Research on Pricing Policy of E-business Supply Chain Based on Bertrand and Stackelberg Game

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1 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol. 9, No. 5 (06), pp.-0 Research on Pricing Policy of E-bsiness Spply Chain Based on Bertrand and Stackelberg Game Qian Chen*, Chanx Wang and Changyan X School of Economics and Management, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 006, China Abstract As a new marketing way, more and more enterprises begin to pay more attention to the direct marketing channel, in order to gain more market share and economic profit. In this paper, we introdced two parameters into to the pricing model of e-bsiness spply chain, as direct channel service level and retail channel service level. Then constrct the pricing model nder stackelberg game, bertrand game and centralized decision mode. Throgh the comparison and analysis of the pricing models nder different decision-making environment, we get the pricing strategy that manfactrers and retailers shold take when they make service cooperation. Becase manfactrers always get more profits in the stackleberg game, so manfactrers tend to choose the stakelberg game with the retailer. Keywords: E-bsiness, spply chain, pricing strategy, stackelberg game. Introdction With the rapid development of e-commerce market, more and more enterprises in the traditional retail channels based on the introdction of direct sales channels, in order to gain more market share and greater economic profit. However, the opening of direct sales channels will also face many difficlties. The empirical stdy shows direct sales channels, service qality has become a serios impact on consmer online shopping factors, and retailers have to directly face the cstomer, service and low cost advantages, manfactrers of direct sales channels for the service at a disadvantage, manfactrers how to do a good job and retailers into service cooperation has become the focs on the problem []. On the other hand, the introdction of direct sales channels, retailers will pose a threat to the retail channels, reslting in channel conflict. Therefore, how to develop a reasonable price, to coordinate the interests of channel members, bt also has become an rgent problem to be solved. Speed is gradally slowing growth in Internet sers, online shopping is still showing rapid growth momentm, for stimlating national economic development, consmption has become increasingly prominent and direct sales channels is to become an important way to promote consmption[]. In addition, mobile online shopping becomes important driving force to promote the direct channel sales. Users prchase capabilities contine to improve, direct channel sers shopping habits gradally formed and combined with social shopping contine to promote direct sales channels contine to matre, low-cost direct sales channel sales promotion also promote sales of direct sales channels, promote ser scale of direct sales channels to accelerate growth. Althogh, with the development of the network, the advantages of direct selling channels gradally highlights, bt retail channels will not be eliminated, retail channels in the process of selling prodcts still have the advantages of direct sales channels do not have: retailers can collect cstomer information, prodct promotion, sales spport to meet cstomer needs and establish the brand effect. Direct marketing channels in the ISSN: IJGDC Copyright c 06 SERSC

2 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol.9, No.5 (06) development of jst started, it is very difficlt to do these, will case the manfactrer's profits and market share has been seriosly lost. To sm p, the reservation of direct sales channels and retail channels to expand market share is favorable. Althogh the introdction of direct sales channels in the traditional retail channels are likely to case conflicts between the channels []. Bt as long as the coordination of the interests between the two channels, can make the overall efficiency of the spply chain to improve the efficiency of channel members to increase profits. Also, cstomer preferences are diverse, not a single channel, two channels can bring more shopping options for cstomers, therefore, the coexistence of two channels can bring more market share. Most enterprises in the opening of direct marketing channels, and will not eliminate the retail channels, tend to sell goods throgh direct sales channels and retail channels. The research hypothesis of this paper is also based on the coexistence of direct marketing channels and retail channels, and the existence of channel conflict sitation.. Literatre Review.. Logistics Service Qality According to the srvey of China internet information center, cstomers' satisfaction on the qality of network goods, logistics distribtion and after-sales service is the lowest. In addition, the cost of services has become a bottleneck in the development of direct marketing channels. Among them, de to the goods and the pictre does not match the most, to reach 49%; followed by fake and shoddy goods, reaching.%; logistics and distribtion time is too long lead to cstomer satisfaction as high as 49.%. Ths, the qality of service isses has become an important factor affecting the prchase of cstomers [4]. Direct marketing channels and retail channels of service differences are mainly reflected in: first, the difference in the qality of goods. Cstomer throgh direct channels by goods, prodcts and network pictre is not consistent, and in retail stores, cstomers can throgh Prchasing Gide to explain or personally try, probation, more accrate jdgment merchandise is not in line with their needs [5]. Second, logistics distribtion time difference, cstomers throgh direct channels to by goods need a certain logistics delivery time to receive the goods, and in the retail stores, cstomers can only pay the money can take away their goods. Third, the difference of after-sales service, direct sales channels to provide after-sales service for cstomers will bring inconvenience, and consmers can go directly to the annex of the retail store, immediately get the appropriate sales service. Therefore, retailers have to directly face the cstomer, service and low cost advantages, manfactrers of direct sales channels for the service at a disadvantage, manfactrers how to do a good job and retailers for service cooperation has become the focs on the problem. Second, the problem of dal channel conflict, manfactrers in the original retail channels based on the opening of direct sales channels, will inevitably occpy the market share of retail channels, the threat of retail channels, reslting in channel conflict. Webb of dozens of manfactrers of the srvey reslts show that 66% companies believe that the opening of direct channels will lead to the conflict between the two channels [6]. Alba that the introdction of direct sales channels manfactrers will lead to the transfer of retail channels to consmers to direct channels, channels in order to compete for the target cstomers case conflicts. When there is a conflict between the two channels, the interests of manfactrers and retailers as well as the relationship of cooperation are damaged. Lead to the important case of channel conflict is mainly selling price and retail price, direct prices tend to be lower than the retail price and retailer that direct sales channels in the market share, pricing and profit pose a threat, so doble channel competition mainly between selling price and retail price competition, price is an important case of dal channel conflict. Therefore, in the dal channel spply chain environment, manfactrers Copyright c 06 SERSC

3 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol.9, No.5 (06) will not only need to with retailers and cooperation to improve the service level of the direct sales channels, and how to formlate a reasonable price strategy, good coordination between retailer and interests... Spply Chain Pricing Strategy With the rapid development of electronic commerce and pricing problem of dal channel spply chain environment increasingly the attention of scholars at home and abroad, channel strctre model has not only contains the traditional single distribtion channels, bt in the original channel strctre model based on, joined the direct channel at this time, manfactrers need not only set the wholesale price to maximize their profits bt also to determine the selling price. A large nmber of research scholars on the problem of dal channel modeling and analysis [7]. Jelassi think traditional retail channels, the seller can interact with the consmers, and consmers can experience prodcts, and then decide whether or not to by. Therefore, arrived at retail stores and the trial of goods reqire consmption of consmer time and transportation costs. And retail stores reqire high cost of investment and the retail time than the direct marketing channels of the store is limited. On the basis of the assmption that the Drehl has the same reqirements, the traditional retail channels and the two channel models with network channels are stdied respectively, making se of Nash eqilibrim game theory and Stackelberg game theory to set p the optimal price. Park established game theory and competitive strctre of pricing model, and mainly discsses the inflence of cost and price elasticity coefficient on the eqilibrim price [8]. The conclsion shows that the manfactrers throgh the introdction of direct sales channels and sales prices will redce demand will increase the overall channel profits will increase and redce the profits of the retailer. Yao discssed in the dal channel spply chain environment, the manfactrer dominated the Stackelberg competition and the manfactrer and retailer Bertand competitive game model [9]. The pricing strategy nder exogenos conditions of wholesale price is stdied. The conclsion shows that there exist different wholesale prices nder different game model. Cattani discssed three kinds of pricing strategy: the wholesale price nchanged; retail prices nchanged; manfactrer's profit maximization pricing, throgh nmerical analysis fond that the three kinds of pricing strategy the first two, at this time, manfactrer and retailer's profit is the largest[0]. Zhang research dal channel environment three most pricing and inventory strategies: retailers occpy a dominant position to set prices; the manfactrer dominates pricing; based on the maximal profit of the spply chain to set prices. The conclsion shows that the total profit of the third strategies is greater than the previos two strategies. In the dal channel spply chain environment, the manfactrers direct marketing channels in the market share, pricing and profit and other aspects of the existence of competition with the retailer, the formation of channel conflict. Manfactrers as the theme of the dal channel spply chain easily in only the prsit of the maximization of their own interests, ignoring the interests of the members of other channels, therefore, to avoid doble channel conflict and doble marginalization effect, manfactrers shold take correct cooperation mechanism, the profits de to a reasonable allocation of doble marginalization effect and channel members to achieve a win-win sitation. Agrawal proposed three based on sales to sensitivity to the needs of coordination mechanism, set p different wholesale prices, and this time to ensre the retailer sales effort, bt manfactrers are not garanteed; second, manfactrers will be part of the service otsorcing to retailers, retailers can get corresponding compensation for services; three is only to provide direct marketing advertising and pre-sales service, retail channels as the ltimate cstomer prchase channels. The reslts show that, the last two mechanisms is excellent can effectively alleviate the conflict of dal channel. Copyright c 06 SERSC

4 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol.9, No.5 (06). Spply Chain Pricing Model.. Model Establishment and Hypothesis Dal channel spply chain environment, improve the service level of the direct sales channels and retail channels to increase market share, services mainly inclde prodct maintenance and after-sales spport, warranty and free shipping, service and constitte the whether consmers to by the prodct of an important standard, in the direct sales channels, bt the service doesn't have to be done by manfactrers, manfactrers consider retailer service cost advantage, these services to retailers, manfactrers and retailers in dal channel spply chain nder the environment of service cooperation between channels. The dal channel type for direct channel is controlled by the manfactrer, in the dal channel, manfactrer s direct sales channels of service otsorcing to retailers, retailers from obtained corresponding remneration, dal channel service cooperation model, and cooperative model divided into centralized decision mode and decentralized decision-making model. In the decentralized decision-making model, this paper taking the game theory is the fondation of the research, we first stdy the Bertrand game of manfactrer and retailer's pricing strategy. Then, it stdies the manfactrers acconted for a leading position and retailer Stackelberg game service strategy. In this paper, we discss the pricing model of the manfactrer and retailer's dal channel service cooperation by sing the advantage of the low cost of the retailer's service. Variables of the model report: direct sales channels to provide to the level of service to consmers S and retail channels to provide to the level of service to consmers S, direct sales channels, prodct pricing P, direct sales channels, prodct pricing P, direct sales channel for the potential size of the market for, retail channel the potential size of the market for, direct channel service cost coefficient, retail channel service cost coefficient, prodct demand price elasticity coefficient, the prodct demand of service of elastic coefficient... Bertrand Game Pricing Model In the dal channel spply chain, when manfactrer and retailer of eqal stats, manfactrers and retailers of Bertrand game, members is relatively independent, manfactrers direct sales channels of service and retailers to cooperate, at wholesale prices remain nchanged, the order of Bertrand game:. To their own profit maximization as the goal, the manfactrer to develop sales channels for direct selling price;. Under nknown direct prices, retailers to their own profit maximization as the goal to develop the retail price of retail channels. s max p, p p c q w cq p () s s s max p, p p w q q p () In the decentralized decision-making model, the manfactrer and the retailer compete for Bertrand, then the optimal pricing: A s A s A s A4 s A5 p B () 4 8 A s A s A s A s p B (4) 4 8 A 4 Copyright c 06 SERSC

5 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol.9, No.5 (06) Copyright c 06 SERSC 5 The manfactrer's direct selling price is positively related to the service level of the direct selling channel, and the retail price of the retail channel is positively related to the service level of the retail channel. 0 s P T (5) 0 s P T (6) Effects of direct sales channels for the service level of direct selling price is greater than the impact of retail prices, the effect of the service level of the retail channel of retail price than selling price and selling price and retail price and the direct channel service cost coefficient s P B (7) s P B (8) Manfactrers in the direct channel service cost coefficient is higher, the higher the retail price s P B (9) 4. Empirical Analysis 4.. The Impact of the Service Level on Prices In the dal channel spply chain environment, set p the parameters =40, =40, =6, =.5, =, =, =6.5, =,c=5,w=0. The ble crve is Bertrand game environment, the red crve is Stackelberg game environment, the prple crve is nder centralized decision environment, circle crve parameters for direct sales channels and starlike crves for the retail channel parameters. Take the retail channel service level S =6, analysis of the inflence of the direct channel service level S on the channel price. Figre. Trends of the Price with the Service in Direct Channel

6 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol.9, No.5 (06) From Figre can be seen, with improvement of the direct channel service level, whether it is nder Bertrand and Stackelberg game environment or nder centralized decision making mode, price channel decreases with the increase in the direct channel service level increased. Conclsion the manfactrer's direct selling price is positively correlated with the service level of the direct selling channel. The price change of the manfactrer's direct channel is relatively large, however, the price of the retail channel is basically not affected by the level of direct channel service. The inflence of the service level of the direct selling channel on the direct selling price is higher than that of the retail price. In order to verify the effect of the retail channel service level on the price, the service level of the direct selling channel is S =6, and the effect of S on the channel price is analyzed. Figre. Trends of the Price with the Services in the Retail Channel From Figre, with the improvement of direct channel service level, whether it is nder Bertrand and Stackelberg game environment or nder centralized decision making mode, price channel decreases with the increase in the direct channel service level increased. The retail price of the retail channel and the service level of the retail channel are positively correlated. In the figre, when changes in the retail channel service level, the magnitde of the price changes of manfactrers of direct sales channels is relatively large, however, the retail channel pricing by the impact of direct channel service level, the effect of the service level of the retail channel of direct selling price is greater than impact on retail price has been verified. 4.. Effect of Service Level on Profit In the dal channel spply chain environment, set p the parameters =40, =60, =6, =.5, =, =, =6.5, =,c=5,w=0. Analysis of the impact of direct sales channel service level on the profit, take the retail channel service level S =6, analysis of the inflence of the direct channel service level S on channel profit. 6 Copyright c 06 SERSC

7 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol.9, No.5 (06) Figre. Trends of the Manfactrer s Profit nder the different Decision Models From Figre, we can see that, in different decision-making mode, with the improvement of the level of direct sales channels, the manfactrer's profit first decreased and then increased. Therefore, for dal channel spply chain nder the environment of the maker, if direct service channels to retailers complete, reqiring retailers provide higher direct channel service level; if the manfactrer to complete their own direct sales channels of service work, yo shold have a plan to provide lower direct channel service level. As can be seen from Figre, manfactrers are willing to choose the Stackelberg game environment and retailers to compete. Figre 4. Trends of the Retailer s Profit nder the different Decision Models From Figre 4 we can see that, in different decision-making mode, with the improvement of the level of direct sales channels, the first increase in the profits of retailers to redce. As can be seen from Figre 4, the retailer is willing to choose the centralized decision-making model to develop the price, if the manfactrer to maintain a competitive relationship, they tend to choose the Bertrand game environment to develop the price. 4.. Effect of cost Coefficient on Price In the dal channel spply chain environment, set p the parameters =40, =60, =6, =.5, =, =, s =6, S =6,c=5,w=0. Analysis of effect of direct Copyright c 06 SERSC 7

8 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol.9, No.5 (06) channel service cost coefficient of price, retail channel cost coefficient =. And analysis of the inflence of direct channel service cost coefficient of direct price and retail price. Figre 5. Trends of the Price nder different Direct Channel s Cost Coefficients Figre 5 shows that, whether nder Bertrand game or nder Stackelberg game, selling price and retail price and the direct channel service cost coefficient is positively correlated, when direct channel service cost coefficient increases, selling price and retail price will improve. Effect of retail channel service cost coefficient on price; take the direct channel service, coefficient =6.5, analysis of the impact of the retail channel service cost coefficient on the price. Figre 6. Trends of the Price nder different Retail Channel s Cost Coefficients As is shown in Fig 6, both in the Bertrand game or nder Stackelberg game, when the direct channel service level is lower than the retail channel service level, direct selling price and retail price of all retail channels and service cost coefficient into positive correlation. Pricing models of manfactrers and retailers in decentralized and centralized decision making models, in the decentralized decision-making model, the Bertrand game pricing model and the manfactrer Stackelberg game pricing model are stdied 8 Copyright c 06 SERSC

9 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol.9, No.5 (06) respectively. Dal channel spply chain pricing strategy, stdies have shown that nder decentralized control mode, prices and demand for dal channel by the manfactrer in the direct sales channels, the cost of the service and retailers effects in the direct sales channel for the service cost, manfactrers shold try to control the direct sales channel for the service cost and service selection and low cost retailer, in order to maintain the competitive advantage of dal channel 5. Conclsions With the development of Internet, more and more companies are introdcing direct marketing channels to gain more market share and gain more profits. On the one hand, the service qality of direct marketing channel is the main reason of inflencing the market share of direct selling channel. On the other hand, the introdction of direct marketing channels to the retail channel with a competitive pressre, channel pricing and profit distribtion became the main case of the conflict between the two channels. The direct channel service level and retail channels' service level two parameters are introdced to the pricing model of dal channel spply chain, bild the leading manfactrer Stackelberg game of spply chain, manfactrers and retailers Bertrand game and centralized decision model of the pricing model, and throgh model analysis and comparison of different decision environments pricing, manfactrers and retailers shold take in service cooperation pricing strategy. Channel price is positively related to their service level, only by raising the price of direct selling price and the retail price to make p a large nmber of service costs. In the end, consmers pay for their services". Althogh manfactrers otsorce service to retailers, manfactrers shold still need to redce the cost of direct sales channels. In addition, the manfactrer shold choose to cooperate with the lower service cost to maintain the price advantage of the direct selling channel and the retail channel. When the wholesale price is greater than a certain vale, can redce the price of dal channel selection of Stackelberg game, has the advantage of the dal channel to maintain a competitive advantage, if the retailer to improve its own position, manfactrers Bertrand game, yo need to raise prices at the expense of; when wholesale prices are higher when manfactrers choose Stackelberg game can increase the demand for direct sales channels, when the wholesale price is low, the choice of Bertrand game can, boosting demand for direct sales channels. Becase the manfactrer in the Stackleberg game is always greater than or eqal to the profits of the Bertrand game, manfactrers tend to choose the Stakelberg game with the retailer. Acknowledgements This paper is spported by Shanghai Maritime University gradate stdent (PhD) innovation fnd projects (yc0059). References [] D. Yao and Q. Li, Competitive pricing of mixed retail and e-tail distribtion channels, Omega, vol., (005), pp [] A. Enders ad T. Jelassi, The converging bsiness models of Internet and bricks-and retailers, Eropean Management Jornal, vol. 8, (000), pp [] K. Anand, Context-general and Context-specific Determinants of Online Satisfaction and Loyalty for Commerce and Content Sites, Jornal of Interactive Marketing, vol. 4, no., (00), pp. -8. [4] A. Niklas and S. Fredrik, Electronic commerce, marketing channels and logistics platform-a wholesaler perspective, Eropean Jornal of Operational Research, vol. 44, no., (00), pp [5] C. Drehl, E. Portes, Price competition between an Internet firm and a bricks and mortar firm, Working Paper, (00), pp [6] J. Kim, The role of etail qality, e-satisfaction and e-trst in online loyalty development process, Jornal of Retailing and Consmer Services, vol. 6, no. 4, (009), pp Copyright c 06 SERSC 9

10 International Jornal of Grid and Distribted Compting Vol.9, No.5 (06) [7] S. Park and H. Keh, Modeling hybrid distribtion channels: a game-theoretic analysis, Jornal of Retailing and Consmer Services, vol. 0, (00), pp [8] K. Cattani and W. Gilland, pricing strategies for amanfactrer adding a direct channel that competes with the traditional channel, Prodctionand Operations Management, vol. 5, (006), pp [9] Z. Hang and M. Benyocef, From e-commerce to social commerce: A close look at design featres, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, vol., no. 4, (0), pp [0] D. Jtla and P. Bodorik, Developing internet e-commerce benchmarks, Information Systems, vol. 4, no. 6, (999), pp Copyright c 06 SERSC

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