Guidelines for Degraded Landscape Management (Deliverable #16) September 30, 2013

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1 Biodiversity and Agricultural Commodities Program BACP-Rainforest Alliance Grant-015 ( Applying sustainable cocoa practices through agroforestry in community forest areas as a tool for achieving biodiversity conservation outcomes ) Guidelines for Degraded Landscape Management (Deliverable #16) September 30, 2013 Introduction and context Rainforest Alliance s BACP-funded project in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, seeks to protect critical habitats and ecosystems by promoting the adoption of biodiversity-friendly cocoa agroforestry, certified according to the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) standard, in critical areas within Bantaeng Regency. Specifically, the project will train at least 750 farmers to promote adoption of the SAN Standard on 1,500 hectares of cocoa farms around the periphery of remaining intact forests, such as the Gunung Lampobatang Protection Forest. This forest is an Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) site and home to the last remaining population of the Lompobatang Flycatcher (Ficedula bonthaina), believed to contain fewer than 10,000 individuals. Critical to the conservation strategy at this site is the maintenance of existing conservation values and the rehabilitation of lost conservation values within the production landscape. This landscape consists of a mosaic of cocoa agroforestry under varying levels of shade cover, alongside a variety of additional crops including rice, cloves, and other crops grown in smaller quantities mostly for household consumption and local sale. The production landscape itself contains very little natural forest less than 1% according to the land cover map developed through this project. This forest is contained within a few modestly-sized community forest reserves as well as some small areas of extremely steep slopes unsuitable for agriculture. However, the production landscape does contain a considerable amount of tree cover, particularly in the higher elevation portions of the district (closer to the Gunung Lampobatang Protection Forest), comprising both native species and a variety of non-native trees planted for fruits, fiber, fuel, and other uses. Based on anecdotal field observations, the production landscape appears to be poor in certain native wildlife such as birds; this would be consistent with farmer comments made during community mapping exercises that shooting of wildlife on farms is an embedded cultural practice. Guidelines for landscape management and rehabilitation In this context, a conservation-friendly landscape management approach focused on cocoa production systems needs to: 1) Increase the compositional and structural diversity of vegetation on and around cocoa farms, with an emphasis on native species. This change would generally improve habitat for a variety of native species, while reducing edge contrast with the Gunung Lampobatang Protection Forest. 2) Demonstrate a viable model for sustainable intensification of cocoa production systems in the area, under which productivity and profitability are significantly increased while conservation values are maintained or improved. If farmers lack such an option and perceive cocoa production to be an unprofitable or undesirable activity, the likely consequence would be conversion of cocoa agroforestry to other land uses with lower conservation value. Additionally, as demand for cocoa continues to rise in Indonesia, abandonment of cocoa production in Bantaeng would contribute indirectly to deforestation elsewhere.

2 3) Reduce activities of farmers and local residents that directly harm wildlife, including hunting and indiscriminate shooting of local fauna as well as lethal control of animal pests feeding on cocoa pods. Each of these strategic pillars must be advanced through specific activities engaging local farmers to encourage conservation-friendly behavior. In the case of this project, these activities center around training farmers in better management practices (BMPs) prescribed under the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) standard, as well as providing farmers with certain materials and inputs to assist them in transitioning to these BMPs. Adoption of such practices should lead to more productive and wildlifefriendly agriculture, as well as the possibility of achieving Rainforest Alliance certification for the cocoa produced. However, any recommended practices must be feasible for smallholder farmers and offer the prospect of some benefit, whether in terms of income, risk reduction, improved health and safety, aesthetic/cultural, or other. To pinpoint the specific BMPs that offer the greatest potential for sustainable intensification, conservation benefits, and feasibility in Bantaeng, the project team from January through July 2013 conducted baseline data collection on household, agronomic, and ecological conditions in the production landscape. Based on this information, specific guidelines for farmer training and BMPs were developed and are now being implemented in farmer training activities. The attached PowerPoint presentation presents guidelines for the conservation- and environment-related BMPs. Applicability outside the project area The guidelines for degraded landscape management presented here, including the basic three-part framework presented above, are likely to be applicable in a variety of other contexts where agriculture is conducted in a mosaic landscape where there is a dual conservation emphasis on land-sharing (i.e., increasing the conservation value of the production landscape and forestalling conversion to more damaging land uses) and land-sparing (i.e., maintaining or sustainably increasing productivity in the production landscape to reduce pressure on more pristine sites elsewhere). However, localization of farmer guidance is critical. The process of localization should begin with an analysis of conservation threats and drivers followed by an assessment of socioeconomic, agronomic, and ecological conditions within the production landscape. This type information may then be used to design place-specific guidelines for conservation-friendly management of mosaic production landscapes.

3 GUIDELINES FOR SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT FOR COCOA PRODUCTION AND ECOLOGICAL REHABILITATION BANTAENG, SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIA Rainforest Alliance September Rainforest Alliance

4 PROCESS OF DEVELOPING THE GUIDELINES Situation analysis of conservation threats and drivers in and around the Bantaeng landscape Farm, household, and landscape level baseline surveys to identify key opportunities and barriers for sustainable cocoa intensification alongside ecological restoration and improvement of conservation value Development of guidelines for better management practices that are likely to be effective, feasible, and attractive to farmers for long-lasting adoption Farmer training & support Improvement in productivity, biodiversity, and socioeconomic outcomes 2

5 OVERARCHING STRATEGY THAT INFORMS THE GUIDELINES Address key conservation threats and capitalize on restoration opportunities by: 1. Increasing the compositional and structural diversity of vegetation on and around cocoa farms, with an emphasis on native species. This change can improve habitat for a variety of native species, while reducing edge contrast with the Gunung Lampobatang Protection Forest. 2. Demonstrating a viable model for sustainable intensification of cocoa production systems to increase productivity and profitability while maintaining or improving conservation values. This approach can encourage farmers to keep land in cocoa agroforestry as opposed to converting to other land uses with lower conservation value. It can also provide a conservation-friendly way to meet growing cocoa demand in Indonesia, thereby reducing pressure on forests elsewhere. 3. Reducing activities that directly harm wildlife, including hunting and indiscriminate shooting of local fauna. Reduction of direct pressure on wildlife populations can aid rehabilitation, in conjunction with other efforts to conserve suitable habitat. 3

6 APPLYING THE SAN STANDARD TO THE BANTAENG CONTEXT The Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) standard provides a template for conservation-friendly agriculture. This presentation provides specific guidelines for implementing the SAN standard in the context of cocoa production systems in Bantaeng. The guidelines draw on baseline information collected through studies in early 2013 to focus on key aspects of the SAN standard and develop locally appropriate better management practices (BMPs). 4

7 THE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE NETWORK (SAN) STANDARD 10 principles: 1. Social and environmental management system 2. **Ecosystem conservation 3. **Wildlife protection 4. *Water conservation 5. Fair treatment and good working conditions for workers 6. Occupational health and safety 7. Community relations 8. *Integrated crop management 9. *Soil management and conservation 10. *Integrated waste management 94 total criteria 14 CRITICAL criteria Certification requires compliance with: 100% of critical criteria at least 80% of all criteria at least 50% of criteria under EACH of the 10 principles ** Primary focus on biodiversity conservation * Additional principles potentially contributing to conservation outcomes 5

8 THE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE NETWORK (SAN) STANDARD 10 principles: 1. Social and environmental management system 2. **Ecosystem conservation 3. **Wildlife protection 4. *Water conservation 5. Fair treatment and good working conditions for workers 6. Occupational health and safety 7. Community relations 8. *Integrated crop management 9. *Soil management and conservation 10. *Integrated waste management SAN Standard Compliance = 6

9 Guidelines for sustainable cocoa intensification and ecological restoration Bantaeng, Indonesia CONSERVE EXISTING NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS Present condition: There are few natural ecosystems within the cocoa-producing landscape, making those few areas that do exist especially important for wildlife, protection of clean water, and other ecosystem services Guideline: Identify and protect existing natural ecosystems on cocoa farms Through farmer groups, build on community mapping work to identify key areas to conserve and restore Destruction of existing natural ecosystems is prohibited under the SAN standard (critical criteria 2.1 and 2.2) 7

10 Guidelines for sustainable cocoa intensification and ecological restoration Bantaeng, Indonesia SETBACKS AND VEGETATIVE BARRIERS Present condition: Land use activities in the upper areas of Bantaeng affect water quality and flow downstream, for human consumption, livestock, rice production, and other uses. Therefore, farming practices should minimize negative impacts to water resources Guideline: Adhere to setback requirements between natural ecosystems and chemical application (SAN criterion 2.5) Establish vegetative barriers between crops and areas of human activity (e.g., houses), roads, and streams (SAN criteria 2.6 and 2.7) 8

11 Guidelines for sustainable cocoa intensification and ecological restoration Bantaeng, Indonesia AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM General guideline: Diverse native shade Avoid use of invasive species >12 canopy species per hectare 40% tree canopy cover At least two vertical strata 9

12 # of quadrats Guidelines for sustainable cocoa intensification and ecological restoration Bantaeng, Indonesia AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM Present condition: Most cocoa plots have 10-40% shade cover Land cover on sampled Bantaeng farms total n = 432 BACP & 433 control quadrats Agroforest high shade (>40%) Agroforest low shade (10-40%) Land cover Unshaded cocoa (<10%) On BACP farm plots On control farm plots Other perennial Guideline: On low-shade cocoa plots, increase shade cover to approx. 40% to achieve the best synergy between productivity and conservation value Focus shade in areas with the greatest win-win potential, such as: o o Shading the establishment of new cocoa seedlings Enhancing boundary plantings (live fences) and riparian zones 10

13 % of farms Guidelines for sustainable cocoa intensification and ecological restoration Bantaeng, Indonesia AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM Present condition: Emergent trees (>20m tall) are present on only about 40% of Bantaeng cocoa farms Based on recent research, emergent trees on cocoa farms can be critical for wildlife conservation About 60% of emergent trees present are in live fences; the remainder are on cocoa plots 60% 40% 20% 0% Prevalence of emergent trees on BACP farms # of emergent trees on cocoa plot or boundary Guideline: As part of farm management plans, include plans to maintain or re-establish emergent trees on plots or in live fences Focus on opportunities to conserve existing large trees, as well as native trees with economic value and/or filtered shade suitable for providing a cocoa overstory in the long term 11

14 Guidelines for sustainable cocoa intensification and ecological restoration Bantaeng, Indonesia AGROFORESTRY SPECIES DIVERSITY AND SELECTION Present condition: A total of 56 tree species were recorded on BACP farms However, a relatively small number of species comprise most of the shade trees. These include both natives and exotics, including kapok, gamal (Gliricidia), langsat, rambutan, cashew, and durian. Guideline: Plant additional native tree species to increase on-farm diversity Any newly-planted trees will contribute to the 40% shade cover target (SAN criterion 2.8) New plantings are especially appropriate to aid cocoa re-establishment in re-planting areas 12

15 Guidelines for sustainable cocoa intensification and ecological restoration Bantaeng, Indonesia HUNTING, WILDLIFE SHOOTING, AND WILDLIFE PESTS Present condition: 90% of farmers say they experience problems with wildlife as pests 7% of cocoa pods display evidence of mammal herbivory Farmers at community workshops report a cultural norm of shooting of local wildlife Guideline: Hunting wild animals on the farm is prohibited under the SAN standard (critical criterion 3.3) The integrated pest management training module should address management of wildlife as cocoa pests and work with farmers develop methods for non-lethal control 13

16 Guidelines for sustainable cocoa intensification and ecological restoration Bantaeng, Indonesia AGROCHEMICAL MANAGEMENT AND USE Present condition: Only 2% of farmers have farm management plans in place Only 3% keep records of pesticide and fertilizer applications Guideline: Develop an integrated pest-management plan for the farm, giving priority to use of physical, mechanical, and biological control methods. As part of this activity, keep records of pest infestations, controls used, and outcomes (SAN criterion 8.1). Do not use highly toxic or banned substances, and ensure use of proper storage and protective equipment to safeguard personal and environmental health (SAN criteria ). 14

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