administrative process, as a natural experiment. The key ingredient in a good observational study is to convince the reader that after controlling for X, D is as good as randomly assigned with respect to the counterfactual outcomes. Of course, in reality, we are often not as fortunate, and the research literature may be groping for good measures of what should be in X. A good example is the literature on the returns to schooling. Suppose that earnings are given by y + S + A + " (1) where y is the log of earnings, S is the number of years of schooling, and A is ability. In this semi-log formulation, measures the return to a year of schooling. Since a measure of A is often not available, researchers typically run the short regression y a + bs + u The estimate of b is p lim b cov(y; S) cov( + S + A + "; S) var(s) var(s) var(s) + cov(s; A) var(s) cov(s; A) + + b AS var(s) (2) where b AS denotes the bivariate regression coe cient of A on S. This is the standard omitted variables bias formula. The estimate of will be biased up if ability raises earnings ( > 0) and the more able get more schooling (cov(s; A) > 0). Most people with Ph.D.s like to believe that the latter is the case. However, while this is possible and maybe likely, there is no compelling reason for it. Schooling may well be compensatory rather than complementary for earnings capacity A, so that cov(s; A) > 0. For example, 2

3 Mick Jagger attended the LSE and obtained an MSc degree in economics. He decided not to go on to the Ph.D. because he had a high A, and hence was better o making money by playing music. Griliches (1977) discusses the model (1) and provides some estimates from the US National Longitudinal Survey (NLS). He estimates the short regression as ln y const. + 0:068 S + " (0:03) The NLS data contain an IQ test score, which Griliches includes as his measure of ability. He obtains ln y const. + 0:059 S + 0:0028 IQ + " (0:03) (0:0005) The estimate of is indeed lower once the test score is included but not by too much. This result is consistent with cov(s; A) > 0, and the covariance being relatively small. An alternative interpretation is that the IQ test score is a poor measure of ability, or it is measured with a lot of error so that even the long regression still does not give an unbiased estimate of the true return to schooling. If there is classical measurement error in IQ, and cov(s; A) > 0, then the coe cient on IQ will be biased towards zero, and the coe cient on S will be biased upwards. The NLS data contain another test score from the Knowledge of the World of Work test. This score is highly correlated with IQ, so Griliches uses it to instrument the IQ score in order to cure the measurement error problem. The result of the IV regression is ln y const. + 0:052 S + 0:0051 IQ + " (0:04) (0:0009) These results are again consistent with the interpretation we had in mind. There seems to be a substantial amount of attenuation bias in the coe cient on the IQ score in the OLS regression. The coe cient almost doubles when instrumented. However, the coe cient on schooling is also a ected, and it falls by almost the same amount as it did moving from the short regression to the long regression including IQ. This comes from the fact that IQ and schooling are positively correlated but the coe cient on IQ is underestimated in the OLS model. Hence, part of the e ect of IQ loads on to the schooling coe cient. Including IQ cures some but not all of the omitted variables bias problem. Of course, the question remains, is schooling as good as randomly assigned conditional on the IQ test score? 3

4 1.2 Measurement Error in the Treatment Most survey data are measured with error. We already considered the consequence of measurement error in a conditioning variable. However, the variable measuring the treatment may also be measured with error. You might think that years of schooling are probably measured relatively accurately. Nevertheless, a study of twins by Ashenfelter and Krueger (1994) suggests that the signal to total variance ratio in self-reported schooling is about 0.9. This ratio determines the relative attenuation of a mismeasured regressor in a bivariate classical errors-in-variables model. We want to think again about comparing the short regression, just including schooling, to the long regression including a measure of ability. In order to see what happens, consider an arti cial example. Suppose earnings is given by ln y 0:1 S + 0:01 A + " Observed schooling e S is measured with error and the attenuation factor 2 S 2 e S 0:9 as in Ashenfelter and Krueger. Furthermore, assume es 3; A 15; AS 22:5. Running the short regression with just e S as a regressor leads to both attenuation because of measurement error, and omitted variables bias. Using (2) we have p lim b b ln y e S + b AS (3) 0:9 0:1 + 0:01 22:5 9 0:115 The omitted variables bias dominates in this example, and the estimated return to schooling is biased upwards. Now consider adding A to the equation. The regression coe cient on S, b ln ys:a e, from the regression which conditions on A, is given by p lim b b ln y e S:A R2 e SA 1 R 2 e SA where R 2 e SA is the R 2 from a regression of e S on A. Compared to (3), the long regression removes the omitted variable bias. However, the attenuation bias 4

5 from measurement error increases by adding an additional regressor since R 2 e SA 1 R 2 e SA < The reason for this is that A and S are correlated. Hence, including A in the regression e ectively removes some of the variation in S e while leaving the measurement error unchanged. This reduces the attenuation factor. Using the numbers from our example, R 2 e SA A e S es A p lim b b ln y e S:A 2 AS es A 0:9 0:25 1 0: :5 2 0: :65 0:1 0:1 0:087 0:75 In the short regression, the positive ability bias was partially o setting the negative attenuation bias. In the long regression, the ability bias has been removed, while the attenuation bias has increased. The estimated return to schooling is now too small. The bias is about as large as in the short regression, where the two biases partially o set each other. By adding a perfectly valid and necessary control in the presence of measurement error we end up being no better o than before. If we suspect measurement error in S, but are uncertain about the importance of A, it is di cult to know whether the reduction in the regression coe cient in going from the short to the long regression is driven mainly by the measurement error or by omitted variables bias. As a result, it is di cult to judge whether the Griliches estimate of or is closer to the truth. 1.3 Controlling for Outcomes A major pitfall in trying to control for selection with observables is the danger to end up controlling for outcomes. This can easily lead to misleading estimates. Consider our returns to schooling example again, where earnings y are determined by y + S + A + " and E("jS; A) 0. Assume cov(s; A) 0, so running the short regression y a + bs + u 5

6 results in a consistent estimate of the returns to schooling. Suppose that A cannot be measured directly. An ability measure M A is available, and measured ability is related to innate ability by the regression equation MA o + 1 S + A: Schooling increases measured ability. Hence, measured ability is an outcome of the schooling treatment. Since we are worried about cov(s; A) 6 0, we are running the long regression y a + bs + cma + u: What is the estimate b b from that regression? Note that b var(ma)cov(y; S) cov(s; MA)cov(y; MA) var(s)var(ma) cov(s; MA) 2 (this is simply the formula for one of the coe cients in a trivariate regression). Using cov(s; MA) 1 2 S we obtain plim b var(ma)2 S 1 2 S 1 2 S + 2 A 2 S var(ma) S var(ma) S + 2 A var(ma) S var(ma) S 1 2 A var(ma) S 1 2 A var(ma) S where the last equality made use of the fact that var(ma) S + 2 A. By including MA in the regression, which includes the e ect of S, part of the e ect of S loads on to the MA term. The estimate of is biased down as a result. In many applications there are multiple outcomes, which a treatment a ects. For example, think of D as participation in a teacher training program in a developing country. You have measures of two relevant outcomes, y s is a student test score, and y a is a student s school attendance record. For simplicity, assume that D is randomly assigned. In this case, both the regressions y a a + a D + " a y s s + s D + " s 6

7 have a causal interpretation. However, notice that attendance of the student is likely to a ect student performance, and hence the test score y s. Hence, it is natural to ask: What is the direct e ect of D on y s, and what is the indirect e ect through y a? It is tempting to argue that regression uncovers the partial e ects, hence running the regression y s y a + 2 D + u (4) let s us uncover the direct e ect. There are now three causal e ects we are interested in: the e ects of D on y s and y a, and the e ect of y a on y s. Our previous discussion puts us in a good position to assess the model (4). For this regression to recover the causal e ect of y a on y s, it needs to be true that conditional on D, y a is as good as randomly assigned. Indeed, D is a selection variable, since it a ects both y s and y a. However, we have not said anything in our discussion so far as to whether y a may be reasonably thought of as randomly assigned. In the example, student attendance is unlikely to be randomly assigned among the kids whose teacher does not get training, and those who does. In e ect, student characteristics like motivation or parental interest in schooling will most likely determine both attendance and performance. In this case, regression (4) will recover neither the causal e ect of D, nor of y a. The reason why you won t be able to recover the e ect of D anymore is the same as in the case of attrition in the last lecture: Attrition is an outcome that is correlated with both D and counterfactual test scores. Hence, D? y s0 ; y s1 ; Djy a? y s0 ; y s1 for the same reasons as before. 1.4 Falsi cation Exercises How do we determine in practice whether treatment is as good as randomly assigned conditional on some observables? Mostly, this will involve a judgement call. It is instructive to go through an empirical example, in order to see how a strategy of controlling for observables might work. Let me give an example from my own work. Britain changed from a system of selective secondary schooling to a system of comprehensive secondary schooling during the 1970s. In the selective system, children would take a test at age 11 and attend a either a more academically oriented grammar school if they did well, or a less academic secondary modern school otherwise. In the comprehensive system, the test was abolished and everyone attends the same school until age 16. We are interested in the e ect of selection on student 7

8 performance. Do students do better in the tracked, selective system or do they better in the comprehensive system? The British reform o ers potentially a good testing ground for this question. The reform happened at di erent speeds in di erent local education authorities. By 1969, there were some authorities which were fully comprehensive, some which were still fully selective, and many which were in between. The children in the National Child Development Study (NCDS) were age 11 in The NCDS has therefore been analyzed extensively to look at this question. Unfortunately, the reform did not happen randomly across authorities. Poorer, left leaning authorities with more poorly performing students tended to convert to the comprehensive system rst. Hence, it is necessary to control for these di erences in characteristics of the students attending comprehensive schools versus other schools. Table 1 shows some results from this exercise. It regresses a math test score (scaled to range from 0 to 100) on whether a student attended a comprehensive school. Comprehensive school students scored almost 8 points lower, which is quite a large e ect. However, column (2) shows that this is mainly due to the fact that more poorly performing students attend these schools. Controlling for the math test score at age 11 lowers the e ect to about 2 points. The data set actually includes various di erent subject tests, and controlling for four other tests at age 11 does not change the results much. Neither does including a small number of family background controls in column (4). These controls were taken from a previous study by Kerkho and coauthors. In fact, the data set has a rich set of controls available. Including about another 50 covariates in column (5) changes the coe cient slightly, but the general magnitude (1.5) is still the same (notice that these extensive controls resulted in a loss of observations because of missing values, so the column (4) and (5) samples are not exactly the same). If it is not completely clear which controls are necessary, including a reasonable set of controls successively is useful. Since the coe cients in all columns from (2) to (5) are somewhat similar, it seems reasonable to conclude that any omitted factors are probably much like the observables already included, and hence would not change the results much more either. This is not a test of the strategy, however. While the results in table 1 suggest that comprehensive education may lower math scores by 1 to 2 points, this result is actually rather dubious. The data set also contains test scores at age 7. Hence, it allows me to run the same regressions using the age 11 test score as outcome and the age 7 test score as control. This covers the period of primary school when all children are educated together. Although there may be some e ects of the selective regime (for 8

9 example, because children in comprehensive areas will study for the age 11 exam), we would expect any such e ects at the younger ages to be much less pronounced. Table 2 displays these results and suggests that the e ects are even bigger. No matter how many controls are added, a large comprehensive school e ect remains. This casts doubt on the interpretation of the table 1 e ects as causal. This strategy of looking for data which allow a falsi cation exercise has become quite popular in the applied literature. As in table 2, you want to nd some data where you can a priory rule out an e ect of the treatment. If you nevertheless nd the e ect, it casts doubt on the identi cation strategy. The falsi cation test really only makes sense if you nd an e ect of the treatment on the outcome you are interested in. If the e ect in the real data is zero, then there is little to be learned from the fact that it might be zero using a di erent outcome variable, which should not be a ected, as well. 9

10 Table 1 Math Test Scores at 16 OLS Regressions Regressor (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Attends Comprehensive School (0.54) (0.35) (0.34) (0.34) (0.37) Control Variables: Math Test Score at 11 no yes yes yes yes Other Test Scores at 11 no no yes yes yes Kerkhoff et al. type background controls no no no yes yes Large set of background controls no no no no yes Number of observations Note: Control variables need to be described somewhere. Table 2 Math Test Scores at 11 OLS Regressions Regressor (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Attends Comprehensive School (0.62) (0.52) (0.46) (0.45) (0.45) Control Variables: Math Test Score at 7 no yes yes yes yes Other Test Scores at 7 no no yes yes yes Kerkhoff et al. type background controls no no no yes yes Large set of background controls no no no no yes Number of observations Note: Control variables need to be described somewhere. 23

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