aneb Perfektní minulost.

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2 aneb Perfektní minulost. 2013

3 se v angličtině nazývá Past Perfect. Používáme jej tehdy, potřebujeme-li jasně vyjádřit, že nějaký děj proběhl ještě dříve než minulý děj, o kterém hovoříme. Podívejme se na jeho tvoření: HAD + V + ed (3. tvar) V ed3 She HAD never PLAYED chess.

4 Funkce předminulého času má následující funkce: 1 děj proběhl a skončil ještě před dějem v minulosti 2 děj začal v předminulosti a pokračuje do minulosti 3 děj začal a skončil v předminulosti, ale má následky v minulosti Má tedy podobné funkce jako předpřítomný čas, ale jsou posunuty o jednu časovou rovinu zpět.

5 Ilustrace předminulého času Pomocí předminulého času můžeme vyjádřit děj, který proběhl a skončil dříve než nastala minulost, jako například nebo děj, který začal dříve než v minulosti a pokračoval do minulosti

6 Použití 1 se používá téměř výhradně ve spojení s minulým časem a to ještě převážně v časovém souvětí. 2 Jinak totiž nemá opodstatnění a můžeme jej nahradit minulým časem. 3 Pamatujeme na pravidlo, že pokud dva děje probíhají jeden za druhým chronologicky, potom není nutné použít předminulý čas a použijeme minulý čas v obou případech: After I came home, I made some tea.

7 Příklady 1 I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. 2 I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. 3 Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times. 4 Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand? 5 She only understood the movie because she had read the book. 6 Kristine had never been to an opera before last night. 7 We had had that car for ten years before it broke down. 8 By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years. 9 They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years.

8 Cvičení 1 Doplňte předminulý čas 1 When I arrived at the cinema, the film (start). 2 She (live) in China before she went to Thailand. 3 After they (eat) the shellfish, they began to feel sick. 4 If you (listen) to me, you would have got the job. 5 Julie didn t arrive until after I (leave). 6 When we (finish) dinner, we went out. 7 The garden was dead because it (be) dry all summer. 8 He (meet) her somewhere before. 9 We were late for the plane because we (forget) our passports. 10 She told me she (study) a lot before the exam.

9 Řešení 1 Doplňte předminulý čas 1 When I arrived at the cinema, the film had started. 2 She had lived in China before she went to Thailand. 3 After they had eaten the shellfish, they began to feel sick. 4 If you had listened to me, you would have got the job. 5 Julie didn t arrive until after I had left. 6 When we had finished dinner, we went out. 7 The garden was dead because it had been dry all summer. 8 He had met her somewhere before. 9 We were late for the plane because we had forgotten our passports. 10 She told me she had studied a lot before the exam.

10 Cvičení 2 Spojte věty v časové souvětí 1 The grass was yellow. It did not rain all the summer. 2 The lights went off. We did not pay for electricity bill. 3 The children did not do their homework. They were in trouble. 4 They did not eat. We went to a restaurant. 5 We couldn t go into the concert. We did not bring our tickets. 6 She said. She was not in the UK before. 7 Julie and Anne did not meet. There was the party. 8 I did not have breakfast. He arrived. 9 He did not use before. I showed him how to use it. 10 You did not study for the test. You were very nervous.

11 Řešení 2 Spojte věty v časové souvětí 1 The grass was yellow because it had rained all the summer. 2 The lights went off because we had not paid for electricity bill. 3 The children had not done their homework so they were in trouble. 4 They had not eaten so we went to a restaurant. 5 We couldn t go into the concert because we had not brought our tickets. 6 She said that she had not been in the UK before. 7 Julie and Anne had not met before there was the party. 8 I had not had breakfast when he arrived. 9 He had not used before until I showed him how to use it. 10 You had not studied for the test, therefore you were very nervous.

12 Prohlášení Prohlašuji, že tento učební materiál je mým duševním vlastnictvím, včetně veškeré grafiky. Učební materiál byl vytvořen pomocí legálního software: Operační systém Archlinux Sázecí systém L A TEX 2ε Vektorový program Inkscape Mgr., 2013.

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