Luk aˇ s R uˇ ziˇ cka Pomocn a slovesa

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1 Pomocná slovesa

2 Přehled funkcí Leden 2013

3 Přehled funkcí 1 děje probíhající právě ted 2 děje probíhající, ale ne nutně právě ted 3 děje probíhající dočasně 4 budoucí použití (pevná dohoda)

4 Děje probíhající právě ted Děje, které probíhají právě ted, v okamžiku promluvy, jsou v angličtině popsány přítomným průběhovým. Aby v danou chvíli mohly probíhat, začínají dříve a končí později. Často se objevují časové výrazy (signální slova), které upřesňují, jak děj přesně probíhá. V tomto případě se objevují např.: now, right now at the moment

5 Pr ı klad The Slovak rafting team are testing a new boat. (Vidı me, z e slovensky ty m testuje lod pra ve ted.) Luka s Ru z ic ka Pr ı tomny pru be hovy

6 Další příklady Peter is reading a book now. It is raining in the mountains, but it s sunny here. Look, the girls are talking about Justin Bieber. She is watching a romance and crying. My father is listening to the radio. Do not disturb him.

7 Děje probíhající, ale ne nutně právě ted Některé děje mohou zůstat otevřené a neukončené, ačkoliv zrovna v tomto okamžiku neprobíhají. I v takovém případě se pro jejich vyjádření používá přítomný průběhový, protože vlastně stále probíhají, ačkoliv ne zrovna na tomto místě v tomto čase.

8 Pr ı klad The Slovak rafting team are testing a new boat. (Slovensky ty m sta le testuje c lun, ale v tuto chvı li hovor ı o svy ch pocitech.) Luka s Ru z ic ka Pr ı tomny pru be hovy

9 Další příklady Said at school: We are rehearsing a new song with my band. Said at work: We are decorating the flat. Said in the bus: I am reading a good book now. I definitely recommend it to you. Said on the theatre stage: Oh, I am cooking tea in the backstage. Said during walk: Our teacher is trying new teaching methods.

10 Dočasné děje nejenom informuje o dějích, které právě probíhají, ale zároveň naznačuje dočasné trvání takového děje. Lze předpokládat, že děj vyjádřený tímto časem bude v dohledné době končit. Mezi signální slova, použitá v této souvislosti, patří např.: today, this week, this month, this year these days, recently, nowadays

11 Pr ı klad This summer, the children are spending a lot of time kayaking. (Toto le to tra vı hodne c asu na kajaku, az le to skonc ı, skonc ı de ti take s kajakem.) Luka s Ru z ic ka Pr ı tomny pru be hovy

12 Další příklady Harry is studying very hard these days. We are writing a lot of tests this week. John is working in McDonald s this year. She is not eating anything today. Usually we go to school by train but this week we are going by bus.

13 Pevná dohoda Další použití přítomného průběhového odkazuje na budoucnost. Takto vyjádřený děj má význam pevné dohody informuje nás o tom, že jsme si něco už předem naplánovali a dohodli a neměli bychom to tedy již měnit. Tento význam lze předpokládat tehdy, je-li zároveň udán časový údaj pro budoucnost. To znamená, že použitá signální slova budou odkazovat do budoucnosti. tonight, this afternoon, this evening (musí odkazovat do budoucnosti) tomorrow, next day, next week, next year at 5 o clock (za předpokladu, že 5 hodin teprve bude)

14 Pr ı klad She is going to school for the first time next week. (Prvnı s kolnı den je dany a neme nny.) Luka s Ru z ic ka Pr ı tomny pru be hovy

15 Další příklady I can t come, we are going to London tomorrow. She is waiting for you at 10:30. Tomorrow all pupils are leaving school at noon. The band is performing here the day after tomorrow. We are writing a test next week.

16 Literatura Obsah tohoto digitálního učebního materiálu je volně inspirován knihou Meaning and the English Verb od Geoffreye Leeche. LEECH, Geoffrey N. Meaning and the English verb. 3rd ed. New York: Pearson/Longman, 2004, ix, 141 p. ISBN

17 Prohlášení Čestně prohlašuji, že obsah tohoto digitálního učebního materiálu je výhradně mým duševním vlastnictvím, včetně veškeré grafiky a použitých fotografií. Při zpracování byly použity následující legální programy: Operační systém Archlinux. Typografický systém L A TEX 2ε. Vektorový editor Inkscape. Bitmapový editor Gimp. c Mgr., 2013.

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