ENERGY TRANSFER IN THE WEAK AND STRONG COUPLING REGIME

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1 ERC Starting Grant 2011 Dipar)mento di Scienze Chimiche Università degli Studi di Padova via Marzolo 1, Padova Italy ENERGY TRANSFER IN THE WEAK AND STRONG COUPLING REGIME [1] Vekshin, N. L. Energy transfer in macromolecules; Society of Photo- op)cal Instrumenta)on Engineers: Bellingham, Washington state, [2] May, V.; Kuhn, O. Charge and Energy Transfer Dynamics in Molecular Systems; Wiley- VCH: Berlin, 1 ed., ElisabeEa Collini

2 ERC Starting Grant 2011 isolated system of two two- levels chromophores (molecular dimer): ΔE A e A e B ΔE B g A A B g B System Hamiltonian: H = H A +H B + V Interac(on

3 ERC Starting Grant ) When the chromophores do not interact (V=0), the dimer is described by: a ground state: two singly excited states: a double excited state: 2) When V 0 g A g B g A e B ; e A g B e A e B Neglec)ng (i) exchange correla)ons; (ii) electrosta)c interac)ons between electron clouds and (iii) strongly off- resonant coupling terms (Heitler- London approx.) Considering the chromophores far apart enough - > point dipole approxima)on The interac)on V may be wrieen as: V = µ A µb * R 3 3 R µ A R 5 ( )( R * µ ) B R = vector connec)ng the point dipoles

4 ERC Starting Grant 2011 STRONG COUPLING (1) system ini)ally in the state e A g B for arbitrarily strong coupling V. The energies of the sta)onary states of such a system may be solved by expanding them in the states with one of the sites excited: ψ i = C A e A g B +C B g A e B, and then solving the matrix eigenvalue equa)on : " ΔE A V %" C % " $ ' $ A ' $ # V * ΔE B ' &# $ C B &' = E C % A $ ' # $ C B &' The eigenvalues of this equa)on are the new energies E + and E of the coupled states, which from the secular equa)ons are found to be: ( ) Δ = 1 ΔE 2 ( ΔE B A) ΔE ± = K + Δ 2 + V 2 where K = 1 ΔE + ΔE 2 A B Note that the coupling splits up the energies of the states; wri)ng V as V e iφ and using the normaliza)on condi)on C A 2 + C B 2 = 1, the eigenvectors are: ψ ± = 1 2 ( g A e B ± e A g B ) If V real and V>>Δ (strong coupling)

5 ERC Starting Grant 2011 STRONG COUPLING (2) P B (t): probability that the excita)on resides on B at the )me t, if at t=0 was ini)ally on A: P B (t) = V 2 Δ 2 + V 2 sin2 Δ 2 + V 2 with P A (t) = 1 C B (t) 2. This shows that the new states are coherent superposi)ons of the A- excited and B- excited states and that the excita)on will coherently oscillate back and forth between chromophores A and B at the frequency: Ω = ( ΔE + ΔE ) / = 2 Δ 2 + V 2 /

6 ERC Starting Grant 2011 WEAK COUPLING In the weak coupling regime, the electronic levels of the single chromophores are liele perturbed by V and the spectrum of the dimer is iden)cal to the sum of the spectra of the two chromophores. In this case the energy transfer probability can be calculated using perturba)on theory: P B (t) = C B (t) 2 = V 2 " sin 2 1 Ω 2 0 t 2 $ 1 # ( 2 Ω 0 t) 2 ( ) % ' & where Ω 0 Ω( V 0) = ( ΔE B ΔE A ) / = 2Δ / which is the limit for small V of the expression obtained previously in the strong coupling regime. Note that for long t, significant ET occurs only when and then we can write: Ω 0 0 P B (t) = V 2 t 2 # sin 2 1 dω 2 Ω 0 t 0 % 1 $ ( 2 Ω 0 t) 2 ( ) & ( = 2π ' V 2 t

7 ERC Starting Grant 2011 Dipar)mento di Scienze Chimiche Università degli Studi di Padova via Marzolo 1, Padova Italy Strong coupling regime: Frenkel excitons model [1] S. Davydov, Theory of molecular excitons, Plenum Press, New York, [2] H. Van Amerongen, L. Valkunas and R. Van Grondelle, Photosynthe=c Excitons, World Scien)fic, Singapore, ElisabeEa Collini

8 ERC Starting Grant 2011 Frenkel excitons In the Frenkel exciton model, a system of N chromophores is represented by the Hamiltonian: n is molecular excited state at site n with energy ε n, and J nm is the excitonic coupling between the n- th and m- th chromophore. Diagonaliza)on of H e gives rise to eigenstates α, called exciton states, such that: Exciton states form a new basis for the descrip)on of op)cal proper)es and energy transfer dynamics. site basis exciton basis (eigenbasis)

9 ERC Starting Grant 2011 DETAILS: If one neglects addi)onal (e.g., nuclear) degrees of freedom, the calcula)on of eigenstates and eigenfrequencies can be performed analy)cally. q If each of the N molecules can be in two states, the Hamiltonian has 2 N eigenstates, linear combina)ons of single- molecule s states, each with a fixed number of single- molecule excita)ons present. They separate into groups (manifolds) according to the number of excita)ons they contain (ν). q The nondegenerate ground state is the direct product of the N molecular ground state wave func)ons q there are N excited- state manifolds, each labelled by ν; the ν th manifold contains N/(N- ν) ν independent ν- exciton states in which ν molecules are excited and N ν molecules are unexcited. q the one- exciton band (ν = 1) is formed by N eigenstates, know as Frenkel excitons, characterized by a single quantum number k. The exact expression of eigenstates and eigenenergies of the Hamiltonian describing this system can be calculated by diagonaliza)on under suitable boundary condi)ons. E.Collini, PCCP, 14 (2012) 3725 and references therein

10 ERC Starting Grant 2011 Example: diagonaliza)on for a linear assembly of N molecules: E.Collini, PCCP, 14 (2012) 3725 and references therein

11 ERC Starting Grant 2011 Including also the environment, the hamiltonian reads: H TOT =H e + HB +H SB Linear system- bath coupling: where q n = collec)ve bath coordinate It is usually assumed that the bath modes modula)ng different chromophores are independent, so H SB represents independent phonon- induced fluctua)ons of the site energies. The dynamics is related to spectral density ρ n (ω) which represents the coupling strength and density of states of the phonon bath. The strenght of the system- bath coupling is measured by the reorganiza)on energy λ n :

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