Exploiting knowledge on habitats used by arthropods to predict value of ESS in agrolandscapes

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1 Exploiting knowledge on habitats used by arthropods to predict value of ESS in agrolandscapes W. Geertsema 1, F. Bianchi 2, W. Rossing 2, J. Schaminee 3 and W. van der Werf 1 Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands 1 Crop Systems Analysis, 2 Farming Systems Ecology, 3 Nature Conservation & Vegetation Science NWO OBW symposium 10 April 2014

2 Agricultural landscapes: pollination, natural pest control and more...

3 Re-thinking land use in landscapes Ambition of stakeholders: ecological intensification (Hoeksche Waard and Flevopolder) Enhance ecosystem services Decrease negative side effects of agriculture How to design and manage landscapes for balanced provisioning of ecosystem services? Pollination and natural pest control But also: soil quality, water quality, biodiversity, landscape aesthetics

4 Actionable knowledge Concrete measures Flexible what to do where not: one size fits all options suited for region, farm type, farmer,... Effective good return on investment

5 Multiple objectives multiple solutions Trade-off & synergies Tool to explore the solutions: Landscape IMAGES (Groot et al. 2007) optimization (Pareto) and spatially explicit indicator assessment Dots: spatially explicit landscape alternative with specific realisation of objectives pollination / pest control?

6 Our approach: use dynamic resource profiles Ensure resources for ES-providers at the right time & place (crop and non-crop habitat): Nectar Pollen Shelter/nesting habitat (Alternative food: prey, hosts...) Dynamic Resource Profile = available resources during the year in a landscape element or vegetation type for a specific group of ES providers Spatially explicit model, dynamic resources, pollinator & natural enemies populations

7 Development of DRP: plant-insect relations Combine knowledge on plant-insect networks: ecosystem service providers honey bees solitary bees (short tongue) solitary bees (long tongue) bumble bees syrphids parasitoid wasps lady beetles resource requirement need for pollen need for nectar nesting/hibernation sites seasonality plant traits flowering time nectar pollen flower morphology main pollinators host for pests?... relations between insect groups and individual plant species > plant trait database (> 500 spp)

8 Illustration resources in landscapes Flevopolder Hoeksche Waard plant species plant communities landscapes

9 Linking plant traits (~resources) to plant communities reed-class Carex riparia (38%) Eupatorium cannabinum (8%) Phragmitis autralis (88%) Moist grassland-class Calystegia sepium (18%) Carex disticha (8%) Lychnis flos-cuculi (18%) Phragmitis autralis (18%) bee species Plantago lanceolata (8%) Poa trivialis (38%) syrphid species Valeriana officinalis (8%) bumble bee species Willowbush-class Carex riparia (8%) Glechoma hederacea (8%) Salix alba (68%) Urtica dioica (38%) This can be done for all relevés in different vegetation types:

10 Floral resources in vegetation types Example Moist grasslands: rich in summer & autumn with floral resources:

11 From resources to ecosystem service potential Develop indicators for resource availability in plant communities for different pollinator and natural enemy groups throughout the season Dynamic resource maps Spatially explicit models Maps of ecosystem service potential

12 Ecosystem service potential in practice: Flevopolder & Hoeksche Waard Hotspot and coldspot maps for pollination and pest control challenge: validation data Hoeksche Waard program of province Zuid-Holland and HW-stakeholders: Sustainable arable farms in sustainable landscape (start up 7 March 14) green blue veining: supply and demand for ecosystem services

13 Next steps: Pollination & pest control potential + algorithms for other objectives in LandscapeIMAGES: Trade-off and synergies in landscape alternatives Not one single solution CAP-greening scenario s (cooperation land owners) Public-private cooperation (added value products) Discuss scenario s, landscape alternatives and effectiveness of measures with stakeholders

14 Concluding Spatial and temporal variation of resources for beneficial arthropods Multiple objectives, including pollination & pest control Develop actionable knowledge with and for multiple stakeholders

Arable landscapes and multiple ecosystem services in The Netherlands

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