IV International Conference for PhD Students MULTIDIRECTIONAL RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY. Cracow

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1 IV International Conference for PhD Students MULTIDIRECTIONAL RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY Cracow March 2015

2 IV International Conference for PhD Students MULTIDIRECTIONAL RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY 1. These are materials from IV International Conference for PhD students in Cracow. 2. The autors take full reponsibility for the abstracts listed below. University of Agriculture in Cracow March 2015

3 HONORARY PATRONAGE prof. dr hab. inż. Włodzimierz SADY, JM Rektor UR University of Tarleton State Texas (USA) Marek SOWA, Marshal of Małopolska Marek SAWICKI, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Czesław SIEKIERSKI, Member of the European Parliament MEDIA PATRONAGE uczelnie.net krakow.studia.net dlastudenta.pl SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden Prof. Hans MATTSSON Kiev National University Construction and Architecture, Kiev, Ukraine Prof. Olga PETRAKOVSKA Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, Moscow, Russia Prof. Nadezda KAMYNINA Uniwersytet Tarleton State Texas (USA) dr Barry LAMBERT Uniwersytet Rolniczy w Krakowie prof. dr hab. inż. Krzysztof GAWROŃSKI prof. dr hab. inż. Krzysztof OSTROWSKI prof. dr hab. inż. Andrzej LEPIARCZYK prof. dr hab. inż. Elżbieta BOLIGŁOWA dr hab. inż. Jarosław SOCHA, prof. UR prof. dr hab. inż. Andrzej SECHMAN prof. dr hab. inż. Stanisław MAZUR prof. dr hab. inż. Stanisław ORZEŁ prof. dr hab. inż. Bogdan KULIG prof. dr hab. Teresa FORTUNA dr hab. inż. Józef HERNIK dr hab. Paweł KASZYCKI

4 CONTRIBUTOR Małgorzata HAŁAT-ŁAŚ ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITTEE MEMBERS Witold TRELA - president of PhD studenst's Union Katarzyna OLCZAK - president of the organizing committe Dorota GALA-CZEKAJ Ewelina PIASNA Dominik DOMAGAŁA Dariusz MŁYŃSKI Kamil KĘDRA Małgorzata HAŁAT-ŁAŚ Marta BRĘKLEWICZ Izabella MAJEWSKA Aleksandra DUBICKA-LISOWSKA Monika CZAJA Maria NAWIEŚNIAK Martyna MAŁOPOLSKA Dawid KUDAS Łukasz BOREK Milena RUSIN Barbara BINIAŚ Tomasz NOSZCZYK Łukasz KORYTKOWSKI Pelagia GAWRONEK Jarosław OCZKOWICZ Maja DOBIŃSKA Klaudia DUDA-FRANIAK Piotr JANOWSKI Anna WITEK Liliana DRZEWIECKA Michał NIEWIADOMSKI Karolina RUSZEL Joanna KRUŻEL ORGANIZER PhD student's Union of University of Agriculture in Krakow Al. Mickiewicza 21, Kraków, Publishing house Episteme

5 CONTENT I. Animal science II. Agricultural economics, agrotourism and management III. Agriculture IV. Surveying, cartography, geodesy, land development, landscape architecture V. Foresty VI. Food technology VII. Environmental protection and development VIII. Horticulture and herb cultivation

6 I. ANIMAL SCIENCE

7 THE EFFECTS OF INDUCTION OF ESTRUS IN A HERD OF COWS WITH HIGH MILK PRODUCTION. Edyta Bauer, Justyna Żychlińska-Buczek, Grzegorz Zachura Disorders in dairy cattle breeding is the second in the order problem in the dairy cow. Fertility is therefore very important in terms of the profitability of milk production. One good way resolve this problem is the induction of estrus. The aim of this study was to determine the health effects of estrus by pharmacological and determine the percentage of calving cows in spontaneous and induced estrus. Based on the obtained results it was found that the Ovsynch program proved to be better than the use of the same prostaglandins. It was also found that the animals under lactation in the program, and year have a highly significant impact on the number of successful insemination to fertilize. The study was also found with detected estrus induced spontaneously and is at the same level. SPATIAL STRATEGIES OF CARPATHIAN RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS MONTANUS) IN THE KREMNICA MOUNTAINS Technical University in Zvolen Alfadil Mohammed, Abdelrahman Adam The aim of this study was to evaluate migration distances of chosen male individuals (ID) of Carpathian red deer (Cervus elaphus montanus) represented by spatial shift between seasonal home ranges among tracked individuals. This study was conducted in Kremnica Mountains located in central Slovakia. The study included data from three radio-tracked European red deer (Cervus elaphus) male individuals. They were collared and tracked by using VHF (Very High Frequency) telemetry. The data evaluated within three different seasons (winter, summer and rut). Seasonal home ranges created by using Kernel Home Range (KHR) method. The study showed significant differences in migration distances among tracked individuals. THE EFFECT OF NATURAL TRAINING METHODS (NATURAL HORSEMANSHIP) ON INTELLIGENCE OF HUCUL HORSES. Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu Agnieszka Knioła, Anna Nowicka-Posłuszna The Hucul horse is one of the oldest breeds in Poland that originated in the East Carpatian Mountains. Throughout the year the horses dwelled in the mountain meadows and these extremely hard conditions built their endurance, high vitality and perfect health. Moreover they are known for their gentleness, mental balance and considerable intelligence. Natural training methods is a term for a variety of horse training techniques based on the horses natural methods of communication, with the understanding

8 that they do not learn through fear or pain, but from pressure. This experiment presents the proposition of a test consisting of a few tasks for evaluating intelligence in 24 Hucul horses and describes their behaviour while solving uncomplicated problems like finding food hidden behind obstacles. Natural training methods are essential factor influencing the horses responses. The study uses statistical analysis as a methodological tool. THE EFFECT OF CAPONIZATION ON THE SLAUGHTER VALUE OF ROOSTERS OF VARIOUS BREEDS Uniwersytet Warmińsko - Mazurski Magdalena Zawacka, Daria Murawska, Michał Gesek The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Zielononóżka kuropatwiana (ZK, English: Green-Legged Partridge Hen), Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Leghorn (LE) roosters for caponization. At 8 weeks of age, selected birds of each group were subjected to surgical castration. Caponized and uncastrated male chickens were raised under identical conditions, and were fed ad libitum. At 20 weeks of age, 10 caponized birds and 10 uncastrated roosters of each breed were randomly selected for the analysis of slaughter value. The results were analyzed in the AxB 2x3 factorial design. The body weights of roosters and capons within breeds were similar (ZK g and 1871 g, RIR g and 2340 g, LE g and 1680 g, respectively). RIR roosters were characterized by the highest body weight (P<0.01). The body weight of caponized birds tended to decrease, in comparison with uncastrated males. Carcass dressing percentage was lower in capons than in uncastrated roosters in the ZK and RIR breeds (P<0.05), whereas no such differences were observed in LE birds. SPERM QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS FOLLOWING STORAGE OF SEMEN IN DIFFERENT EXTENDERS Karolina Wasilewska, Łukasz Zasiadczyk, Katarzyna Mietelska, Władysław Kordan, Leyland Fraser Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie This study aimed to compare motility characteristics and plasma membrane integrity, PMI (SYBR- 14/PI assay) of boar spermatozoa stored in Androhep Plus, Androstar Plus, Safe Cell Plus (SCP) and Trix Cell Plus extenders at 17 O C (Day 1) and 10 O C (Day 2). Total sperm motility (%, TMOT), evaluated with the CASA system, was divided into four categories of movement: rapid (RAP), medium (MED), slow (SLOW) and static (STATIC). ANOVA results showed that boar variability had a significant effect on the analyzed sperm parameters. No marked changes in sperm TMOT and PMI were observed among the semen extenders. Spermatozoa stored in SCP exhibited lower RAP and higher MED and SLOW movements. In addition, the percentages of spermatozoa exhibiting STATIC movement were increased during storage on Day 2. The results of this study reaffirmed the protective effects of extender components on sperm function following semen storage at different temperatures.

9 EFFECT OF PREGNANCY LENGTH ON THE GROWTH RATE OF DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHT OF THOROUGHBRED FOALS Jarosław Łuszczyński, Weronika Pisarczyk, Magdalena Pieszka, Ewa Zych The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of the pregnancy length on the growth rate of the dimensions and weight of Thoroughbred horses during the first six months of their life. Experience was carried on 243 Thoroughbred foals from Golejewko Stud. All studied foals were divided into three groups according to the length of pregnancy. All of them were measured at birth and after 6 month of life. It has been found that the length of pregnancy significantly affect the postnatal body size and their growth rate. Foals born after pregnancies lasting days were highly significantly higher, significantly heavier and with significantly larger chest circumference compared to foals born after pregnancies shorter than 330 days. The growth rate of foals born after the shortest pregnancies was the highest. Taking under consideration the growth rate of the height at withers and the growth rate of chest circumference compared to foals born after pregnancies days, differences were significant. It has been observed that the foals that were the smallest at birth were growing fastest during the six months after birth. CONCENTRATION OF IL-6 IN PLASMA AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IN THE STILLBORN CALVES Edyta Bańcyr, Anna Chełmońska-Soyta, Paulina Jawor, Tadeusz Stefaniak Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu Introduction: Intrauterine infection and hypoxia induces increased concentration of IL-6 in serum. There are contradictory results if IL-6 from serum may influence IL-6 concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. The aim of the study was to evaluate the IL-6 concentrations in the plasma and CSF fluid in stillborn calves with different causes of death.materials and methods. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were obtained from calves whose cause of death was dystocia or intrauterine infection with or without signs of hypoxia. Material from control group were obtained from the calves born during normal calving, which were euthanized after birth. IL6 concentration was determined by commercially available test.results: Mean concentration of IL-6 in cerebrospinal fluid in control and experimental group was below detectable range. IL-6 concentration was detectable in plasma of stillborn calves. This work was supported by a grant from NCBiR no PBS2 / A8 / 20/201

10 THE INFLUENCE OF STOCKING WITH SALMONIDS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF RECREATIONAL ANGLERS Mendel University in Brno Petr Chalupa, Petr Spurny, Eva Postulkova We compared logbook data of individual salmon permits with data of stocked rivers for brown trout, rainbow trout and brook trout catches. Salmonid fisheries management was evaluated based on the individual logbook data as records of the fishing effort and catches. This study was performed as model example of salmonid fisheries management carried on the Opava river. Opava river is managed by three local organizations which stock it. As we found out, recreational anglers increased fishing effort immediately in the first week after stocking the river. The fishing pressure increased to 1 3 fishing effort/ha and catches to 0,5 3 pcs/ha. The increased fishing pressure was not dependent on the species of stocking fish. In general, fishing effort was bigger on weekends (2 4 fishing effort/ha) than in working days (1 2 fishing effort/ha). This conference paper was supported by project OPVK CZ.1.07/2.2.00/ POSSIBILITY OF REPLACING SOYBEAN MEAL BY NATIONAL SOURCES OF PLANT PROTEIN IN NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBIT FEEDING Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie Cezary Zwoliński, Dorota Kowalska, Andrzej Gugołek The aim of this research was to replace the soybean extracted meal by national plant protein sources in pellets and evaluation the impact of this supplementation on productivity of broiler rabbits. In the experiment was used breed New Zealand White rabbits. In the control group diet was 15% of soybean extracted meal. In the experimental, completely replaced soybean by composition of pea, lupine and rapeseed meal. The experimental feed was balanced with regard to chemical and amino acids composition to resemble a feed containing soybean meal. Based on the results the experimental factor had no effect on production performance and nutrient digestibility. Therefore, in the rabbits feeding soybean extracted meal may be replaced by national sources of plant protein. PANAGROLAIMIDAE (NEMATODE: RHABDITIDA) INVASION OF EXOTIC SPIDERS Anna Wyrobisz, Jerzy Kowal, Sławomir Kornaś, Marta Basiaga, Patryk Nowik, Wojciech Pałasz, Paweł Nosal Panagrolaimidae is a family of soil nematodes which can be a facultative parasites of many groups of animals including captive-bred and wild Theraphosidae (Arthropoda: Araneae) spiders. During the presented research Panagrolaimus sp. has been found in spiders bred in Poland and originated from the

11 South America. Although the mode of transmission is so far unknown, there is the hypothesis that the source of infection may be the insects used as a nourishment. The first sign of infection was anorexia which led to gradually increasing lethargy progressed to a huddled posture. Additionally, a white discharge between the mouth and chelicerae was noted. The post mortem examination has demonstrated a small amount of nematodes not only in the vicinity of chelicerae but also in deeper part of the spider. There is no effective treatment, hence this appears to be an important disease, posing a serious risk to animals. THE EFFECT OF SUMMER TEMPERATURES ON BEHAVIOUR OF HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS Anna Šimkova, Miloslav Šoch, Kateřina Švejdova, Luboš Smutny, Šárka Smutna Jihočeská univerzita v Českých Budějovicích This study was carried out on a commercial dairy farm located in the Central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Dairy cows of Holstein cattle were monitored during 24 hours after one minute intervals. There were recorded behavioral characteristics for 15 selected cows. They were divided into 3 groups according to the period of lactation. The characteristics were processed using Microsoft Excel to ethogram. Data about ambient temperature were obtained using digital air temperature sensor (Datalogger COMET). It was investigated the influence of the ambient temperature in behavior and welfare of dairy cows in the stable. It was not detected ambient temperature effect on behavior in animals due to optimum conditions in the barn. RELATIONSHIP OF HOUSING AND WELFARE IN DAIRY COWS Kateřina Švejdova, Miloslav Šoch, Anna Šikova, Luboš Smutny, Šárka Smutna Jihočeská univerzita v Českých Budějovicích The aim of this trial was to assess the relationship between housing of animals and their overall comfort and confirm the hypothesis that this type of technology housing affects cattle welfare. This experiment was carried out on a commercial dairy farm located in the Central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Ethological monitoring of selected parameters has been observed in 15 of the animals. They were divided into 3 groups according to lactation. It was made ethogram analysis of data on behavior (lying, standing, rumination...) in tables and graphs. The resulting values were assessed whether housing technology affects welfare animals and confirms the hypothesis.

12 EVALUATION OF COLOSTRUM SUPPLEMENT B (CLSB) AND CALF SUPPLEMENT B (CSB) ON PERFORMANCE OF CALVES Łukasz Korytkowski, Artur Płyta, Paweł Górka, Zygmunt M. Kowalski Study was designed as a one factorial experiment with two treatments: 1) negative control, with no supplements (C); and 2) experimental, with supplement CLSB in combination with CSB (S). Calves were in the experiment from day of birth to the age of 60 days. In the first and second meal the S group calves received CLSB mixed with colostrum and from the second day of life till d 21 they received CSB. The CSB powder was mixed entirely into milk or milk replacer. From 22nd to 60th day of life claves from both groups were treated like those from C group. The average daily gain of body weight was significantly higher (more than 100 g/day) in S group in comparison to C (706 vs. 591 g/day; P<0.01). The final body weight on d 60 was significantly higher (P<0.01) in S group than in C ones (75.1 vs kg). ESTIMATING THE RUMINAL PROTEIN DEGRADABILITY OF RAPESEED CAKE USING IN VITRO STUDIES Katarzyna Słota, Piotr Micek, Patrycja Wanat, Michał Ćwiertniak The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of estimating the protein effective rumen degradability of rapeseed cake (RSC) based on its chemical composition, in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) and total protein content (CP) in samples after incubation. Experiment was performed on RSC with known ERD derived from 3 different oil plants (P1, P2, P3). Additionally RSC from P3 has been heat-treated (140, 150 or 160oC) for 60 min. Representative samples of feeds were analyzed for chemical composition by standard methods. IVTD was performed by ANKOM filter bags method. Heated RSC, in comparison to control one, had slightly higher NDF and ADIN content and lower crude protein level. It has been shown that rising temperature of heating caused an decrease in IVTD, which was accompanied by increase in total protein content in samples after IVTD. CP and NDF content in a raw sample as well as its IVTD has been found as a best parameters to develop equation to estimate ERD CP of rapeseed cake (y=-132,847+0,327 CP-0,174 NDF+1,531 IVTD; R2=0.9933).

13 MICROSATELLITE POLYMORPHISM IN NUTRIA (MYOCASTOR COYPUS) BEING UNDER GENETIC RESOURCES CONSERVATION PROGRAM IN POLAND Iwona Guja, Stanisław Łapiński, Tomasz Ząbek, Monika Bugno-Poniewierska, Piotr Niedbała Using of microsatellite markers aims to assess the population genetic structure, the structure of the breeding, kinship and demographics at the individual level in species belonging to Myocastor coypus. By dint of inheritance of polymorphic genetic markers it is possible to control the origin of animals. The aim of the study was to evaluate microsatellite panel among nutria population being under genetic resources conservation program in Poland. In the research 94 nutrias, representing 8 color varieties (standard, black, ambergold, white mark, pastel, snow white, pearl, greenland) were used. For 10 microsatellite loci (McoD10a, McoD60, McoB17, McoA04, McoC118, McoD228, McoC124, McoD69, McoD124, McoD59) 94 alleles were identified. All microsatellites were polymorphic. Mean number of alleles per locus was 9,4. Observed heterozygosity was varied between 0,08530 for McoB17 and 0,63830 for McoD RISK FACTORS OF KETOSIS - POPULATION RESEARCH Artur Płyta, Zygmunt M.Kowalski, Krzysztof Słoniewski, Łukasz Korytkowski The objectives of the study were (1) to assess a frequency of subclinical ketosis at 5 to 60 day in milk in dairy farms in Poland and (2) to determine by the selected risk factors for SCK. Cows and herds threatened with SCK (K!) have identified by the method Kowalski and at.(2013, materials not published), based on the analysis of basic chemical composition and of the content of ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate and acetone) in milk. The study was conducted on data made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers from the period from 1 January to 31 December A collection of contained information about cows. In the studied group of potentially threatened cows SCK is 9,6 %. The risk for developing SCK was higher in parity 3 and older cows and heifers compared with parity 2. The month of the year in which a cow calved was associated with the risk for SCK. In Poland SCK is more common in small farms, to 20 cows and farms with lower average milk production. THE LEVEL OF DNA GLOBAL METHYLATION OF GENOME AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF HONEY BEES (APIS MELLIFERA) CASTES DEVELOPMENT Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Lublinie Milena Bajda, Aleksandra Łoś The mechanisms of activation and silencing of genes are correlated with DNA methylation. DNA methylation is the after replication process and has also been correlated with age. The measure of the level of global methylation of the genome is the percent of 5-methylcytosine (m5c) in DNA. The aim

14 of this study was to determine the level of m5c in the DNA at castes of honey bees and their correlation with age (their different development stages). The Imprint Methylated DNA Quantification Kit MDQ1 was used. The results show the developmental patterns of changes in the DNA methylation levels were different in the queens in comparison with the drones and workers. While methylation increased in the queens, it decreased in the drones and workers. This study expands the current knowledge of the queens, workers and drones epigenome and the general knowledge of the function of epigenetic mechanisms in honey bees. PROSTAGLANDINS PRODUCTION IN BOVINE UTERINE TISSUE AND CELLS DURING ADENOMYOSIS. Polska Akademia Nauk w Olsztynie Martyna Łupicka, Anna Korzekwa Adenomyosis is estrogen-dependent, proliferative uterine dysfunction. Abnormal immune response is possible mechanism of its development. Prostaglandins (PGs) are mediators of inflammation which regulate uterine functions of bovine uterus. Thus we hypothesized that PGs production may be disturbed during adenomyosis. The aim of this study was to compare mrna expression of PGs synthases in healthy and adenomyotic bovine uterine tissues, and to determine the influence of estradiol (E2) on PGs secretion by cultured uterine cells. Uterine tissues, obtained in abattoir, were divided into healthy (n=9) and adenomyotic (n=9). Epithelial (n=6), stromal (n=6) and myometrial (n=6) cells were isolated, cultured and stimulated with estradiol (10 7M). mrna expression for PGF2α synthase (PGFs) and PGE2 synthase (PGEs) was determined in the tissue by real-time PCR. PGF2α and PGE2 levels were measured in culture media by ELISA. The results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls post-hoc test. PGFs and PGEs were differently expressed in healthy and adenomyotic tissues. E2 affected secretion of PGs in the cells. PG production may be disturbed in uterus during adenomyosis in cow. EXPRESSION OF PPARΑ AND PPARΓ IN THE BOVINE CL THROUGHOUT THE STAGES OF THE ESTROUS CYCLE Polska Akademia Nauk w Olsztynie Barbara M. Socha, Agata Szczepańska, Anna J. Korzekwa Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are a family of nuclear receptors which play an important role in regulation of lipid metabolism. Agonists of PPAR are metabolites of Arachidonic Acid: prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Hence, thay may be engaged in functional regulation of the corpus luteum (CL). The aim of the present study was to determine the PPAR isoform i.e. PPARα and PPARγ expression in the bovine CL throughout the stages of the estrous cycle (Real Time PCR). The results analyzed by Ct, normalized to reference gene GAPDH. The experimental material was bovine corpora lutea (n = 4) obtained post mortem. Analyzed phases of the estrous cycle: early luteal

15 (2-3 day), mid luteal (8-12 day), late luteal (15-17 day) and CL regression (19-21 day). The results show different profile expression of PPAR isoform: PPARα and PPARγ in the bovine CL (P<0.05) which suggest its different engagement during estrous cycle. THE COMPARISON OF INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN THE NEWLY CREATED FARMED FISHPONDS AND NATURAL PONDS Mendel University in Brno Lenka Hadasova, Radovan Kopp, Ondrej Klima Important role in food webs of standing waters plays zooplankton. Especially in farmed fishponds it is irreplaceable part of the food for fish. Many studies deal with the taxonomic composition and abundance of zooplankton, but those describing the initial colonization of new fishponds are lacking. Zooplankton of two new fishponds (F1, F2) with different fishstock and two newly created ponds without fish was sampled during the first growing season. Sampling was realized monthly, zooplankton identification and enumeration was carried out. In the F1 prevailed very fine zooplankton. The most abundant were rotifers, the less cladocerans. In F2 all zooplankton groups were balanced in both size and taxonomic composition. In ponds without fish first colonists were rotifers, copepods came last. Frequently predominated big species of cladocerans in both ponds. This conference paper was supported by project OPVK CZ.1.07/2.2.00/ THE POSSIBILITY OF USING CURCUMIN IN BEEKEEPING Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Lublinie Aleksandra Łoś, Milena Bajda Curcumin is a commonly used food dye and a popular ingredient in Indian cuisine. Using it as an additive in bee nutrition is aimed to improve the condition of the organism. Two groups were created: -control: 100 cages with 40 bees in each treated with sugar syrup (1:1) -curcumin: 100 cages with 40 bees in each treated with sugar syrup (1:1) with curcumin at the concentration of 3 µg/ml. Curcumin supplementation resulted in increased activities of: enzymatic antioxidants, biochemical markers, neutral proteases and protease inhibitors; increased concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose, but decreased activities of acidic and alkaline proteases. Honey bees treated with curcumin had lower global methylation levels than honey bees fed only with sugar syrup, which was also confirmed in their longer lifespans. It seems that curcumin has a positive effect on the organisms of honey bees, but the study needs to be repeated in the apiary.

16 THE CAUSES OF INCREASING POPULATION OF EUROPEAN WILD BOAR (SUS SCROFA) IN POLAND AND METHODS OF REDUCTING DAMAGE IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES Martyna Małopolska, Emilia Zbrożek, Ryszard Tuz The game management requires a huge efforts to maintain the balance of ecosystems. For several years the population of European wild boar is still increasing. There is an intensified occurrence of wild boars in whole Poland, often in unnatural environment for them (fields, cities et.). As a consequence, there is an increasing problem with agricultural damages. The aim of this study is to indicate reasons for the Sus scrofa population growth and to review methods which are used to prevent damage to agricultural crops. The data for analysis were obtained from Research Station of the Polish Hunting Association in Czempiń. It was found the huge amount of agricultural lands and the diversity of cultivated plants has a significant impact on high increase in wild boars population. They are willing to substitute food available in the forest on the high-energy feed, which can be easily found in the fields. THE EFFECT OF GREENLAND NUTRIA AGE ON THE HISTOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF PELT QUALITY Marta Nabożny, Anna Natanek, Małgorzata Piórkowska, Małgorzata Świątkiewicz Instytut Zootechniki Państwowy Istytut Badawczy The aim of the study was to evaluate the development of nutria coat including the histology of skin and hair follicles. The skin samples for histological investigation were collected from female Greenland nutria, monthly, from the ventral and dorsal part of 3-9 months old animals. It was observed that area of tufts, number of clusters and down hair inside of tufts increased with age. The thickness and length of cover and down hair and the cortex area increased but medulla area decreased with age. Increasing distances between tufts were noted with age. Length of hairs, tufts area and hair number depended also on part of the body and were more favourable on dorsal part. The back coat characterized of thicker cover hair. The obtained findings lead to conclusion that characteristics of nutria hair coat are changing with age and depend on the body region. The most beneficial results of coat quality were observed between 6th and 7th month.

17 EXPRESSION OF PROSTAGLANDINS IN PLACENTOMA AND CORPUS LUTEUM OF PREGNANT HINDS OF RED DEER (CERVUS ELAPHUS) PRELIMINARY RESULTS Polska Akademia Nauk w Olsztynie Agata Szczepańska, Anna Korzekwa, Zygmunt Giżejewski Prostaglandins (PG)s are synthesized from Arachidonic Acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases: PGES and PGFS. PGs regulate the uterine and ovarian functions both in the estrous cycle as well in pregnancy. It s role in reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized. Generally, regulation of reproductive processes in Cervidae is almost unknown but noteworthy because some species of this family are valuable in view of the meat production and trophies. The aim of this study is comparison of mrna expression (RealTime PCR) for PTGS2, PGES and PGFS in placentoma and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds (3-4 year old, circa 100 day of pregnancy, N=4). The highest expression of these enzymes was observed in the part of placentoma adjacent to the uterus- caruncle then in the part of placentoma adjacent to the fetuscotyledon, whereas the lowest expression of enzymes was evaluated in corpus luteum (P<0,05). Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during maintenance of pregnancy in red deer females. IDENTIFICATION OF MICROBIOLOGICAL PATHOGENS IN MUTE SWAN POPULATION OF PONDS IN WROCŁAW, POLAND. Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu Marta Krawiec, Alina Wieliczko Mute swan Cygnus olor is one of predominant species in wild bird population of many ponds in Wrocław. Swans contribute to the fecal indicator burden in sands around the ponds, which, once transported to waters, may result in water quality failures. The importance of these contamination sources must not be overlooked when considering the impact of poor sand and water quality on human health, especially of people that feed swans and spend their time at the pond side.the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of selected bacteria: Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp,chlamydia spp. E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. in the Mute swan populations of 3 ponds in Wrocław. At the time of ringing procedure of swans, during spring 2013 and 2014, fecal and oral samples from 41 alive individuals (including three dead found swans),were collected The prevalence of bacteria were tested in all of them. All of examined fecal samples were E.coli positive (100%), seventeen fecal samples were Enterococcus positive (41, 5%), None Salmonella strain was detected but DNA of Salmonella was reported in three fecal samples (7,3%). Staphylococcus strains were detected in fourteen of oral samples. DNA of Chlamydia was detected only in one (2,4%) dead Mute swan. Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of every bacterial isolate was performed. Mute swans from Wrocław pond populations might be a reservoir of zoonotic pathogens.

18 IDENTIFICATION OF SELECTED PHOSPHOPROTEINS OF STALLION EJACULATE STORED IN THE LIQUID STATE. Katarzyna Mietelska, Paweł Wysocki, Marzena Mogielnicka-Brzozowska, Karolina Wasilewska, Władysław Kordan Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie The aim of the experiment was to identify phosphoproteins isolated from seminal plasma and sperm extracts collected from 10 stallions in breeding and non-breeding seasons. Isolated phosphoproteins were electrophoresed on 12% SDS-PAGE gel. Polyacrylamide gel fragments containing selected fractions were cut out and hydrolyzed using trypsin. Prepared samples were identified using mass spectrometry. The results were compared with the protein sequence database in the MASCOT application. The molecular weight of isolated phosphoproteins was in the range 16,9 to 87,0 kda. Identified proteins showed similarity to: paladin, endoplasmin, α s-casein, calreticulin, myosin-9-like and caspase-13-like proteins, Grp94 with AMP-pnp bound, HSP90 β member1, cytochrome b-c1 complex, prostate specific antigen, kallikrein, equine serum albumin. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIET OF RABBITS DOES DURING PREGNANCY ON THE GROWTH RESULTS AND SLAUGHTER VALUE OF OFFSPRING. Michał Kmiecik The subject of this study was to examine influence of rabbits does different feeding during pregnancy period on the results of growth and slaughter value of young rabbits.females from group A (2 pc.) were fed traditional diet (wheat, oats, maize, carrots, meadow hay), and group B (2 pc.) was fed commercial pellet. Offspring does group A was 11 pieces, in group B was 12 pieces. Offspring from both groups were kept and fed in the same way (traditional feeding). After 134 days of life rabbits had been slaughtered, dissected and slaughter traits were collected. We found that body weight before slaughter rabbits group A was 2058g, and group B 2123g, respectively, while warm and cold carcass weight were 941g and 1028g (group A) 917g and 997g (group B), respectively. Based on the results of this study it was concluded that diet of rabbits does during pregnancy period had a long-term effects on the growth and slaughter results of the offspring. THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE DOG IN CHILDREN EDUCATION. Zenon Podstawski, Monika Stefaniuk, Bogusława Długosz Dog Therapy enhances emotional and physical development of children and can be adapted to individual requirements and specific disorder. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of dog's

19 presence on child development participating in dog therapy sessions. For purposes of the study a questionnaire with 21 closed questions has been prepared. 26 questionnaires were analyzed, 16 filled by carers of children and 10 by professionals. Obtained results indicate that dog plays a key role in child therapy. Furthermore, presence of animal motivate juveniles toward work and made them more rewarding for terms of enjoyment, children much easier and faster assimilated the knowledge and perform exercises. Moreover, contact with dog influences mental balance and physical wellbeing of patients. THE EFFECTS OF 4-NONYLPHENOL ON MOUSE NEOCORTICAL CELLS IN PRIMARY CULTURE IN VITRO Instytut Zootechniki Państwowy Instytut Badawczy Paulina Szczurek, Małgorzata Kajta 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) is a xenobiotic structurally similar to estrogens, which is able to disrupt endocrine functions in organism and is classified as Endocrine Disrupting Chemical. Only a few studies suggest that 4-NP may have a detrimental effect on the nervous system, resulting in disruption of neural development and impairment of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic and apoptotic effects of 4-nonylphenol on the mouse embryonic neocortical cells in primary cultures on different days in vitro (DIV). Cells were exposed to 4-NP (1, 5 and 10 μm) and the activities of caspase-3 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured after 14 hours of exposure on 2, 7 and 12 DIV. This study demonstrated that 4-NP induced the concentration-dependent increase in caspase-3 activity and LDH release from damaged cells. The most sensitive to 4-NP-induced effects were the cells on 2 and 7 DIV, which suggest that 4-NP is especially dangerous for neuronal cells at early stages of development. Obtained results showed the apoptotic effects of 4-NP and pointed to caspase-3 as an enzyme, which is involved in response of neuronal cells to exposure to organic pollutants. IMPACT OF ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION METHOD ON SUPEROVALTION RATE IN OLKUSKA EWES Joanna Grygier, Maciej Murawski, Tomasz Schwarz, Dorota Zięba-Przybylska The aim of the study was to evaluate an efficacy of superovulation treatment (single dose of 500 IU ecg following six decreasing doses of 200 mg FSH), preceded by two techniques of estrus synchronization. Experiment was conducted during breeding season, on 16 prolific Olkuska ewes, divided into 2 equal groups and subjected to synchronization pretreatment with vaginal sponges of 45 mg cronolone (Chronogest) - Group 1, or silicone vaginal insert of 0.3 g progesterone (CIDR ) Group 2. After superovulation treatment ewes were introduced to harem mating, following laparoscopic examination of ovaries 6 days later. Ovulation rate (defined as a number of corpora lutea in ovaries) in Group 1 (21.25±4.5) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in Group 2 (13.25±6,2 ).

20 To conclude, the use of Chronogest method to synchronize estrus as pretreatment of superovulatory protocol in Olkuska ewes seems to allow higher ovulation rate compared to CIDR technique. IN VIVO EFFECTS OF TCDD, PCB 126 AND PCB 153 ON STEROID HORMONES LEVELS IN THE BLOOD PLASMA OF CHICKEN (GALLUS DOMESTICUS) Dorota Katarzyńska, Maria Mika, Andrzej Sechman The goal of this investigation was to compare the effects of TCDD and two different PCB congeners (PCB 126, PCB 153) administration on concentration of steroid hormones, i.e. estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and progesterone (P4) in the blood plasma of egg laying chickens. All investigated xenobiotics decreased E2 levels in the bood plasma of chickens (p<0.05). The maximal effect was found at 48 h following their injection. PCBs increased P4 concentration in chicken plasma at 24 h after injection while at 48 h its level was decreased. In respect to TCDD, the similar positive effect was observed at 24 h, however, P4 concentration was still elevated at 48 h following its injection. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased T concentration but in contrast to E2 the maximal effects were observed after 24 h following their injection. These results suggest that TCDD and PCBs significantly affects synthesis and/or secretion of steroid hormones in the chicken ovary. Supported by: DS 3243/KFiEZ/ KM1 ALLELE FREQUENCY ASSOCIATED WITH TOBIANO WHITE SPOTTING PATTERN IN HUCUL HORSES. Instytut Zootechniki PIB Marta Pasternak The tobiano is one of the white spotting patterns in horses, that is characterized by white limbs and large white patches crossing the dorsal midline. It is present in many breeds, especially in APH but also in Huculs. Previous researches revealed an association of KM1 allele (with MspI restriction site) with tobiano pattern in horses. The objective of this research was to determine a frequency of KM1 allele and its association with tobiano pattern in Huculs. 135 Hucul horses were selected for PCR- RFLP test checking allelic variant. 53,9% of solid colored horses were homozygotes KM0, 38,2% were heterozygotes KM0/KM1 and 7,9% were homozygotes KM1. By contrast, there were no homozygotes KM0 in tobiano Huculs, 70,8% heterozygotes KM0/KM1 and 29,2% homozygotes for KM1 allele. It confirms an association (p<0,001) of KM1 allele with tobiano spotting pattern in this horse breed. Frequency of KM1 allele was: 0,27 for solid colored and 0,65 for tobiano patterned Huculs.

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