On-Farm Habitat To Provid Multiple Ecosystem Service. Seminar Outline:

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1 CEFS SOSA 2011 Workshop: On-Farm Habitat To Provid Multiple Ecosystem Service David Orr, Charlie Plush, Aaron Fox Photo by Charlie Plush Seminar Outline: -Introduction -Agriculture and Ecology -Natural Control And Biological Control -Beneficial Organisms Predators Parasitoids Habitat Needs Photo by Lisa Forehand 1

2 Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org Food Webs (e.g. boreal balsam fir) Canadian Forest Service, Forest Health and Biodiversity Newsletter 12(1) 2

3 Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org Generalized Ecological Succession 3

4 Insects Affect. What we eat Where we live How we live Why Aren t We Covered in Bugs? 4

5 Why Aren t We Covered in Bugs? Why Aren t We Covered in Bugs? 4 months 5

6 Natural Control "natural control" is "the maintenance of population density of an organism within upper and lower limits over time by the actions of abiotic and/or biotic environmental factors. DeBach (1964) Factors in Natural Control physical factors (e.g. weather) food competition space or territory natural enemies (beneficial organisms) 6

7 Value of Natural Control Annual US value, natural control, native pests (all factors) $13.6 billion Annual US value, natural control, native pests (by insects) $4.49 billion From: Losey and Vaughan Bioscience. Biological Control The importation, augmentation, and conservation of beneficial organisms to regulate population densities of other organisms (DeBach,1964) 7

8 IPM Practices Biological Control: Three Methods: Importation Augmentation Conservation Univ. of Idaho Archives Bugwood.org IPM Practices Biological Control: 1. Importation: Usually involves importation of natural enemies from exotic, invasive pests native homeland Not applicable to most NC growers 8

9 IPM Practices Biological Control: 1. Importation: N/A 2. Augmentation: Natural enemy populations increased through mass rearing and release for suppression of native or exotic pests Moderate use by NC growers IPM Practices Biological Control: 1. Importation: N/A 2. Augmentation: Moderate use 3. Conservation: The practice of enhancing natural enemy efficacy through modification of the environment or existing pesticide practices Many organic growers feel they depend on natural control and conservation biocontrol 9

10 IPM Practices Biological Control: 1. Importation: N/A 2. Augmentation: Moderate use 3. Conservation: a. modification of existing pesticide practices IPM Practices Biological Control: 1. Importation: N/A 2. Augmentation: Moderate use 3. Conservation: a. modification of existing pesticide practices (i) physiologically selective pesticides -various databases -Beneficial Disruption Index (BDI) (Hoque et al. 2002) (ii) ecologically selective use of pesticides -reduced dosages (e.g. lowest recommended rates) -selective formulations and materials (e.g. systemic) -spatial selectivity (e.g. spot-treating) -temporal selectivity (e.g. non-persistent materials) -appropriate use of alternative tactics (e.g. pheromones) 10

11 IPM Practices Biological Control: 1. Importation: N/A 2. Augmentation: Moderate use 3. Conservation: a. modification of existing pesticide practices b. modification of the environment Farmscaping -management of landscape elements on a farm to enhance populations of beneficial organisms -a whole farm ecological approach to pest managemen 11

12 Farmland Beneficial Insects? Parasites, Predators Weed Seed Predators Pollinators Lisa Forehand Butterflies Whitney Cranshaw Co. State Univ. Bugwood.org Plant Feeders David Cappaert, Michigan State Univ., Bugwood.org Russ Ottens, Univ. of Georgia, Bugwood.org David Cappaert, Michigan State Univ., Bugwood org Conservation Biocontrol Beneficial Insect Habitat Requirements: Shelter Habitats 12

13 Conservation Biocontrol Beneficial Insect Habitat Requirements: Shelter Habitats Offer suitable biotic and abiotic conditions for: -overwintering -aestivation -reproduction -refuge Internal Habitat: -perennial or annual herbaceous -designed not to impede farm machinery or practice Conservation Biocontrol Beneficial Insect Habitat Requirements: Shelter Habitats Offer suitable biotic and abiotic conditions for: -overwintering -aestivation -reproduction -refuge Internal Habitat: -perennial or annual herbaceous -designed not to impede farm machinery or practice External Habitat: -hedgerows, ditches, fencelines, shelterbelts, field margins, woodland, grassland 13

14 Conservation Biocontrol Example: Polistes wasp nest boxes Conservation Biocontrol Example: Anagrus wasps on blackberry/grape leafhoppers Arthur Miller Howard Schwartz NYSIPM CDFA Howard Schwartz 14

15 Conservation Biocontrol Example: Tobacco hornworm on tomatoes Lisa Forehand Lisa Forehand Conservation Biocontrol Example: Tobacco hornworm on tomatoes Lisa Forehand Lisa Forehand Corel Photo CD B. Newton, UK, 2005 Learnnc.org Snowberry Clearwing Host Plants: Honeysuckle family 15

16 Conservation Biocontrol Example: Tobacco hornworm on tomatoes Lisa Forehand Lisa Forehand Corel Photo CD B. Newton, UK, 2005 Learnnc.org Snowberry Clearwing Host Plants: Honeysuckle family Great Ash Sphinx Host Plants: Ash, Lilac nitro.biosci.arizona.edu motego1 MDA Michigan.gov Conservation Biocontrol Example: Tobacco hornworm on tomatoes Lisa Forehand Tarmolade Patrick Coin UF/IFAS Pandora Sphinx Host Plants: Virginia creeper Wild grape 16

17 Conservation Biocontrol Example: Non-prey food floral resources Conservation Biocontrol Example: Non-prey food floral resources Parasitoid Nectar Provision Hypothesis (Heimpel & Jervis 2005) -parasitoids sugar-limited in simplified habitats -providing nectar source alleviates limitation - longevity, fecundity, ability to suppress pests 17

18 Conservation Biocontrol Example: Non-prey food floral resources Parasitoid Nectar Provision Hypothesis (Heimpel & Jervis 2005) -parasitoids sugar-limited in simplified habitats -providing nectar source alleviates limitation - longevity, fecundity, ability to suppress pests Empirical Evidence -many laboratory studies: longevity, fecundity -several field studies: longevity -one field study: fecundity -ability to suppress pests? Conservation Biocontrol Example: Mymarid wasps and cover crops CDFA Buckwheat Fenbrook Farms Howard Schwartz 18

19 Conservation Biocontrol Example: Mymarid wasps and cover crops CDFA Buckwheat Fenbrook Farms Howard Schwartz NYSIPM Conservation Biocontrol Example: Nectar, predatory flies Hover Fly Adult Larva Alyssum 19

20 Conservation Biocontrol Example: Nectar, predatory wasps Paper Wasps Sphecid Wasps Jessica Lawrence Russ Ottens Golden Digger Wasp John Meyer Conservation Biocontrol Example: Nectar, predatory wasps Paper Wasps Sphecid Wasps Jessica Lawrence Golden Digger Wasp Russ Ottens Mountain Mint John Meyer Aralia spinosa 20

21 Conservation Biocontrol Shelter Habitats: external/internal; reproduction Example: Non-prey food honeydew resources Brian Kunkel, University of Delaware, Bugwood.org Providing Habitat: General Recommendation 21

22 Providing Habitat: General Recommendation Neat and Tidy Alun John Photo by Charlie Plush 22

23 CEFS SOSA 2011 Workshop: On-Farm Habitat To Provid Multiple Ecosystem Service QUESTIONS? David Orr, Charlie Plush, Aaron Fox Photo by Charlie Plush 23

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