DIRECT INSTRUCTION (DI) Presented by: Sarah Giordano, MA. Carbone Clinic Summer Institute Valley Cottage, NY. July 15-26, 2013.

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1 DIRECT INSTRUCTION (DI) Presented by: Sarah Giordano, MA Carbone Clinic Summer Institute Valley Cottage, NY July 15-26, 2013 Overview What is Direct Instruction? Project Follow-Through Direct Instruction Features & Philosophy Commercially Available DI Curricula 2

2 WHAT IS DIRECT INSTRUCTION (DI)? An evidenced-based instructional model that emphasizes the use of explicit and systematic teaching procedures to improve student performance. It is a behavioral approach to learning/teaching that can be used to teach a variety of academic skill repertoires (e.g., reading, writing, math, spelling). DI developed out of the work of Carl Bereiter and Siegfried Engelmann at the University of Illinois in the 1960s. 3 COMMON APPROACHES TO INSTRUCTION Behavioral approach, which is based on the belief that all behaviors are learned Cognitive approach, which is based on the sequence of normal cognitive growth Psychodynamic approach, which is based on the idea that the development of the whole child is essential for educational improvement (Adams & Engelmann, 1996) 4

3 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH 5 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH Background: Largest educational study in U. S. history Took place from 1968 to 1976 Examined low-income, at-risk students 75,000 students in 170 communities were involved Students participated from K 3 Examined effectiveness of 9 educational models across 3 outcome measures Adams, G. L., & Engelmann, S. (1996). Research on Direct Instruction: 25 years beyond DISTAR. Seattle, WA: Educational Achievement Systems. 6

4 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH 9 Models of Instruction: Basic Skills Models: Direct Instruction Model Behavior Analysis Model Language Development Model (Southwest Lab) 7 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH Models of Instruction: Cognitive/Conceptual Skills Models: Cognitively-Oriented Curriculum Parent Education Model (Florida) Tucson Early Education Model 8

5 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH Models of Instruction: Affective Skills Models: Bank Street College Model Open Education Model Responsive Education Model 9 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH Research Findings: Only the Direct Instruction Model had positive scores on all three types of outcome measures (i.e., Basic Skills, Cognitive, and Affective). Direct Instruction was the highest on all three types of measures. 10

6 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH 11 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH 12

7 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH 13 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH 14

8 PROJECT FOLLOW-THROUGH 15 DIRECT INSTRUCTION (DI) FEATURES & PHILOSOPHY 16

9 DIRECT INSTRUCTION (DI) Direct Instruction is an explicit, intensive, teacher-directed instructional method of teaching developed by Siegfried Engelmann and his colleagues in the 1960 s. All DI programs are based upon the same philosophy and incorporate a set of common features. 17 DI PHILOSOPHY The DI philosophy holds that the single most decisive factor in student s performance is the quality of instruction they receive from their teachers. This philosophy is based on certain principles: 1. Learning is a behavioral process that can be observed and directly measured. 2. All children can learn when taught correctly, regardless of past history. 3. All teachers can be successful, given effective teaching materials and presentation techniques. 18

10 COMMON FEATURES OF DI Design Delivery Documentation 19 COMMON FEATURES OF DI Design o Prior to writing the DI programs the authors carefully analyze the skills and strategies that must be taught. They identify all skills that need to be taught with in a given domain/subject (scope) and organize them in a logical and hierarchical order (sequence). The programs that are written are designed to: Present tasks clearly in a way that allows students to understand concepts the first time they are introduced Present new material in small increments to help students achieve mastery Select examples and put them in a logical sequence Provide opportunities for guided practice and cumulative review Incorporate continuous assessment and management 20

11 COMMON FEATURES OF DI Delivery o How effectively students learn is a direct result of the way information is presented to them. In implementing DI programs, teachers use specific teaching practices: Give placement test so students begin at a level appropriate to their skills Develop clear instructional objectives Follow scripted lessons to ensure consistency Use a quick pace and high rates of individual and group responses to keep students actively engaged Implement planned correction procedures to prevent mistakes from being rehearsed and reinforced Provide positive reinforcement to keep students motivated Frequently assess/monitor student performance 21 COMMON FEATURES OF DI Documentation o o There are over 50 research studies documenting the effectiveness of DI programs (e.g., Adams & Engelmann, 1996; Darch & Simpson, 1990; Flores & Ganz, 2007; McKenzie, Marchand-Martella, Moore, & Martella, 2004). Recent research studies demonstrate DI s effectiveness specifically with children with autism and other developmental disabilities (Flores & Ganz, 2007; Ganz & Flores, 2009; Riepl, Marchand-Martella, & Martella, 2008). 22

12 COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DI CURRICULA 23 DI Curricula All commercially available DI programs are published and developed by the scientific research associates (SRA), a part of the McGraw-Hill School Education. Designed for group instruction in general education classroom, but can be used in small groups of individually with special education students. Reading Mastery (K 5 th ) Curriculum-based assessment and fluency system that monitors student performance Phonics-based instructional program to teach decoding and comprehension skills Language for Learning (Pre-K 2 nd ) Teaches a wide range of language concepts and skills; uses placement and progress tests to ensure the student is learning appropriate skills and progressing at a reasonable rate Based on Distar Language I, but the changes made enhance this program making it more comprehensive, organized, and easier to use Language for Thinking (1 st 3 rd ) Applies newly learned language concepts and thinking skills to problem solving Language for Writing (2 nd 6 th) Teaches communication skills through writing and supports the development of specific writing skills by showing students how to write narratives, use specific words, make precise comparisons, summarize and re-tell, proof read for punctuation, grammar and word usage Connecting Math Concepts (K 5 th ) Ongoing development of problem solving math skills and application of mathematical concepts https://www.mheonline.com/discipline/tags/1/3 24

13 LEARNER PROFILE Commercially available DI curricula are designed to teach reading, spelling, language arts, math, and other academic subjects to typically developing children from 4 to 18 years old (i.e., prekindergarten through 12 th grade). Pre-requisite skills o Complete or mostly complete VB-MAPP (i.e., 4 year old language level). Tacting parts and features of objects Tacting adjectives Tacting by class Tacting yes and no Tacting two-component labels (noun verb) Tacting two-component labels (noun adjective) Uses carrier phrase when labeling nouns with verbs or adjectives Beginning to label prepositions Beginning to label pronouns Beginning to use appropriate autoclitic phrases/sentence structure o With some learner s it may be beneficial to start the program prior to completing the VB-MAPP in order to teach some of the more complicated Level 3 skills using the DI curricula. 25 Child's name: Timmy Date of birth: December 17, 2006 Key: Score 1st test: 106 Date 11/10 Color Tester WM Age at testing: nd test: 115 5/11 SR 3rd test: /11 SR 4th test: 141 5/12 KS 5th test: LEVEL 3 Mand Tact Listener VP/MTS Play Social Reading Writing LRFFC IV Group Ling. Math 15 n/a n/a n/a 14 n/a 13 n/a n/a n/a n/a LEVEL 2 Mand Tact Listener VP/MTS Play Social Imitation Echoic LRFFC IV Group Ling n/a 8 n/a 7 6 LEVEL 1 Mand Tact Listener VP/MTS Play Social Imitation Echoic Vocal

14 PROGRAM CONTENT For all DI programs, the content (skills) to be taught is identified as the scope of instruction. This content is typically divided into tracks or strands. The program presents skills simultaneously in parallel tracks that may extend across lessons rather than conforming to the fixed units typical of conventional instruction. With this program organization, known as track sequencing, related concepts are: o Introduced gradually through highly explicit teacherdirected instruction o Applied systematically in an increasing number of ways o Practiced continually o Easily integrated with related skills and knowledge

15 PROGRAM CONTENT Within a single day s lesson various skills are being addressed. Skills from earlier lessons, at various stages of their development, are presented alongside the new skill that has been introduced. As a result, students are continually reviewing what they are learning and integrating new information with related skills. 29 TEACHING EFFECTIVELY One of the hallmarks of DI programs is its emphasis on learning to mastery. When new skills are first introduced, they are errorlessly taught using modeling and prompting. The prompts are systematically faded over successive lessons. When students make mistakes, the teacher prompts immediately utilizing a structured errorless teaching procedure to strengthen responses and understanding before continuing through the lesson. Then, the activity is repeated until all students demonstrate fluency. Students practice what they learn through: o o o o Repetition of individual and group responses Correction procedures for mistakes Completion of independent work assignment Performance of cumulative review activities, when students apply skills in new situation 30

16 TEACHING EFFECTIVELY Learners will respond with enthusiasm when the lesson is well prepared and presented with good pacing. The following are some suggestions that will help present the lesson: Practice the exercises Get into the lesson quickly Follow the scripted directions Use clear signals 31 Signals: Language for Learning Pointing Touching Hand-drop TEACHING EFFECTIVELY Reading Mastery Continuous Sounds (Loop) Stop Sounds (Slash) Say It Fast (Hand Drop) Blending (Fingers) Audio (Clap-Tap) Point/Touch 32

17 Sample Lesson 33 Sample Lesson 34

18 TEACHING EFFECTIVELY Practice the signals Work with the children until their responses are firm and assured Correct mistakes immediately o Model o Lead o Test o Retest Pace exercises appropriately 35 ASSESSMENT TESTS DI programs are designed to give teachers a complete, self contained system for monitoring student performance. They include curriculum-based Mastery Tests. These tests, which are given to students either individually or in groups after specified lessons have been completed, measure specific skills or concepts that have been taught during preceding lessons. 36

19 DIRECT INSTRUCTION VIDEOS 1. Language for Learning- Mary 2. Reading Mastery Plus Naryan 3. Connecting Math Concepts- Danny 4. Language for Learning- John Luca 37 Websites on DI Trainings available Information on contacting local representatives Information such as types of commercially available DI curricula, school funding, purchasing information, and international access 38

20 References Adams, G. L., & Engelmann, S. (1996). Research on Direct Instruction: 25 years beyond DISTAR. Seattle, WA: Educational Achievement Systems. Darch, C., & Simpson, R. G. (1990). Effectiveness of visual imagery versus rule-based strategies in teaching spelling to learning disabled students. Research in Rural Education, 7, Flores, M. M., & Ganz, J. B. (2007). Effectiveness of direct instruction for teaching statement inference, use of facts, and analogies to students with developmental disabilities and related delays. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22, Ganz, J.B., & Flores, M.M. (2009). The effectiveness of Direct Instruction for teaching language to children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Identifying materials. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, McKenzie, M. A., Marchand-Martella, N. E., Moore, M. E., & Martella, R. C. (2004). Teaching basic math skills to preschoolers using connecting math concepts level k. Journal of Direct Instruction, 4, Riepl, J., Marchand-Martella, N., & Martella, R. (2008). The effects of Reading Mastery Plus on the beginning reading skills of students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Journal of Direct Instruction, 8,

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