ANNUAL MEAN ANALYSIS OF THE TROPICAL HEAT BALANCE AND ASSOCIATIONS WITH THE WALKER CIRCULATION

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3 Março 2011 Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia 3 heating rate due to shortwave radiation (Q SW ) and boundary layer heating rate (Q S or sensible heating). This period of study was chosen given that heating and cooling rate information are available just for those years. To evaluate the heat balance in the tropics and associations with the Walker circulation, thermodynamic energy equation in pressure coordinates takes the following form: Figure 1a-e shows, respectively, annual mean integrated values of local temperature tendency, horizontal temperature advection, the expansion/compression term, the transient forcing term, and the sum of all (residual). As can be seen from this figure, in the tropics local temperature tendency (Figure 1a), horizontal temperature advection (Figure 1b), and transient forcing terms (Figure 1d) can be neglected when compared with the expansion/compression adiabatic term (Figure 1c), which is dominant in tropical regions in terms of magnitude. Since the (1) where, (2) and Q = Q +Q +Q +Q +Q R L S cond F (3) In the Equation 1 from left to right the terms represent, respectively, local tendency of temperature, horizontal advection of temperature, temperature change due to expansion or compression of the air, temperature change due to eddy disturbance (or transient forcing-tf), and diabatic terms ( Q). Quantities under bar and prime denote time mean average and deviations from the time mean averages, respectively. The term a denotes the mean Earth radius, λ and φ represent longitude and latitude, T is the air temperature, R is the universal gas constant, c p is the specific heart with constant pressure, α represents the specific volume (RT/P) and Q is the sum of all diabatic terms considered in the Equation 3, such as: Q L, Q LW, Q SW, Q S, Q COND and Q F. The last two terms can be obtained as residuals and in theory these values are much smaller than the others so that they are not considered in the computation of Equation 3. More details about the diabatic terms can be found out in Nigan (1994). 3. RESULTs 3.1. Heat balance for the tropics and the Walker circulation Figure 1 - Horizontal distribution of vertically integrated temperature tendency (a), horizontal temperature advection (b), expansion/ compression term (c), transient forcing mechanisms (F term from Equation 1) (d), and the sum of all adiabatic terms (e) for annual mean. Units are in 10 3 K day -1.

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