aneb Perfekt perfektně.

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2 aneb Perfekt perfektně. 2013

3 se v angličtině nazývá Present Perfect, tedy Přítomný perfekt. Patří k časům přítomným, ačkoliv se jistě nejedná o klasický přítomný čas tak, jak jsme zvykĺı z češtiny. jistým způsobem spojuje minulost a přítomnost. Podívejme se na jeho tvoření: HAVE + V + ed (3. tvar) V ed3 She HAS never PLAYED chess.

4 Funkce předpřítomného času má následující funkce: 1 děj proběhl a skončil v minulosti (jednou nebo vícekrát) 2 děj začal v minulosti a pokračuje do přítomnosti 3 děj začal a skončil v minulost, ale má následky v přítomnosti

5 Děj proběhl a skončil v minulosti Pomocí Předpřítomného času můžeme vyjádřit děj, který proběhl a skončil v minulosti, jako například a chápeme ho takto: děj proběhl a skončil v minulosti tato minulost je neurčitá, tzn. chybí přesný údaj často je tímto dějem ovlivněná i přítomnost

6 Příklady 1 Jim has been to Paris. 2 Kelly has read Catcher in the Rye. 3 My dad has travelled the States. 4 Dolly Parton has recorded several albums. 5 Joshua has not eaten Thai food.

7 Děj začal v minulosti a pokračuje do přítomnosti Jestliže potřebujeme vyjádřit trvání děje od určitého bodu v minulosti do přítomnosti (ted ), použijeme také Předpřítomný čas. Pomocí předložek since a for vyjádříme počátek, nebo délku průběhu děje. Počátek děje vyjádříme konkrétním časovým údajem v minulosti (1977, last week) nebo vedlejší větou v minulém čase. Since I started repairing the heating, the room has been cold.

8 Příklady 1 Tim has studied English for three years. 2 Jelly has spoken German for all her life. 3 Dee has slept well since she started taking sleeping pills. 4 Holly Darton has believed in God since Joseph has not spoken to me for two days.

9 Děj začal a skončil v minulosti, ale má následky v přítomnosti také používáme v případě, že minulý děj zanechal následek, který je pro přítomnost důležitý. Tento následek nemusí být přímo zmíněn, ale z kontextu ho vytušíme. Z této věty vyplývá, že 1 Monika vychladila víno. 2 To víno je ted chladné.

10 Příklady 1 The taxi has arrived. 2 I have not done the homework. 3 I have lost my keys. 4 I have learnt the new words. 5 I have washed my car.

11 Cvičení 1 Převed te věty na předpřítomný čas 1 John survives the attacks. 2 William writes beautiful songs. 3 Nick becomes sick. 4 Lenny loses a penny. 5 Claire does not play fair.

12 Řešení 1 Převed te věty na předpřítomný čas 1 John has survived the attacks. 2 William has written beautiful songs. 3 Nick has become sick. 4 Lenny has lost a penny. 5 Claire has not played fair.

13 Srovnání s minulým časem Některé funkce obou časů se mohou zdánlivě překrývat. Například tehdy, když děj proběhne a skončí v minulosti. Viz Minulý čas použijeme tehdy, chceme-li vyjádřit konkrétní dobu v minulosti, odpovídáme na otázku Kdy? Předpřítomný použijeme tehdy, chceme-li dát důraz na to, že se to vůbec stalo konkrétní čas není zajímavý.

14 Srovnání s minulým časem Minulý čas dále použijeme tam, kde je již minulost definitivně uzavřená a ted nebo v budoucnu již nemůže dojít k žádné změně. nám říká, že dosud to tak bylo, ale může to v budoucnu být jinak. 1 W. A. Mozart wrote several operas. (= Mozart is dead and never will write anything else.) 2 Springsteen has written quite a lot of songs. (= And he can still write more.)

15 Srovnání s přítomným časem Některé věty jsou v češtině běžně vyjadřovány časem přítomným, ale v angličtině musíme použít čas předpřítomný. 1 umí vyjádřit délku od minulosti do ted, pokud toto potřebujeme nic jiného nám nezbývá. 2 Přítomný čas toto vyjádřit neumí, ale naznačuje, že se jedná o dlouhodobý stav nebo dlouhodobě trvající (či opakující se) děj.

16 Cvičení 2 Minulý nebo předpřítomný 1 Last night I (lose) my keys I had to call my flatmate to let me in. 2 I (lose) my keys - can you help me look for them? 3 I (visit) Paris three times. 4 Last year I (visit) Paris. 5 I (know) my great grandmother for a few years - she died when I was eight. 6 I (know) Julie for three years - we still meet once a month.. 7 I (play) hockey since I was a child - I m pretty good!. 8 She (play) hockey at school but she didn t like it. 9 Sorry, I (miss) the bus - I m going to be late. 10 I (miss) the bus and then I (miss) the aeroplane as well!.

17 Řešení 2 Minulý nebo předpřítomný 1 Last night I lost my keys I had to call my flatmate to let me in. 2 I have lost my keys can you help me look for them? 3 I have visited Paris three times. 4 Last year I visited Paris. 5 I knew my great grandmother for a few years she died when I was eight. 6 I have known Julie for three years we still meet once a month. 7 I have played hockey since I was a child I m pretty good!. 8 She played hockey at school but she didn t like it. 9 Sorry, I have missed the bus I m going to be late. 10 I missed the bus and then I missed the aeroplane as well!.

18 Cvičení 3 Přítomný nebo předpřítomný 1 Jim (smoke) for 25 years. 2 I (play) tennis every Tuesday since I was We often (go) to the cinema. 4 She (get up) at seven o clock since she started working. 5 At the weekend, we usually (go) to the market. 6 I (not travel) very often. 7 She (work) in a bank. 8 They (love) coffee since the trip to Brazil. 9 I (be) married for a long time. 10 I (like) mushrooms.

19 Řešení 3 Přítomný nebo předpřítomný 1 Jim has smoked for 25 years. 2 I have played tennis every Tuesday since I was We often go to the cinema. 4 She has got up at seven o clock since she started working. 5 At the weekend, we usually go to the market. 6 I don t travel very often. 7 She works in a bank. 8 They have loved coffee since the trip to Brazil. 9 I have been married for a long time. 10 I like mushrooms.

20 Literatura Obsah tohoto digitálního učebního materiálu je volně inspirován knihou Meaning and the English Verb od Geoffreye Leeche. LEECH, Geoffrey N. Meaning and the English verb. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2004, ix, 141 p. ISBN

21 Prohlášení Prohlašuji, že tento učební materiál je mým duševním vlastnictvím, včetně veškeré grafiky. Učební materiál byl vytvořen pomocí legálního software: Operační systém Archlinux Sázecí systém L A TEX 2ε Vektorový program Inkscape Mgr., 2013.

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