Why are Carlson FISH OILS (and Calamari Oils) important for me?

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2 The Eskimo Paradox Years ago, scientists were perplexed with the healthy arteries of the Greenland Inuit (Eskimo) population. Although their diet was rich in fatty foods such as salmon, whale, and seal meat, they had healthy hearts. The enigma soon unraveled as scientists began to understand the importance of DHA & EPA, the omega-3 components in fish oils. Omega-3 oils are considered important nutrients that support and maintain the integrity of healthy cells. DHA and EPA are recognized in today s scientific research as vital nutrients for promoting healthy cardiovascular, brain, nerve, vision, joint, skin, and immune systems. Because of their unique and vital functions, our bodies require DHA and EPA for optimal health. 2

3 Why are Carlson FISH OILS (and Calamari Oils) important for me? They aid in our well-being by promoting & supporting: Cardiovascular Health DHA and EPA help maintain a healthy and stable heartbeat. DHA and EPA help maintain blood vessel health to support circulation. DHA and EPA may support artery wall elasticity. Dietary intake of EPA and DHA is now being recognized as a safe and effective method for maintaining healthy triglyceride levels. Brain and Nerve Function As a vital component of our brain tissue and neurons, DHA supports cognitive function. By improving membrane fluidity, DHA may help support nerve transmission processes. Increased levels of DHA in the brain may serve to protect and enhance the lifespan of neurons. Healthy Vision DHA is found in substantial amounts in the retina and is important for normal vision. Immune System Health DHA and EPA are needed for balanced eicosanoid formation, which supports balanced and healthy immune responses. Healthy Joints and Movement DHA and EPA support healthy joints and comfortable movement by supporting healthy physiological processes. Radiant, Healthy Skin DHA and EPA can keep skin healthy, vibrant, and supple. 3

4 DHA DocosaHexaenoic Acid EPA EicosaPentaenoic Acid ALA Alpha-Linolenic Acid What is Omega-3? Omega-3 is the name of a type of fat that is found in oil-rich fish and some plant oils and is also known as n-3. They are from the family of good fats - PolyUnsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) that are not only beneficial for health, but are essential in the diet. The most effective omega-3 s are EPA (EicosaPentaenoic Acid) and DHA (DocosaHexaenoic Acid). How are Omega-3 Oils Unique? Because of their unique structure, omega-3's have important and unique functions in our bodies. Both DHA and EPA are involved in healthy cardiovascular systems, immune processes, and help support the formation of healthy prostaglandins. DHA is a vital component of the retina, brain and neurons. Fish oils supply omega-3 fatty acids and are especially high in DHA and EPA. Some vegetable oils contain ALA, but do not contain DHA or EPA. The American Diet is Low in DHA & EPA The typical American diet is high in saturated fats from meat products. However, it is low in fish and calamari, and thus omega-3 oils. It has been estimated the average American consumes an inadequate amount of DHA and EPA. Vegetarian diets tend to be particularly low in DHA and EPA because of the absence of DHA and EPA in all vegetables. Vegetarians must rely on their body s limited ability to convert ALA (Alpha Linolenic Acid) into DHA and EPA. 4

5 Why are Fish Oils Preferable to Flax? DHA and EPA can be supplied by fish and calamari, or our bodies can make small amounts of them from alpha linolenic acid (ALA) when it is in the diet. While flax and soybeans are a wonderful source of ALA, a study comparing flax and fish oils showed that subjects given flax oil over a 4-week period did NOT have increased blood levels of DHA. It seems rather perplexing that significant dietary increases in ALA did not increase blood levels of DHA. Why? The reason is that converting ALA to DHA is very slow due to the body s limited availability of a special conversion enzyme called delta-6-desaturase. Yet, subjects who were given fish oils bypass any need for extra conversion and subjects had immediate benefits available. How do Flaxseed and Fish/Calamari Oils differ? Fish and calamari oils supply EPA and DHA, which have important healthy benefits. Some fish oils also supply ALA. The only omega-3 that flaxseed oil supplies is ALA. Even when large amounts of ALA are consumed, our bodies can only convert small amounts of ALA into even smaller amounts of EPA and DHA. This process can only occur when sufficient enzymes are present. Since the conversion process is slow and limited, fish and calamari oils are chosen over flaxseed oil. Are all Omega-3 s Essential? Scientists define essential fatty acids as those that cannot be produced in the body in any amount. EPA and DHA are required by our bodies. They are not classified as essential fatty acids because ALA can be converted to small amounts of EPA and then to DHA when sufficient converting enzymes are present. However, this conversion is slow and limited. Therefore, obtaining EPA and DHA directly from the diet is important. Are Omega-6 s and Omega-9's Abundant in Foods? Most people easily obtain abundant omega-6 fatty acids from the vegetable oils in their diet. Omega-9's are also widely available in dietary fats and are not essential for human nutrition. In contrast, adequate and healthy amounts of omega-3's are not as widely distributed in vegetable oils and animal meats. 5

6 Which Fish Oils Contain Vitamins A and D? Vitamins A and D are widely recognized as essential nutrients in adults and children. Cod liver oil naturally contains vitamins A and D as the oil is from the liver of the fish, rather than the body oil. What is the Natural Form of Vitamin A in Cod Liver Oil? Vitamin A palmitate (retinyl palmitate) naturally occurs in cod liver oil. Humans and animals store vitamin A in their bodies in the form of vitamin A palmitate. Carlson Cod Liver Oil supplies these naturally occurring forms of vitamins A & D. What are the Recommended Intakes of Fish and Calamari Oils? Most guidelines for fish oil supplements are based on the amount of the important omega-3 s, EPA and DHA. Recommended intakes of EPA and DHA have not been officially established. However, medical groups have provided some guidelines. Adequate intakes of omega-3 s from fish oil for healthy adults: Fatty Acid Amount/Day (2000 kcal diet) DHA and EPA 0.65 g = 650 mg DHA to be at least* 0.22 g = 220 mg EPA to be at least 0.22 g = 220 mg *For pregnant and lactating women, ensure 300 mg of DHA per day. Workshop on the Essentiality and Recommended Dietary Intakes for Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Simopoulos, M.D., The National Inst. of Health. April 7-9, The American Heart Association has made this recommendation: At least 2 servings of fish per week are recommended to confer cardioprotective effects. Two, four-ounce servings of salmon contain approximately 3 grams (3,000 mg) total of EPA and DHA. AHA Dietary Guidelines. Kraus and others. Circulation 2000; 102: The best time to take fish or calamari oil is with meals. 6

7 Does the Term Pharmaceutical Grade Have Any Meaning Related to Quality? No! Pharmaceutical grade is a term used as a marketing strategy for selling fish oils. Any company selling fish oils can put this term on their label or into product literature, regardless of their quality. The term by itself is ambiguous - there are no defined standards for using the term pharmaceutical grade in the marketing of fish oil. What is Molecular Distillation? Distillation is a process whereby a liquid mixture is heated and the vapors are condensed and collected as separated liquids. Molecular distillation, also known as short path distillation, is a process using low temperatures with low vacuum pressure for the separation and collection of different components in fish oils. Molecular distillation can be, but is not always, a process for the removal of contaminants. Does the Term Molecularly Distilled Have Any Meaning Related to Quality? Molecular distillation is one of many processes that may be used in the separation, concentration and purification steps of preparing fish oils. The process itself does NOT guarantee the quality of fish oil. However, some companies use the term molecularly distilled as a quality statement for marketing fish oils. When performed under appropriate parameters, molecular distillation can be a useful purification step for fish oils. However, it does not guarantee potency or purity. Does Carlson Laboratories Use Molecular Distillation? Yes. Molecular distillation, when desirable, is used in the purification and concentration steps of our fish oil products. 7

8 How are Carlson Fish Oils Processed? There are several steps required in the processing and purification of Carlson fish oils. Fresh oil is protected from oxidation throughout the processing steps. Controlled temperature washing and mixing using steam and vacuum to remove moisture and impurities. Oil is deacidified to remove unwanted free fatty acids. Molecular distillation is used to separate individual oil components, and to purify the oil, when appropriate. Oil is cooled and filtered of solid fats. Natural absorbents remove impurities. The oil is tested and re-purified if necessary. Vitamin E, other antioxidants, and/or natural flavor are added as specified. Final mixing occurs. Oil is bottled in Norway with a nitrogen flush for maximum freshness. Finished product is tested to ensure quality. 8

9 Why Are Carlson Fish Oils The Very Finest? Since the 1980's, the Carlson family has been visiting Norwegian fish oil plants, selecting only the finest fresh Norwegian oils produced from deep, unpolluted, cold-water fish. We pledge to continue monitoring our Norwegian fish and calamari oil manufacturing and to continue with extensive independent testing to assure Carlson Fish Oils are only the finest. In addition, natural vitamin E is added to prevent oxidation of the fish and calamari oil, and to preserve freshness. Carlson Liquid Fish and Calamari Oils are bottled in Norway to ensure maximum freshness. On each Carlson Liquid Fish Oil Label, you will find: Bottled in Norway for Maximum Freshness Carlson Fish Oil products are sent to an independent FDA-registered U.S. laboratory for analysis. In addition to assaying to assure label amounts of EPA and DHA, several other quality tests are performed including freshness and purity tests. 1) Two separate tests are performed to ensure the freshness of all Carlson Fish Oils. 2) All of Carlson Fish Oil products are tested and found to be free of detrimental levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, PCB's and 28 other contaminants. 3) Tests are performed on the finished product and are therefore a direct representation of product quality. Freshness, Potency and Purity GUARANTEED Quality Assured on Every Carlson Fish Oil Label: This product is regularly tested (using AOAC international protocols) for freshness, potency and purity by an independent, FDA-registered laboratory and has been determined to be fresh, fully-potent and free of detrimental levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, PCB s and 28 other contaminants. 9

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