APHIS-PPQPPQ Center for Plant Health, Science and Technology Buzzards Bay, MA

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1 Scott Myers, Entomologist USDA-APHIS APHIS-PPQPPQ Center for Plant Health, Science and Technology Buzzards Bay, MA Background USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) : APHIS-PPQ safeguards agriculture and natural resources from the risks associated with the entry, establishment, or spread of animal and plant pests and noxious weeds. The Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (CPHST): Supports PPQ regulatory decisions and operations through methods development work, scientific investigation, analyses and technology. Otis Laboratory Buzzards Bay, MA Mission is to develop, refine, and transfer technology for pest survey, exclusion, control, and risk assessment for APHIS

2 USDA Otis Laboratory Buzzards Bay, MA Primary focus is invasive forest insects: Asian longhorned beetle Emerald Ash borer Gypsy moth / Asian gypsy moth Sirex noctilio Areas of Research Biological Control Pesticides Molecular Diagnostics Trapping and Survey Methodology Commodity Treatment Wood-boring wasp of pines native to Europe, Near East, and North Africa Not a pest in its native habitats Serious pest of exotic pine plantations in the Southern Hemisphere Only Sirex species that attacks relatively healthy pines Likes Scots, red and white pine...so far!

3 Family Siricidae = woodwasps, horntails dark-blue metallic body Male Female Part of abdomen, wings, and front and middle legs chestnut brown 9 35 mm (⅜ 1 ⅜ ) long Amber-colored wings and legs mm (½ 1⅜ ) long galleries Dark-brown to black spine protruding from tip of abdomen 3 7 instars Larval development can last from 10 months to 3 years in nature.

4 larval galleries Worldwide spread of Sirex noctilio Native Range Introduced s

5 Fulton First specimen identified from a trap collection in Sept 2004 near Fulton, NY Usually one year life cycle Adults emerge June to September and live 2 3 weeks. Females drill holes in trees and insert Toxic mucus and a symbiotic fungus, Amylostereum areolatum. Eggs if the tree is suitable. The mucus and fungus kill the tree. Sirex egg hatch is stimulated by the fungus and larvae feed on fungus.

6 Potential costs to forestry estimated at $1 - $4 billion per rotation with no control of Sirex 5 million trees killed in Green Triangle outbreak in Up to 80% mortality of trees in some areas Australians committed to biological control Green Triangle plantation 1987

7 Woodwasp (Sirex noctilio) Nematode (Beddingia siricidicola) Fungus (Amylostereum areolatum) Tree (Pinus species) November 2006 controlled release of nematodes obtained from Ecogrow in Canberra, Australia January 2007 first mass rearing of B. siricidicola Fall 2007, 2008, and 2009 controlled releases of Australian Kamona nematodes reared at Otis lab

8 Beddingia siricidicola Develops near Sirex larva Infects Sirex larva, but does not affect development to adult In the Sirex pupa, parasitic females produce juvenile nematodes that migrate from the body cavity into ovarioles and enter the eggs. Sirex female emerges from tree with eggs packed with juvenile nematodes. Nematodes move into new tree when Sirex female lays eggs. Infested Sirex egg stylet Parasitic female Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis

9 ALB finds in the U.S NYC/Long Island area, NY ongoing, populations greatly reduced 1998 Chicago, IL - eradicated 2002 Jersey City, NJ - eradicated 2004 Middlesex / Union County, NJ last detected in Staten Island, Pralls Island, NY ongoing 2008 Worcester, MA ongoing Worcester, MA Asian Longhorned Beetle infestation detected in 2009

10 Asian longhorned beetle larvae Asian Longhorned Beetle Preferred hosts Common Name Genus Notes Maple, boxelder Acer All U.S species Japanese maple rarely attacked Horsechestnut, buckeye Aesculus Several US records, some heavily infested Birch Betula Apparently less preferred than maple Poplar Populus Favorite in China, few US records Willow Salix Weeping, pussy and white highly favored Elm Ulmus Less preferred than maple

11 Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Discovered in southeastern Michigan near Detroit in Likely in Michigan 10+ years before it was detected Larvae feed on the inner bark of ash trees, disrupting the tree's ability to transport water and nutrients Tens of millions of ash trees killed

12

13 Emerald ash borer Current USDA and state efforts are primarily to limit spread human movement Biological control efforts in Michigan with exotic parasitoids EAB has the potential to extinct ash trees in North America 900+ million ash trees in Minnesota alone Commodity Treatment Research for Wood Products Fumigation Efficacy of Methyl bromide and MeBr alternatives Wood penetration of fumigants Conventional Heat Treatment evaluation of ISPM-15 standard on invasive insects Microwave / Radiofrequency Heat

14 EAB Heat Treatment Research What are the time temperature requirements to kill EAB in firewood? Can we develop a schedule for EAB that will allow for the movement of firewood from the quarantine area? Exposed infested wood to vary time/temperature regimes.. and see what survives

15 Adult EAB Emergence Following Heat Treatment at Four Temperatures for 30 Minutes 1 EAB Emergence / m 2 Bark a b b b b (0) control 50 ºC 55 ºC 60 ºC 65 ºC Schedule for solid packing material (56ºC for 30) minutes could allow for adult EAB emergence Treatment standard of 71ºC for 75 minutes was adopted by USDA for firewood in EAB quarantine 1 Mean ± SEM, Means with the same letter are not significantly different (Tukey HSD, α=0.05) Adult EAB Emergence Following Heat Treatment at Four Temperatures for 60 Minutes 1 60 C for 60 minutes was 100% effective Data under review for change to T314-a in PPQ Treatment Manual

16 Objective: Evaluate 56 C core temperature for 30 minutes. Naturally infested Scots pine log sections ~50 cm long 10 cm diameter Treatments: 3 Oven Temperatures 80 C 30 minutes 70 C 30 minutes 60 C 30 minutes Control ESPEC Environmental Chamber (~0.3 m 3 capacity) logs heated in pairs until core reached 56 C for 30 min Logs placed individually barrels for emergence Treated and control logs split to determine larvae numbers

17 Maximum Core Temperature 56 C 30 min heat treatment 65 C 61 C 58 C Treatment N Total Siricids Adult Emergence Control C C C ~1000 larvae killed 56 C / 30 min schedule equally effective at all heating rates. Faster heating (mins Vs hrs) Similar to microwave heating heats from the inside out (18 MHz Vs 2.45 GHz) More uniform heating Heating rate proportional to moisture content Energy efficient Potential for inclusion under ISPM-15

18 Radio Frequency Heat Treatment Treatments based on surface temperature: 55, 60, 65 and 70 C Wood barreled and split following treatment

19 Pitch deposits impact temperature readings FLIR camera systems preferred for surface temperature mapping Temperature Probe Locations Pith P1: pith P2: ½ way to pith P3: ¼ inch depth P4: outer bark

20 Treatment (surface temp) N (logs) Total Larvae Adults % Mortality Control C C C C **Survival at 70 C suggests a lack of uniform heating cold spot

21 FPA allows measurement of fumigant diffusion through cm blocks in variety of thickness Fumigant introduction Sample measurement Edges sealed with adhesive polymer + tin foil to prevent loss of fumigant Tree species, grain orientation, moisture content, temperature, etc all influence fumigant movement

22 16 h schedules: T404 b-1-1 wood products including containers, ISPM15

23 Large diameter (~12 4 ) log sections 432L chambers ends sealed 3 5 C 80 g/m 3 for 24 hrs (T404 b hrs) 80 g/m 3 for 48 hrs 112 g/m 3 for 24 hrs Placed in barrels for adult emergence

24 How long is required to kill EAB larvae? Treatments: 2 weeks 4 weeks 8 weeks 16 weeks Contact Info: Scott Myers Entomologist USDA-APHIS APHIS-CPHST (508) x259

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