Successful Approach to the Repair of Reinforced Concrete Support Structures in Delayed Coking Units

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1 Successful Approach to the Repair of Reinforced Concrete Support Structures in Delayed Coking Units Thomas Kline Director- Concrete Repair Solutions STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC Houston, Texas USA November 11, 2015 Bahrain

2 Structure Elements of Interest within Delayed Coking Units Octagonal or Circular Penetrations Switch Deck Head Deck Columns Beams Coke Pits Sluiceways & Railroad Tracks Anchorages

3 Coker Unit Common Industry Coker Octagonal or Circular Slab Penetration Problems

4 Coker Unit Common Industry Coker Head Deck Problems

5 Coker Unit Common Industry Coker Columns Problems

6 Coker Unit Common Industry Anchor Bolts Problems

7 Grouting Coker Unit Common Industry Problems

8 Coker Unit Common Industry Coke Pits Problems

9 Coker Unit Common Industry Coke Chute Problems

10 Coker Unit Common Industry Coke Pit Floor Problems

11 Coker Unit Common Industry Coker Railway & Sluiceway Problems

12 Coker Unit Common Industry Coker Fireproofing Problems

13 Coker Unit Common Industry Supporting Coke Drums Problems

14 Coker Unit Common Industry Material Selection Problems

15 Deterioration & Damage Mechanisms Elevated Temperatures Mass Concrete Shrinkage Dynamic Loading Impact Damage Fire Damage Corrosion-Induced Deterioration Failed Patch Repairs

16 Thermocouple/Infrared Thermometer Readings Higher Temperatures Heat Lower Temperatures

17 Measured Temperatures on Octagonal or Circular Penetration Faces 308ºF (153 o C) 273ºF (134 o C) 160ºF (71 o C)

18 Microcracking of Cover Concrete Desiccated Cover Concrete Moisture Stable Concrete

19 Fire Damage Aggregate swells H 2 O to steam Chemical change

20 Impact Damage Impact of steel bucket edge on Coke Pit Walls and Basin Front-end loaders on Basin

21 Factors Leading to Corrosion within Coke Drum Support Structures Cast-in-chlorides Air-borne chlorides High temperature Moist/wet conditions inherent to process Shortcut access of elements through cracks High concentration of CO 2

22 Chloride-Induced Corrosion oxygen, chlorides moisture Crack

23 Carbonation-Induced Corrosion Carbon dioxide moisture ph 13 ph 10 ph decreases

24 Critical Unit Event Scenarios Dynamic & Vibration Process Loading Explosion/Fire Hurricane/Tornado High Winds Earthquake

25 Concrete Repair is a Process! Cause & Effect Repair required? YES Condition Survey Repair Analysis Repair Strategy Defect, damage or deterioration Safety Structural catastrophy Use disfunction Evaluate Quantify Owner Criteria Urgency Cost Expectations Useful life Aesthetics Methods Surface repair Stabilization Strengthening Waterproofing Protection Leakage Settlement Deflection Wear Spall Disintegration Crack Leakage Effects on environment Aesthetics Preventive maintenance Document Engineering Criteria Structural req. Effect Constructability Environment Safety Techniques Materials Repair

26 Fast-Track & Turn-Key Opportunity Condition Evaluation, Site Presentation & Order of Magnitude Repair Costs Engineering Repair & Rehabilitation On Line and/or Turnaround Repairs Quality Assurance & Quality Control

27 Condition Survey Field Investigation Visual Inspection - Site Survey Acoustic Impact Testing Rebound Hammer Testing Pachometer/GPR Survey Ultrasonic Testing (UPV and/or IE) Sample Extraction Anchor Bolt Testing Laboratory Tests ph Testing and Carbonation Depth Determination Chloride Ion Content Compressive Strength Testing

28 Condition Survey (continued)

29 Anchor Bolt In-situ Testing Employing Ultrasonic Technology Anchor Bolt tops are ground smooth & plane. A Technician then attaches a Transducer to the prepared surface for a flaw detection reading.

30 Finite Element Analysis

31 Engineered Coke Drum Support Structure Shoring Plan

32 Special Considerations for Coker Repairs Determine need for shoring Corrosion protection: use of sacrificial discreet anodes Mechanical anchorage of substrate and repair material

33 Thermal Insulating Detail for Octagonal or Circular Slab Opening Repairs

34 Formed Deep Repair Detail for Beams and Columns

35 Octagon Wall Repair Octagon Wall: Before Flying Form Work Octagon Wall: During Octagon Wall: After

36 Coker Column Repairs Demo Formed Repaired

37 Anchor Bolt Repair Before After

38 Coker Unit Restoration Alternatives Despall Structure

39 Coker Unit Restoration Alternatives Pre-cast Panelized Repair of Coke Pit Walls

40 Coker Unit Restoration Alternatives Column Strengthening

41 Coker Unit Restoration Alternatives Flexural Strengthening External P-T Encased in Concrete Before After

42 Coker Unit Restoration Alternatives Repair-In-Kind

43 Rehabilitation Project Solutions Before During After 22

44 Rehabilitation Project Solutions Before During After 24

45 Rehabilitation Project Solutions Before During After 25

46 Rehabilitation Project Solutions Before After

47 Questions? Successful Approach to the Repair of Reinforced Concrete Support Structures in Delayed Coking Units Thomas Kline Director- Concrete Repair Solutions STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC Houston, Texas USA November 11, 2015 Bahrain

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