ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS AND GOVERNMENT MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE IS IN CHAINS.

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1 ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS AND GOVERNMENT MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE IS IN CHAINS.

2 Relevant Questions: Are people born good or bad? Are all people born equal? What is government? Why do societies have governments? What is the purpose of government? Who has the right to power in society?

3 Thomas Hobbes English philosopher - Wrote Leviathan WITHOUT GOVERNMENT, PEOPLE WOULD CONSTANTLY BE FIGHTING AMONGST THEMSELVES LIFE WITHOUT GOVERNMENT WOULD BE POOR, NASTY, BRUTISH, AND SHORT.

4 Thomas Hobbes (continued) THE PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENT IS TO ENSURE PEACE AND SECURITY THROUGH WHATEVER MEANS NECESSARY. GOVERNMENT IS A CONTRACT BETWEEN CITIZENS AND THEIR RULER. IN THIS CONTRACT, CITIZENS GIVE UP SOME RIGHTS FOR THE GUARANTEE OF PEACE AND SECURITY.

5 Thomas Hobbes (continued) THE BEST GOVERNMENT IS ONE IN WHICH THE RULER HAS ABSOLUTE POWER. PEOPLE NEVER HAVE THE RIGHT TO REBEL. LEISURE IS THE MOTHER OF PHILOSOPHY. GOVERNMENT: ABSOLUTE MONARCHY STATE OF NATURE: LIFE OF MAN: SOLITARY, POOR, NASTY, BRUTISH AND SHORT.

6 JOHN LOCKE English philosopher - Wrote Two Treatises on Government GOVERNMENT IS A CONTRACT BETWEEN CITIZENS AND THEIR RULERS. SOCIAL CONTRACT. THE PURPOSE OF GOVERNMENT IS: 1. TO PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF LIFE, LIBERTY, AND PROPERTY 2. TO CREATE ORDER IN SOCIETY

7 JOHN LOCKE (continued) CITIZENS HAVE THE RIGHT TO REBEL AGAINST A GOVERNMENT THAT DOES NOT RESPECT THE RIGHTS OF ITS CITIZENS. RULERS SHOULD STAY IN POWER ONLY AS LONG AS THEY HAVE THE CONSENT OF THE PEOPLE THEY GOVERN. LIFE, LIBERTY AND PROPERTY. GOVERNMENT: REPUBLIC, BUT IF IT IS BAD THE PEOPLE HAVE THE RIGHT TO CHANGE OR ABOLISH IT. STATE OF NATURE: PEOPLE ARE NATURALLY GOOD AND HAPPY.

8 JOHN LOCKE (continued) TABULA ROSA: BLANK SLATE THE MIND IS CLEAR OF IDEAS AND BELIEFS AT BIRTH THE MIND IS MOLDED BY THE ENVIRONMENT AND EXPERIENCES EACH EXPERIENCE SHAPES WHO AN INDIVIDUAL BECOMES BY CHANGING ONE S ENVIRONMENT AND EXPERIENCE, AN INDIVIDUAL CAN BE SHAPED INTO A DIFFERENT PERSON LEARNING: SOCIETY IMPRESSED IDEAS ON A BLANK SLATE

9 Baron De Montesquieu French philosopher - Wrote Spirit of the Laws TYRANNY CAN BE AVOIDED BY DIVIDING AND SHARING POLITICAL POWER AMONG A DIVERSITY OF CLASSES AND GROUPS

10 Baron De Montesquieu (continue) TO PREVENT THE ABUSE OF POWER IT IS NECESSARY TO SEPARATE THE POWER OF GOVERNMENT INTO: 1. LEGISLATIVE: MAKE THE LAWS 2. EXECUTIVE: ENFORCE THE LAWS 3. JUDICIARY: INTERPRET THE LAWS LAW IN GENERAL IS HUMAN REASON. GOVERNMENT: SEPARATION OF POWERS STATE OF NATURE: PEOPLE ARE BASICALLY GOOD BUT NEED THE LAW.

11 Francois Voltaire French philosopher - Wrote Candide and Letters on the English WOMEN SHOULD BE TREATED WELL BUT THEY ARE NOT EQUAL TO MEN FREEDOM OF THOUGHT IS MOST IMPORTANT: I DISAPPROVE OF WHAT YOU SAY, BUT DEFEND TO THE DEATH YOUR RIGHT TO SAY IT.

12 Francois Voltaire (continued) GOVERNMENT: A LIMITED, CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY STATE OF NATURE: PEOPLE ARE NOT PERFECT BUT HAVE AN INNATE GOODNESS; THE ENVIRONMENT SHAPES BEHAVIOR.

13 Jean Jacques Rousseau Swiss philosopher - Wrote Social Contract ALTHOUGH BORN GOOD, PEOPLE ARE CORRUPTED BY SOCIETY. GOVERNMENT SHOULD BE A CONTRACT BETWEEN PEOPLE, NOT BETWEEN THE PEOPLE AND A RULER. PEOPLE SHOULD GIVE UP SOME FREEDOM IN FAVOR OF THE MAJORITY S DECISION.

14 JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU (CONTINUED) PEOPLE ARE EQUAL AND HAVE A RIGHT TO INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM WOMEN SHOULD BE EDUCATED TO BE GOOD MOTHERS MAN IS BORN FREE, BUT EVERYWHERE IS IN CHAINS. GOVERNMENT: REPUBLIC, BUT IF IT IS BAD, THE PEOPLE HAVE THE RIGHT TO CHANGE IT. GENERAL WILL

15 JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU (CONTINUED) STATE OF NATURE: ROUSSEAU STARTS OUT SAYING THAT HE FEELS MAN IS EQUAL, GOOD, FREE (LIKE LOCKE) IN A STATE OF NATURE, BUT THEN HE SWITCHES TO HOBBES IDEA THAT MAN IS BAD. NOBLE SAVAGE - HUMANS ARE BASICALLY GOOD - EVIL IS THE RESULT OF CIVILIZATION - RESPECT NATURAL THINGS (NOT TAINTED BY CIVILIZATION) - QUESTION THINGS THAT ARE MAN-MADE

16 NEW ECONOMIC THINKING THINKERS CALLED PHYSIOCRATS FOCUSED ON ECONOMIC REFORMS LIKE THE PHILOSOPHES, PHYSIOCRATS LOOKED FOR NATURAL LAWS TO DEFINE A RATIONAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM PHYSIOCRATS REJECTED MERCANTILISM IN FAVOR OF A POLICY CALLED LAISSEZ FAIRE ( HANDS OFF ) - MERCANTILISM: GOVERNMENT OF A STATE IS ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN THE ECONOMY OF THE STATE THROUGH REGULATIONS, INCLUDING TAXES/TARIFFS LAISSEZ FAIRE MEANS ALLOWING BUSINESSES TO RUN WITH LITTLE OR NO GOVERNMENT INTERFERENCE

17 Adam Smith Scottish philosopher - Wrote The Wealth of Nations ARGUED THAT THE FREE MARKET SHOULD BE ALLOWED TO REGULATE BUSINESS ACTIVITY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE, BUT ALSO BELIEVED THAT A GOVERNMENT HAD A DUTY TO PROTECT SOCIETY, ADMINISTER JUSTICE, AND PROVIDE PUBLIC WORKS

18 Adam Smith (continued) THE INVISIBLE HAND "Every individual necessarily labors to render the annual revenue of the society as great as he can. He generally indeed neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it. He intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention. By pursuing his own interest he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it. I have never known much good done by those who affected to trade for the public good. (Wealth of Nations).

19 Enlightenment Thinkers of the American Revolution THOMAS PAINE: HE THAT WOULD MAKE HIS OWN LIBERTY SECURE MUST GUARD EVEN HIS ENEMY FROM OPPRESSION; FOR IF HE VIOLATES THIS DUTY HE ESTABLISHES A PRECEDENT THAT WILL REACH TO HIMSELF.

20 Enlightenment Thinkers of the American Revolution BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: THOSE WHO WOULD GIVE UP ESSENTIAL LIBERTY TO PURCHASE A LITTLE TEMPORARY SAFETY, DESERVE NEITHER LIBERTY OR SAFETY.

21 Enlightenment Thinkers of the American Revolution Benjamin Franklin s 13 Virtues (from Poor Richard s Almanac) - virtue: moral excellence; valued as promoting individual and collective well-being 1) Temperance: Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation. 2) Order: Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time. 3) Resolution: Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve. 4) Frugality: Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing. 5) Moderation: Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve.

22 Enlightenment Thinkers of the American Revolution Benjamin Franklin s 13 Virtues 6) Industry: Lose no time; be always employed in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions. 7) Cleanliness: Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or habitation. 8) Tranquility: Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable. 9) Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation. 10) Sincerity: Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly.

23 Enlightenment Thinkers of the American Revolution Benjamin Franklin s 13 Virtues 11) Justice: Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty. 12) Chastity: Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation. 13) Humility: Imitate Jesus and Socrates.

24 More on the American Enlightenment THE AMERICAN ENLIGHTENMENT WAS CHARACTERIZED NOT ONLY BY KNOWLEDGE OF CLASSICAL WRITINGS, BUT ALSO AN ATMOSPHERE WHERE PEOPLE CRAVED NEW IDEAS, KNOWLEDGE, AND WISDOM. IT WAS THAT CRAVING THAT LED INSPIRED PEOPLE TO MAKE NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN SCIENCE, RELIGION, AND POLITICS. THE AMERICAN ENLIGHTENMENT LED TO AMERICA S INDEPENDENCE AND THE PRINCIPLES OF THE GOVERNMENT AMERICA HAS TODAY. THROUGH ENLIGHTENMENT IDEALS, PEOPLE BEGAN TO THINK THAT A RULER HAD TO BE HELD TO HIGHER LAWS.

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