THE GEYSERS Renewable, Geothermal Energy. Mike Rogers, Senior Vice President Calpine Geothermal Operations

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1 THE GEYSERS Renewable, Geothermal Energy Mike Rogers, Senior Vice President Calpine Geothermal Operations Impact Sonoma Energy: Plugging Into Sonoma County s Future 18 October 2012

2 Geothermal Fields: Resources (Worldwide) Plate boundaries (associated with volcanic activity; seismicity) Pacific Ring of Fire : 75% of volcanoes (452); 90% of earthquakes Fourpeaked Volcano Alaska San Andreas Fault, California Eyjafjallajokull, Iceland Mount Merapi, Java Misti Volcano, Peru 2

3 The Geysers: World s Largest Geothermal Field 3

4 Early Explorers at The Geysers Pre-1800s: Wilderness and Native Americans 1847: Gates of Hades discovered by William Bell Elliott 4

5 The Geysers Resort Tourism - the 8th Wonder of the World 5

6 Early Visitors to The Geysers 6

7 First Electricity Generated at The Geysers 1922 First electrical generation from geothermal steam in the U.S kw to power the Geysers Resort 1954 First modern well, Magma No. 1(still in production) 1960 Geysers Power Plant Unit 1 began operations, becoming the first modern power plant to generate electricity from geothermal steam in the United States 7

8 Geysers Exploration and Development Boom Development boomed in the late 1970s and expanded significantly in 1980s : 22 power plants had been built at The Geysers, with first 20 years of development in Sonoma County 1987: Steam production peaked and then began to rapidly decline Calpine purchases a 1-megawatt interest in Aidlin, located in the northwest fringe of the geothermal reservoir. Built in 1989, it was the last power plant built at The Geysers Aidlin, Calpine Unit 1 Sonoma County, CA 8

9 Calpine at The Geysers By 1998, Calpine acquired most of the other plants at The Geysers, today owning and operating 15 of the 18 geothermal power plants: The consolidation of ownership of plants and steamfields is a more global approach to managing The Geysers as a geothermal resource, achieving environmental and economic benefits June 2012: Calpine received its 11 th consecutive award for excellence in lease maintenance, safety and environmental stewardship from California Department of Conservation 9

10 Power Generation Magma or hot rocks heat water deep below the surface to form geothermal reservoirs Wells, 1 to 2 miles deep, tap fluids from 300 to 600 F to drive steam turbines Steam turbines drive generators that transmit electricity to the power lines Steam leaving the turbine is condensed and recycled to replenish the geothermal reservoir 10

11 Power Generation 11

12 Clean Energy from Recycled Water Santa Rosa Geysers Recharge Project (SRGRP) miles of 48 pipe ~12 million gallons per day Avoids discharge into Russian River Southeastern Geysers Effluent Project (SEGEP) miles of 20 pipe ~8 million gallons per day (NCPA/CPN) Avoids discharge into Clear Lake 12

13 Injection Increases Steam Production at The Geysers 13

14 Geysers Geothermal Power Plants Provide Renewable Energy Around the Clock 14

15 The Geysers at a Glance World s single-largest geothermal resource developed for electric generation, operating since first commercial steam well drilled in 1954 Calpine operates 15 geothermal plants with 725 megawatts of generation capacity, enough green energy to power a city the size of San Francisco Provides 24% of California s renewable electric generation and 41% of the total U.S. geothermal generation Calpine at The Geysers operates 330 steam wells, 75 injection wells, 80 miles of steam lines The Geysers receives approximately 20 million gallons of waste water per day from Sonoma and Lake Counties The Geysers steam fields span more than 45 square miles Calpine promotes geothermal and renewable energy education through Visitors Center operations and free Geysers community tours from Sonoma and Lake County destinations Calpine s Geysers Website, provides further information 15

16 Geothermal Contribution The U.S leads the world in geothermal generation In 2011, U.S. Geothermal Plants produced 0.4% of total U.S. electricity generation Five States have geothermal power plants: California leads with 35; Nevada has 20 plants The Geysers produces 2/5 of U.S. geothermal generation 16

17 Geothermal Contribution Total GWh Renewable Energy Use in California Wind, 3,491 Solar, 758 Biomass, 5,574 Small Hydro, 5,146 Geothermal, 13,771 17

18 Geothermal Benefits High availability Non-Combustion Renewable Energy Predictable no integration costs High jobs/mw Capacity Factor Comparison 89% 97% 24% 40% Solar Wind Geothermal Geysers Source: DOE, CPN Source: CAISO Project Employment Comparison Project Type MW Size Developer State Ops Jobs Blue Mountain Geo 39 Nevada Geo NV 14 Neal Hot Springs Geo 23 U.S. Geo OR 12 5 Points et al PV 100 PG&E CA 5 Source: GEA, PG&E 18

19 Calpine s Economic Impact Calpine s current operations at The Geysers are a major contributor to the local economy About 300 full-time Calpine employees work at The Geysers; contractor jobs average another 150 full-time equivalents Estimated $75 million per year in goods and services to support Geysers operations Calpine is the largest property taxpayer in both Lake and Sonoma Counties Calpine s 2011 Geysers royalties payments on geothermal generation: Private mineral rights owners = $12,325,423 State Teachers Retirement Fund Received $4,474,862 in State Lands Royalties Federal Royalty Payments = $5,623,928 Lake and Sonoma Counties receive a portion of federal royalty payments resulting from geothermal production at The Geysers as follows: YEAR SONOMA COUNTY LAKE COUNTY 2007 $1,087,790 $845, $1,749,735 $2,780, $963,562 $824, $1,189,395 $843, $1,108,974 $800,270 19

20 Calpine s Geothermal Visitors Center TOURS! Calpine now offers tours from Sonoma County destinations and from the Visitor Center. For a full schedule visit 20

21 Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Next Generation Geothermal Abundant enhanced geothermal system (EGS) resources in U.S. Key issues involve reservoir creation (higher permeability), reduced drilling costs 21

22 Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Demonstration North West Geysers Field Reopen and deepen two existing wells within the NW Geysers Test permeability enhancement via shear reactivation and thermal contraction through low P injection Validate reservoir stimulation process through coupled process modeling and seismic monitoring Enhance/upgrade exhibits at Visitor Center to include EGS technology 22

23 Opportunities - North Geysers Area Existing permitted steamfield in an underutilized area of The Geysers Options include: Injection and steam production to support existing facilities If adequate resource exists, build one or two additional geothermal power plants: November Calpine s two permits for the proposed Wildhorse and Buckeye power plants, each up to 49 MW, were approved by the Board of Supervisors, 5-0 vote with no opposition Calpine is pursing additional permitting and power purchase agreement. If built, the proposed projects could provide Sonoma County with additional:»economic benefits»environmental benefits»community benefits 23

24 Calpine s Proposed North Geysers Power Plants Viable Options for Expanding Renewable Generation Calpine proposes adding two new geothermal power plants to its fleet at The Geysers. These new plants would each be capable of producing up to 49 megawatts of electricity, together enough to supply more than 70,000 homes with clean, renewable energy. They would be the first new plants built at The Geysers since Calpine s efforts to improve and sustain production at The Geysers through pioneering wastewater recharge projects and technological advances have made this proposed expansion possible. 24

25 Calpine s Proposed North Geysers Projects Wildhorse & Buckeye Development 25

26 Wildhorse and Buckeye Progress to Date Calpine has invested tens of millions of dollars for resource exploration, development and verification Unanimous approval of use permits by the Sonoma County Board of Supervisors (the California Environmental Quality lead agency) Completion of a Phase 2 Transmission Study by the California Independent System Operator for the first of the two projects Negotiating LGIA transmission agreement with PG&E and CAISO Execution of a Project Labor Agreement for both proposed plants with the State Building and Construction Trades Council of California and the Sonoma, Mendocino and Lake Counties Building & Construction Trades Council Received Authority to Construct from Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District Construction is dependent upon Calpine s ability to secure long-term power purchase agreements for the plants output and upon receipt of all necessary permits. 26

27 Potential Economic & Environmental Benefits Potential Jobs: 190 local jobs (including union construction jobs) during the 30-month build out Up to 19 new full-time jobs $2.4 million in annual payroll Local Economy: $12 million in one-time sales tax revenue $7 million in new annual property taxes $15 million a year on maintenance and operations $1 million in federal royalties, of which 45 percent will return to the county and 30 percent to the state $1.5 million in state royalties will go into the California State Teacher s Retirement Fund $1.5 million will be paid as private royalties Community Benefits: Funds to support Sonoma County s environmental stewardship, climate protection and resource management programs Environmental Benefits Clean renewable energy GHG reduction Waste water program 27

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