# 9th Russian Summer School in Information Retrieval Big Data Analytics with R

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1 9th Russian Summer School in Information Retrieval Big Data Analytics with R Introduction to Time Series with R A. Karakitsiou A. Migdalas Industrial Logistics, ETS Institute Luleå University of Technology Luleå, Sweden {athkar, A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

2 Time Series Analysis I A time series is a collection of observations of a variable obtained through repeated measurements over time. The pattern of the data is an important factor in understanding how the time series has behaved in the past. If such behavior can be expected to continue in the future, we can use it to guide us in selecting an appropriate forecasting method. Let us review some of the common types of data patterns that can be identified when examining a time series plot. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

3 Time Series Analysis II Trend A trend exists when there is a long-term increase or decrease in the data. It does not have to be linear. Sometimes we will refer to a trend changing direction when it might go from an increasing trend to a decreasing trend. Trend is usually the result of factors such as population increases or decreases, changing demographic characteristics of the population, technology, and/or consumer preferences. Seasonal A seasonal pattern exists when a series is influenced by seasonal factors (e.g., the quarter of the year, the month, or day of the week). Seasonality is always of a fixed and known period. Cyclic A cyclic pattern exists when data exhibit rises and falls that are not of fixed period. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

4 Time Series Analysis III Irregular It corresponds to the high frequency fluctuations of the series. The irregular component results from short term fluctuations in a series which are not systematic and in some instances not predictable, e.g. uncharacteristic weather patterns. Another important feature of most time series is that observations closer together in time tend to be correlated. Much of the methodology in a time series analysis is aimed at explaining this correlation and the main featured in the data using appropriate statistical models. Once a good model is found and fitted to data it can be used to forecast future values or generate simulation To identify the underlying pattern in the data, a useful first step is to construct a time series plot. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

5 Plot Time Series Example 1 > data(airpassengers) > Pass<-AirPassengers > class(pass) [1] "ts" > start(pass) [1] > end(pass) [1] > frequency(pass) [1] 12 #extract specific time window > Pass.49.50<-window(Pass, start=c(1949,1), end=c(1950,12)) > Pass.57.58<-window(Pass, start=c(1957,1), end=c(1958,12)) #save plot in a pdf file > pdf("passplots2.pdf") #arrange the window to put plots > layout(matrix(c(1,1,2,3),2,2, byrow=true)) > plot(pass, ylab="passengers", xlab="time", type="l", col="red", lwd=3) > plot(pass.49.50, ylab="window 49-50", xlab="time", type="l", col="blue", lwd=3) > plot(pass.57.58, ylab="window 57-58", xlab="time", type="l", col="green", lwd=3) >layout(1) >#return to the console >dev.off() A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

6 Passengers Time Window Window Time A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53 Time

7 Working with Multiple Time Series Example 2 #data obtained from > cbe<-read.csv("cbe.csv", header=true, sep=",") > class(cbe) [1] "data.frame" #convert to time series > cbe.ts<-ts(cbe, start=c(1958,1), freq=12) > cbe.ts[1:4,] choc beer elec [1,] [2,] [3,] [4,] > cbe.elec<-ts(cbe.ts[,3], start=c(1958,1), freq=12) > cbe.beer<-ts(cbe.ts[,2], start=c(1958,1), freq=12) > cbe.choc<-ts(cbe.ts[,1], start=c(1958,1), freq=12) >plot.ts(cbe.ts, col="red", type="l", lwd=3) A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

8 cbe.ts elec beer choc Time A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

9 Time series decomposition I We shall think of the time series Y t as comprising three components: a seasonal component, a trend-cycle component (containing both trend and cycle), and a irregular component (containing anything else in the time series). For example, if we assume an additive model, then we can write Y t = S t + T t + E t, where y t is the data at period t, S t is the seasonal component at period t, T t is the trend-cycle component at period t and E t is the remainder (or irregular or error) component at period t. The additive model is most appropriate if the magnitude of the seasonal fluctuations or the variation around the trend-cycle does not vary with the level of the time series. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

10 Time series decomposition II When the variation in the seasonal pattern, or the variation around the trend-cycle, appears to be proportional to the level of the time series, then a multiplicative model is more appropriate. Y t = S t T t + E t. If the random variation is modeled by a multiplicative factor and the variable is positive, an additive decomposition model for log(y t ) can be used: log(x t ) = S t + T t + E t A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

11 Estimating trends and seasonal effects I There are various ways to estimate the trend ˆT t. A relative simple procedure which is available in R is to calculate a moving average centered on Y t. The idea behind the moving averages is that observations which are nearby in time are also likely to be close in value. The average of the points near an observation will provide a reasonable estimate of the trend-cycle at that observation. The average eliminate some of the randomness in the data, and leaves a smooth trend-cycle component. The term moving average is used because each average is computed by dropping the oldest observation and including the next observation. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

12 Estimating trends and seasonal effects II Simple moving average The simple moving average technique can take different forms. We begin by choosing an order for the moving average k where k is an odd integer. Then the MA(k) moving average is where m = k 1 2 MA t (k) = 1 k m j= m Y t j A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

13 Estimating trends and seasonal effects III Centered moving average While the definition of the MA(k) works for odd values of k it is less satisfactory for even values of k. It is possible to apply a moving average to a moving average. One reason for doing this is to make an even-order moving average symmetric. Hence we define the centered 2MA t (k) smoother to be 2MA t (k) = MA t(k L ) + MA t (k R ) 2 A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

14 Estimating trends and seasonal effects IV Seasonal Effects If a additive model is assumed, an estimate of the seasonal effect at time t can be obtained by subtracting ˆT t Ŝ = Y t ˆT t By averaging these estimate of the monthly effect for each month we obtain a single estimate of the effect for each month. If a multiplicative model is considered then the seasonal effect estimates are given by Ŝ t = Y t ˆT t A seasonally adjusted times series is obtained by 1 Y t Ŝ t if the seasonal effect is additive 2 Y t Ŝ t if the seasonal effect is multiplicative. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

15 Decomposition in R Example 3 #decompose()is used #assume multiplicatice model sinces variance and trend #increase over time > cbe.elec.dec<-decompose(cbe.elec, type="mult") #plot the components > plot(cbe.elec.dec, col=5) >Trend<-cbe.elec,dec\$trend >TrendxSeason<-cbe.elec.dec\$season > plot(trend, type="l", lty=1, lwd=3, col=2) > lines(trendxseason, type="l", lty=2, lwd=3, col=3) > legend("topleft", c("trend","trend*season"), lty=1:2, col=2: A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

16 Decomposition of multiplicative time series random seasonal trend observed Trend Trend Trend*Season Time Time A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

17 Forecasting with decomposition I To forecast the seasonally adjusted component, any non-seasonal forecasting method may be used. For example, a random walk with drift model, or Holt s method r), or a non-seasonal ARIMA model (discussed later), may be used. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

18 Forecasting with decomposition II Example 4 #decompose using stl() function #"Seasonal and Trend decomposition using Loess" #The two main parameters to be chosen when using STL are #the trend window (t.window) and #seasonal window (s.window). #These control how rapidly the trend and seasonal components #can change. Small values allow more rapid change. #Setting the seasonal window to be infinite is #equivalent to forcing the seasonal component to be #periodic (i.e., identical across years). >install.packages("forecast", dependencies = TRUE) >library("forecast") >cbe.elec.fit<- stl(cbe.elec, t.window=15, s.window="periodic", robust=true) #adjust seasonality >cbe.elec.adj <- seasadj(cbe.elec.fit) >cbe.elec.fcast <- forecast(cbe.elec. fit, method="naive") >plot(cbe.ele.fcast, ylab="forect of Electricity consumption") #naive method =All forecasts are simply set to be the #value of the last observation A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

19 Forecasting with decomposition III Forecasts from STL + Random walk forect of Electricity consumption A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

20 Stationality I A stationary time series is one whose properties do not depend on the time at which the series is observed So time series with trends, or with seasonality, are not stationary-the trend and seasonality will affect the value of the time series at different times. The mean function of a time series model is µ(t) = E(Y t ) which is, in general, a function of time t. If the mean function is constant, i.e. µ(t) = µ, we say that the time series model is stationary in the mean. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

21 Stationality II If we assume that a sufficiently long time series characterizes the hypothetical model, then the sample estimate of the population mean µ is the sample mean Ȳ Ȳ = 1 n n t=1 and such models are known as ergodic. The variance function of a time series model that is stationary in the mean is σ 2 t = E[(Y t µ) 2 ] In principal, σ t can take a different value at every time t. In other words, being stationary in mean does not necessarily mean being stationary in variance. Y t A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

22 Stationality III Unfortunately, we cannot estimate a different variance at each time point from a single time series. To progress, we must make some simplifying assumption. If we assume that the time series model is stationary in variance, then this constant population variance σ 2 can be estimated from the sample variance Var(Y ) = 1 n 1 n (Y t Ȳ ) 2 In a time series analysis, sequential observations may be correlated. If the correlation is positive, Var(Y) will tend to underestimate the population variance in a short series because successive observations tend to be relatively similar. In most cases, this does not present a problem since the bias decreases rapidly as the length n of the series increases. t=1 A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

23 Autocorrelation I Consider a time series that is stationary in both the mean and the variance. The variables may be serially correlated, and the model is second-order stationary if the serial correlation between variables depends only on the number of the steps between them. The number of the steps between them is know as lag. For a second-order stationary time series, we can define the autocovariance and autocorrelation functions of lag k as acvf: γ k = E[(Y t µ)(y t+k µ) (1) acf: ρ k = γ k σ 2 (2) A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

24 Autocorrelation II The autocovariance and autocorrelation functions can be estimated from a time series by their sample equivalents 1 r k < 1 acvf: c k = 1 n k (Y t Ȳ )(Y t+k Ȳ ) (3) n t=1 acf: r k = c k c 0 (4) A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

25 Tests for autocolleration I ACF() function in R acf() The function acf() computes (and by default plots) estimates of the autocovariance or autocorrelation function. acf(x, type = c("correlation", "covariance", "partial"), plot = TRUE,.) # x time series under consideration #type of acf to be computed. Allowed values are correlation (the default), #covariance or partial. #plot. If TRUE (the default) the collegramm is plotted. The lag 0 autocorrelation is fixed at 1 by convention.) The autocorrelations of x are stored in the vector acf(x)\$acf, with the lag k autocorrelation located in acf(x)\$acf[k+1]. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

26 Example 5 #initial data obtained from #http://elena.aut.ac.nz/~pcowpert/ts/wave.dat >cgramm.exam<-read.csv("autoc_data.csv", header=true, sep=";") > attach(cgramm.exam) #plot correlogramm >acf(ts(autoc), main="example of correlogram") #autocorrelation at lag 0 > acf(autoc)\$acf[1] [1] 1 ##autocorrelation at lag 1 > acf(autoc)\$acf[2] [1] #autocorrelation at lag 9 > acf(autoc)\$acf[10] [1] A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

27 ACF Example of correlogram Lag The unit of the x-axis, the lags, is the sampling interval. The y-axix is dimensionless. If ρ k =0, the sampling distribution of ρ k s estimate, r k, is approximately N( 1 n, 1 n ). Therefore, on the correlogram, the dotted lines are drawn at 1 n ± 2 n such that if r k falls outside these lines, we have evidence at the 5% level to reject the null hypothesis that ρ k = 0. The r k are correlated, so if one falls outside the lines, the neighboring ones are more likely to be statistically significant. If ρ k does equal 0 at all lags k, we expect 5% of the estimates, r k, to fall outside the 1 n ± 2 n lines. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

28 Usually a trend in the data will show in the correlogram as a slow decay in the autocorrelations, which are large and positive due to similar values in the series occurring close together in time. If there are seasonal variation, season spikes will be superimposed on the pattern A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

29 Simple Exponential Smoothing I Given a past history {Y 1, Y 2,, Y n }, we want to predict some future value Y n+k. We assume that: 1 We assume there is no systematic trend or seasonal effects in the process, or that these have been identified and removed. 2 The mean of the process can change from one time step to the next, but we have no information about the likely direction of these changes. The exponential smoothing model follows: F t = αy t + (1 α)f t 1 α is the smoothing constant 0 α 1. Equation shows that the forecast for period F t is a weighted average of the actual value in period t and the forecast for period t 1. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

30 Simple Exponential Smoothing II The weight given to the actual value in period t is the smoothing constant α and the weight given to the forecast in period t is 1 α It turns out that the exponential smoothing forecast for any period is actually a weighted average of all the previous actual values of the time series. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

31 Holt s linear trend method Holt (1957) extended simple exponential smoothing to allow forecasting of data with a trend. This method involves a forecast equation and two smoothing equations (one for the level and one for the trend): Forecast equation y t+h = l t + hb t Level equation l t = αy t + (1 α)(l t 1 + b t 1 ) Trend equation b t = β (l t l t 1 ) + (1 β )b t 1 where l t denotes an estimate of the level of the series at time t, b t denotes an estimate of the trend (slope) of the series at time t, α is the smoothing parameter for the level, 0 α 1 and β is the smoothing parameter for the trend, 0 β 1. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

32 Holt-Winters seasonal method Holt (1957) and Winters (1960) extended Holt s method to capture seasonality. The Holt-Winters seasonal method comprises the forecast equation and three smoothing equations 1 one for the level l t, 2 one for trend b t, and 3 one for the seasonal component denoted by s t, with smoothing parameters α, β, γ. We use m to denote the period of the seasonality, i.e., the number of seasons in a year. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

33 The HoltsWinters() Function I test To make forecasts using simple exponential smoothing in R, we can fit a simple exponential smoothing predictive model using the HoltWinters() function in R. HoltWinters(x, alpha = NULL, beta = NULL, gamma = NULL, seasonal = c("additive", "multiplicative"), start.periods = 2, l.start = NULL, b.start = NULL, s.start = NULL, optim.start = c(alpha = 0.3, beta = 0.1, gamma = 0.1), optim.control = list()) The HoltWinters() function returns a list variable, that contains several named elements. By default HoltWinters() just makes forecasts for the time period covered by the original data A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

34 The HoltsWinters() Function II We can make forecasts for further time points by using the forecast.holtwinters() function in the R forecast package. When using the forecast.holtwinters() function, as its first argument (input), you pass it the predictive model that you have already fitted using the HoltWinters() function You specify how many further time points you want to make forecasts for by using the h parameter. The forecast.holtwinters() function gives you the forecast for time period, a 80% prediction interval for the forecast, and a 95% prediction interval for the forecast A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

35 Example 6 >library("forecast") >Pass.fit<-HoltWinters(Pass.ts, seasonal="multi") > Pass.fit Holt-Winters exponential smoothing with trend and multiplicative seasonal component. Call: HoltWinters(x = Pass.ts, seasonal = "multi") Smoothing parameters: alpha: beta : gamma: Coefficients: [,1] a b s s s s s s s A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

36 Example 7 #Holts-winter forcast Pass.for<-forecast.HoltWinters(Pass.fit, h=120) Point Forecast Lo 80 Hi 80 Lo 95 Hi 95 Jan Feb Mar Apr Sep Oct Nov Dec >plot.forecast(pass.for) A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

37 Forecasts from HoltWinters A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

38 Box-Jenkins Methodology I The Box-Jenkins methodology refers to a set of procedures for identifying and estimating time series models within the class of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. ARIMA models are regression models that use lagged values of the dependent variable and/or random disturbance term as explanatory variables. ARIMA models rely heavily on the autocorrelation pattern in the data Three basic ARIMA models for a stationary time series Y t : A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

39 Box-Jenkins Methodology II [1] Autoregressive model of order p (AR(p)) In an autoregression model, we forecast the variable of interest using a linear combination of past values of the variable. The term autoregression indicates that it is a regression of the variable against itself. Thus an autoregressive model of order p can be written as Y t = c + φ 1 Y t 1 + φ 2 Y t φ p Y t p + ε t, where c is a constant and ε t is white noise Y t depends on its p previous values A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

40 Box-Jenkins Methodology III [2] Moving Average model of order q (MA(q)) Rather than use past values of the forecast variable in a regression, a moving average model uses past forecast errors in a regression-like model. ε t is white noise y t = c + ε t + θ 1 ε t 1 + θ 2 ε t θ q ε t q, Y t depends on q previous random error terms A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

41 Box-Jenkins Methodology IV [3] Autoregressive-moving average model of order p and q (ARMA(p,q)) Y t = c + φ 1 Y t 1 + φ 2 Y t φ p Y t p + + ε t + θ 1 ε t 1 + θ 2 ε t θ q ε t q Y t depends on its p previous values and q previous random error terms Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average ARIMA(p,d,q) ARMA models are defined for stationary time series. If you start off with a non-stationary time series, you will first need to difference the time series until you obtain a stationary time series. Because the need to make a time series stationary is common, the differentiating can be intergraded into ARMA model by defining the ARIMA(p,d,q) model. d denotes the differencing time A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

42 Box-Jenkins Methodology V There are five stages in building a Box Jenkins time series model: 1 Stationarity Checking 2 Model Identification 3 Parameter Estimation 4 Diagnostic Checking 5 Forecasting A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

43 Stationary Checking Differencing a Time Series To apply ARMA model the dataset needs to be a stationary time series. As a first step plot your time series If there is an obvious upward or downward linear trend, differencing difference may be needed. You can difference a time series using the diff() function in R. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

44 Example 8 #data set carsdemand, demand for cars in a region >cars<-read.csv("carsdemand.csv", header=true) >ts.cars<-ts(cars, freq=1) >plot(ts.cars, ylab="ts.cars" >ts.cars.diff1<-diff(ts.cars, differences = 1) >plot(ts.cars.diff1, ylab="ts.cars.diff1") >abline(0,0) >ts.cars.diff2<-diff(ts.cars, differences = 2) >plot(ts.cars.diff1, ylab="ts.cars.diff1") >abline(0,0) A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

45 ts.cars Time ts.cars.diff Time ts.cars.diff Time A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

46 Model Identification After a time series has been stationarized by differencing, the next step in fitting an ARIMA model is to determine whether AR or MA terms are needed to correct any autocorrelation that remains in the differenced series By looking at the autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation (PACF) plots of the differenced series, you can tentatively identify the numbers of AR and/or MA terms that are needed. A pure AR(p) will have a cut off at lag p in the PACF A pure MA(q) will have a cut off at lag q in the ACF. AR((I)MA(p,q) will (eventually) have a decay in both A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

47 ACF Partial ACF cars Lag Series ts.cars.diff Lag the following ARIMA (autoregressive moving average) models are possible for the time series of first differences: an ARIMA(3,2,0) model, since the partial autocorrelogram is zero after lag 3, and the autocorrelogram tails off to zero An ARIMA(0,2,1) model, since the autocorrelogram is zero after lag 1 and the partial autocorrelogram tails off to zero an ARMA(p,2,q) A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

48 Parameter Estimation Once the model order has been identified (i.e., the values of p, d and q), we need to estimate the parameters c, φ 1,..., φ p, θ 1,..., θ q When R estimates the ARIMA model, it uses maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). This technique finds the values of the parameters which maximize the probability of obtaining the data that we have observed Akaike s Information Criterion is a measure of the relative quality of statistical models To apply AIC in practice, we start with a set of candidate models, and then find the models corresponding AIC values. Good models are obtained by minimizing AIC. A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

49 Estimation with R R provides the arima() and Arima() which differ in the way they handle the constant terms There exists also the auto.arima() function which can be used to find the appropriate ARIMA model A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

50 #library(forecast) > fit3.2.1<-arima(ts.cars, order=c(3,2,1)) > fit3.2.1 Call: arima(x = ts.cars, order = c(3, 2, 1)) Coefficients: ar1 ar2 ar3 ma s.e sigma^2 estimated as 227.6: log likelihood = , aic = > fit0.2.1<-arima(ts.cars, order=c(0,2,1)) > fit0.2.1 Call: arima(x = ts.cars, order = c(0, 2, 1)) Coefficients: ma s.e sigma^2 estimated as 336.8: log likelihood = -175, aic = #the arima(3 2 1) has the minimum aic A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

51 Diagnostics Checking A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

52 forecasting We can then use the ARIMA model to make forecasts for future values of the time series, using the forecast.arima function Example 9 > cars.forecast<-forecast.arima(fit3.2.1, h=9) > cars.forecast Point Forecast Lo 80 Hi 80 Lo 95 Hi A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

53 A. Karakitsiou & A. Migdalas ( LTU) RuSSIR / 53

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