MASTER'S DEGREE EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES. Specialization. Mineral and Petroleum Resources (MPR)

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1 University of Rennes 1 Geosciences Rennes OSUR MASTER'S DEGREE EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Specialization Mineral and Petroleum Resources (MPR) Objectives and rationales of the Master's program

2 Aim: Research & Professional (R & P) 1 -Scientific and professional objectives of this specialization. There are two objectives for the MPR specialization of the Earth and Environmental Sciences Master's program: Provide priority training in Earth Sciences in the fields of competence covering hydrocarbons, mining resources and deep storage for waste, aggregates and geological mapping; Train researchers and teachers - researchers in Earth Sciences who are orientated towards resources. 2 - Organization chart of this specialization in terms of courses and credits. The Mineral and Petroleum Resources specialization was created by drawing from already existing courses and those shared with other specialties, primarily Earth Sciences, but also with Hydro3 and Systèmes Complexes. We also offer specific Mineral and Petroleum Resources courses in both M1 and M2. This specialization is based on the joint teaching of Earth Sciences and will allow students to acquire knowledge through specific modules targeted for people who plan to work in the field of resources. 3 Training aspects for and through research. The Mineral and Petroleum Resources specialization, particularly for the processes related to resource development or their characterization methods (exploration, production), will build upon the research and expertise of specialists in Earth Sciences at Geosciences Rennes: tectoniciens, petrologists, sedimentologists, geochemists, geophysicists, hydrologists. 4 Aspects of professional training and skills. The students who have completed the MPR specialization will have mastered theoretical and procedural knowledge in the following areas: In general: Mapping (terrain, aerial photographs, satellite images), Use of Geographic Information Systems (geomatics), Petrology (sedimentary, magmatic, metamorphic), Sedimentology Stratigraphic analysis of basins, Structural Tectonic analysis, Geomorphology, Geochemistry, Geochronology, Geophysical imaging, Possible methods. Specific to Mining and Petroleum Resources Exploration Production of mineral and petroleum resources, Metallogeny,

3 Ore-forming processes, Geostatistics, Well-logs, Seismic interpretations. 5 Continuing training and/or training/work experience system (Apprenticeship, professional training contract). The MPR specialization within the Earth and Environmental Sciences Master's program will be completely open to continuing training on two levels: - The entire Master's program, one or two years can be taken by persons outside the program as a certification course; Certain M1 (field studies) and M2 courses will be open as short-term internships (skills training) and will be set aside based on their schedule to comprise an intensive learning block. However, our type of training does not allow for the setting up of training/work experience. 6 -International relationships and exchanges. This new MPR course makes it possible for our students to train abroad, something that is consistent with our participation in the "Basin Master's Degree" European Master's program. Already, several of our students have taken part in internships overseas: internships in companies organized by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Faune du Québec and UQAT; internships at the University of Stellenbosch and University of Cape Town in South Africa. Moreover, we are active participants in the Erasmus program, not only via student exchanges but also through teaching assignments (e.g. Sedimentary Basins in Rome).

4 University of Rennes 1 Geosciences Rennes OSUR MASTER'S DEGREE EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Specialization Mineral and Petroleum Resources (MPR) General Organization of the Master's program

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6 Course descriptions - M1-1st semester Course title: EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH GEOPHYSICS Comparison between the originality of the Earth in the solar system and planetology Dynamics of the Earth's core and the magnetosphere Dynamics of the Earth's mantle as seen by seismic tomography and the geoid OUTER EARTH Climate Dynamics Ancient climates of the Earth The case of the Pleistocene Carbon Cycle INNER EARTH Mantle convection Plate kinematics The major orogens Course coordinator: François GUILLOCHEAU Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 60 hours Course Practicals Tutorials Project Internship Course title: TECTONIC SYSTEMS 1/ Learn the basic principals of the mechanics of geological materials and provide an introduction to mechanical instabilities at the origin of structures, from the scale of the mineral to that of the lithosphere. The role of the rheological stratification of the lithosphere on its mode of deformation will be studied in tutorials using analytical models and in lectures through the presentation of digital and analogue models. The difference between long-term and short-term rheology will also be discussed. 2/ Integrated approach, both geological and mechanical, of the deformation processes of the crust and lithosphere in extensional, compressional and transcurrent systems. A detailed analysis of orogenic convergence and extension processes will also be carried out during the lectures (geology/geophysics and modelling) and in the tutorials. 3/ Gain experience in geological and geophysical methods of analysis and tectonic modelling. 4/ Two days in the field will allow the students to understand the importance of acquiring structural data in order to constrain the tectonic processes at the scale of the lithosphere. Course coordinator: Jean-Pierre BRUN Teaching format: classroom + field; Teaching duration: 60 hours Lectures Practicals Tutorials Field Internship (2 days) Course title: SEDIMENTARY BASINS The main goal of this module is to train the participants in the analysis of sedimentary basins (petroleum, hydrogeology, waste storage, coal, etc.). For this purpose, at the end of this module, the students will be able to reconstruct the 3D geometry of sedimentary objects, from the basin to the reservoir using seismic tools, logging tools and field data. Secondly, certain academic applications will touched upon (quantification of

7 accommodation and fluxes), however they should be considered as an introduction to M2 (module). The following will be covered: The different types of sedimentary basins (extensional, compressional, intracratonic, etc.) The major depositional environments; sedimentary basins, climate and tectonics 3D geometry of basins (seismic interpretation, seismic stratigraphy and well-logs) Principles of sequence stratigraphy (correlations between wells and a stacking pattern) Stratigraphic digital modelling Fluids in the basins Three days of application in the field (sedimentary environments, stratigraphy, deformation, etc.) Course coordinator: Cécile ROBIN Teaching format: classroom + field; Teaching duration: 60 hours (4 days) Course title: MAPPING AND SPATIALIZATION OF INFORMATION Largely technical module aimed at learning the computer tools used in both the academic and professional world and which allow the acquisition, visualization (2D and 3D) and processing of georeferenced data. Much of this course is devoted to the use of these tools through the construction of projects and the use of data that either will be provided to the students or can be downloaded. Course content: Computer mapping tools (GIS): geodetic systems and projection systems, the major types of data in GIS (raster/vector), data attributes, data processing and making maps. Data acquisition and georeferencing data in the field by Differential GPS 3D representation and processing tools: GeoModellers. Application of all these techniques through computerized practicals and tutorials: carrying out GIS projects and using existing GIS projects. Acquisition and formatting of data for visualization in GeoModellers Project: building a GIS on a site and a theme determined with the student. Course coordinator: Benjamin GUILLAUME and Philippe STEER Teaching format: classroom + project; Teaching duration: 60 hours Personal Course title: TRE - TRS The goal is to introduce students to the business world and to job searching techniques and means of communication. This involves teaching students about the professional world and preparing them for their future career. The aim of this course is to make the student as autonomous as possible and to help them be successful in their future career. Specifically, it will emphasize the need to develop and enhance skills and expertise, and not just knowledge. Participants will learn how to write CVs and cover letters and will take part in mock job interviews. Course coordinator: Luc AQUILINA Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 24 hours * * 14 hours in a classroom + 10 hours allocated to SOIE (a Student Orientation and Employability service).

8 M1-1st and 2nd semesters Course title: MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE Skills: reference level B2 by the Council of Europe (Level 2 Higher Education Language Certificate) Objectives: Develop an autonomous learning approach. Acquire linguistic skills to be used for scientific purposes: (e.g.: preparation of a CV/cover letter, mock job interviews). Develop organizational skills for the purpose of sending information as well as both oral and written personal expression. Develop strategies for oral and written comprehension. Course coordinator: SCELVA (language learning) Teaching format: classroom + on-line; Teaching duration: 30 hours * *24 hours in a classroom + 6 hours allocated for self-learning, giving the students 24 hours of work. M1-2nd semester Course title: MINERAL AND ENERGY RESOURCES Give students an "economic" vision of Earth Sciences Provide students with basic knowledge in the fields of economic geology: useful materials, ore deposits, fossil fuels in order to educate students on the main exploration techniques. Ore-forming processes, Metallogeny (12 hours of lectures, 10 hours of tutorials) Materials (4 hours of lectures) Fossil fuels (10 hours of lectures and 6 hours of tutorials) 1 day in the field visiting mines (6 hours, equivalent to 1 day of tutorials) Course coordinator: Marc POUJOL Teaching format: classroom + field; Teaching duration: 48 hours Lectures Practicals Tutorials Project Field experience (1 day) Course title: FIELD PROJECT AND CASE STUDIES Carry out a synthetic field study based on a specific context Assess the mining or oil potential of an area from a field study Specific field study (10 days) focusing on a region with a mining and oil potential Summary of geological, geophysical and geochemical data Definition of an exploration zone Course coordinator: Marc POUJOL Teaching format: classroom + field + project; Teaching duration: 48 hours Lectures Practicals Tutorials Project Field experience 6 Personal 72 (12 days)

9 2 courses from among the following 3 courses: Course title: MAGMATISM AND METAMORPHISM Understand the petrogenetic processes and mechanisms of magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Master the basic petrological analysis techniques in order to interpret the evolution of the rocks. Magmatic and dynamic processes of magma. Geodynamic causes and consequences of magmatism. Production, extraction, mobilization, eruptibility. Operation of reservoirs (magma chambers, thermal/solutal convection, fractional crystallization, mixing, immiscibility, assimilation, etc.). Fragmentation and eruptive dynamics. Metamorphic processes: role of fluids, partial melting, reactions and equilibria, phase diagrams, geothermometry, geobarometry, reconstruction of the P-T-t evolution. Illustration of magmatic (plutonic and volcanic) and metamorphic phenomena in the field (field experience with reports). (2 days) Course coordinator: Pavel PITRA Teaching format: classroom + field; Teaching duration: 48 hours Lectures Practicals Tutorials Project Field experience (2 days) Course title: GEOLOGY OF EUROPE The map of Europe 1: Structure of the European lithosphere and mantle The Archaean and Proterozoic cratons and chains The Hercynian chain The Alpine chain The major European basins Geomorphology of Europe Course coordinator: François GUILLOCHEAU Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 48 hours Course title: GEOCHEMISTRY Geochemistry of radiogenic isotopes: tracing the process in different terrestrial reservoirs: Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Th-Pb and cosmogenic isotope systems isotopic tracing of the genesis of magmas erosion of the continents and isotopic signature of world rivers oceans: temporal and spatial evolution groundwater: Sr isotopes the use of cosmogenic isotopes to trace continental erosion Geochemistry of stable isotopes applied to water cycles (Philippe Boulvais) presentation of the water cycles (external/internal) geochemistry of stable isotopes (mainly H and O) in external and internal cycles: in precipitation, the oceans, hydrothermal activity, etc. Course coordinator: Anne Catherine PIERSON - WICKMAN Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 48 hours Presentations

10 4 courses from among the following 6 courses: Course title: MAGNETIC METHODS This course involves the study of the Earth's magnetic field from a global scale down to a local scale. Specifically, it will examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of external and internal fields and of anomalies. Magnetic surveying is discussed with regard to both its operational aspect (measurements, corrections) and its interpretative aspects. Elements of the Earth's magnetic field Spherical harmonic analysis of the magnetic potential Secular variation of the main field Geodynamo and origin of the main field Field of external origin Field of anomalies - Changes in magnetic anomaly maps Course coordinator: Annick CHAUVIN Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 24 hours 16 8 Course title: GRAVIMETRIC METHODS Fundamental principles of gravimetry for the study of the crust, mineral prospecting or archaeology. Gravitation attraction and potential - Poisson's Equation Tidal potential Gravimetric corrections - Bouguer Anomaly Transformation operators of the gravimetric field for data processing Isostasy The practicals will involve the use of measuring devices and the processing of data from case studies. Course coordinator: Frédérique MOREAU Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 24 hours Course title: ELECTRICAL METHODS Basic principles of electrical and electromagnetic exploration methods applied to subsurface imaging, hydrogeology and mineral exploration. For the electrical methods: direct current, induced polarization, self-potential and grounding methods. For the electromagnetic methods: reminder of Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic induction, the different exploration methods in diffusive low-frequency areas (VLF, etc.) and propagative high frequency areas (radar). The practicals will involve the use of measuring devices as well as data processing with the software currently used in the professional world. Course coordinator: Frédérique MOREAU Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 24 hours

11 Course title: SEISMIC METHODS Fundamental seismic principles and its exploration methods applied to the study of the crust, oil exploration and sub-surface imaging. The following will be covered: the elastic wave equation, the acquisition and processing of seismic reflection data and seismic tomography data. The practicals will involve the use of computers to process real data (filtering, deconvolution, migration, etc.). Course coordinator: Florence NICOLLIN Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 24 hours 16 8 Course title: FLUID RESERVOIRS AND CIRCULATIONS The objective of this course is to provide students with a description of the major surface fluid reservoirs in igneous and sedimentary environments (detrital and carbonate) and the main processes that take place. The first part of the course will focus on the definition of reservoirs and their geological and petrophysical qualities. The second part will focus on geophysical imaging tools for fluid circulations and on geochemical tracer methods used to characterize the interactions within the reservoirs. Lastly, the main environmental models will be quickly described. Through case studies involving a synthesis by the students (example of current or recent systems: Soultz-sous Forêt, Aspö in Sweden; or examples of ancient systems: Canada's Athabasca Basin, North Sea. etc.), the students will acquire a descriptive understanding of the reservoirs, the main processes involved and the modelling approaches developed. Through the analysis of these different examples, water, gas or oil reservoirs will be discussed. Course coordinator: Philippe BOULVAIS Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 24 hours Course title: GEOMORPHOLOGY AND SUPERFICIAL DEPOSITS Understand the genesis of reliefs and the associated superficial deposits; master the tools and techniques needed for geomorphological analysis and to characterize superficial deposits. In this module, superficial deposits are discussed in their geomorphological and climatic context and as palaeoenvironmental markers. The following points will be discussed in the course: Geophysical characterization and the dating of superficial deposits. Weathering, erosion and transport processes The control climate has on weathering, continental erosion and the genesis of superficial deposits History of France's topography; the major morphogenetic events responsible for the main superficial deposits encountered in France Geological and geophysical map of the superficial deposits Course coordinator: Philippe STEER Teaching format: classroom + field; Teaching duration: 24 hours (1 day) An internship is mandatory

12 Course title: PRACTICAL WORK EXPERIENCE The internship can take place in a mining or oil company or possibly in a laboratory. It will involve a study or research project within a company. It will last a minimum of two months. It will be validated by a written report and an oral defence before a jury. This will be used to judge the student's ability to interact with a professional team and to work on a problem and/or methodology and to question it. Course content: Field, literature or laboratory study carried out in a mining or oil company in a area with a mining and oil potential, by integrating all available data. This study will be supervised by someone from the host company and someone from the laboratory. Course coordinator: Cécile ROBIN and Philippe BOULVAIS Teaching format: internship; Teaching duration: 2 months 2 months M2-1st semester Course title: FIELD PROJECT AND CASE STUDIES Study of a mining or oil area; Proposal of study methods; Assessment of exploration zones. Course content Field study (6 days) in a region with a mining and oil potential, by integrating all available data. Course coordinator: Thierry NALPAS Teaching format: field study; Teaching duration: 36 hours Lectures Practicals Tutorials Project Field study 36 (6 days) Course title: ENGLISH AND SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION This course will help students with their English and learn communication techniques through discussions and scientific presentations. The aim of this module is to have the students present their CV in English as well as possible scientific results both orally and in writing. The students will carry out a debate on a scientific question. The students will improve their communication techniques by writing reports, learning how to write a scientific article and orally presenting results. Course coordinator: Kerry GALLAGHER Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 30 hours 6 24

13 7 courses from among the following 8 courses: Course title: MINERAL RESOURCES AND MINING SYSTEMS In the continuum of the courses given in M1, this module will focus on: (1) A case study (petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry) of world class deposits (2) Introduction to Geostatistics (3) Involvement of professionals in the field of mineral exploration. Course coordinator: Marc POUJOL Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 30 hours Course title: ENERGY RESOURCES AND PETROLEUM SYSTEMS This module will focus on the characterization of natural energy reserves and exploration methods of energy resources (petroleum, gas, coal). Course content: Concept of petroleum systems - major petroleum provinces Case study of extensional basins (rift, margin) and compressional basins (foreland) Principle of the study of reservoirs: characterization of primary geometries and diagenetic evolution; characterization of fracturing, the structure and porosity; fluid circulation modelling; estimation of reserves; methods of geophysical characterization. Course coordinator: F GUILLOCHEAU Teaching format: classroom + project; Teaching duration: 30 hours 30 personal Course title: SEISMIC INTERPRETATION WELL-LOG CORRELATIONS Train students in the methodological tools used for seismic interpretation, as seismic techniques were addressed in the second semester of year 1 of the Master's program. After a technical presentation on the logging tools, the students will learn methodological tools for well-log interpretation and correlation. Seismic interpretation, structural as well as sedimentary, in all types of basins. Creating a map from seismic data. Well-log interpretation and correlation. Personal project that includes the interpretation of subsurface data. Course coordinator: Thierry NALPAS Teaching format: classroom + project; Teaching duration: 30 hours personal Course title: DATING GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES Low-temperature (cosmogenic isotopes, fission track, (U-Th)/He) and high temperature geochronology (U-Pb, Ar-Ar, Sm-Nd, Re-Os, Pb-Pb), case studies, new frontiers in geochronology Course coordinator: Marc POUJOL

14 Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 30 hours Course title: MAGMATOLOGY Physical and chemical properties of magmas: thermodynamic models. Production, transport and emplacement of magmas and the related mineral resources: modelling of the main volcanic and plutonic processes Using natural cases, the students will envision how to carry out an experiment in the laboratory or using thermodynamic models to report observations. Interpret results from the model. Examine a real geological object to discuss the model's limitations. Course coordinator: Erwan HALLOT Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 30 hours (1 day) Course title: FROM DIAGENETIC FLUIDS TO METAMORPHIC ROCKS Understand how modern petrological and geochemical analysis techniques of minerals, rocks and fluids can be used in a wide range of geological environments in order to understand their formation as well as their economic potential. 1 - Phase equilibria in the rocks and calculation of their positions in P-T space. Influence of variations in the composition of rocks on the stability of minerals and the effects of interaction with fluids - metasomatic processes. P-T, P/T-X pseudosections. Applications - PT(X) trajectories 2 - Direct and indirect characterization methods. Mechanisms of fluid circulation and structural, petrological and geochemical consequences. As part of this course, students will critically read and present articles. Course coordinator: Pavel PITRA Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 30 hours Course title: MECHANICS OF THE LITHOSPHERE The objective is to compile state-of-the art knowledge on a current research topic in geodynamics, concerning either a well-known region, a specific process or methodology. Regardless of their subsequent education both during and after the M2 courses, participants will have the opportunity to see how modern scientists tackle questions on the dynamics of the lithosphere and the methods used to carry this research out. The first part of the course will be devoted to general aspects concerning the rheology of the lithosphere and the mechanical modelling of tectonic processes. The second part will focus on the subject/theme chosen for the year. A bibliographic database on the year's theme, which will be the same for all students, will be used to help the students begin their own personal work that will be concluded by a summary document and a public presentation followed by discussion-debate. Course coordinator: Jean Pierre BRUN Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 30 hours 30

15 Course title: DYNAMICS OF SEDIMENTARY BASINS This module will allow students to examine the most recent research themes based around an analysis of the sedimentary record, as archives of the evolution of the external and internal geodynamics of the Earth's history over long periods of time (the last 500 million years). This module will be based on a personal project carried out by each student on case studies, using teaching files provided by researchers. Tectonic sedimentation relationship Eustasy: quantifications, causes and impact on the sedimentary record Sedimentary budgets: quantifications and changes over geological time Ancient topography: characterization, evolution and related sedimentary systems Interactions between the Earth's sedimentary budgets, tectonics and climate Course coordinator: Cécile ROBIN Teaching format: classroom; Teaching duration: 30 hours 30 personal M2-2nd semester Course title: WORK EXPERIENCE Study or research internship in a mining or oil company; Integration of approaches and issues specific to the professional world; Search for pertinent documents in order to resolve a problem; Analysis of various data (industrial, bibliographical, etc.); Summary of results and proposal of a coherent model; Report writing; Oral presentation of results; Learning to work in a team; Respecting deadlines. Course description Integrated study (field, bibliography, laboratory, etc.) carried out in a mining or oil company on a particular problem in an area with mining or oil interest. The topic of the study can either be very operational or exploration based. This study will be supervised by someone from the host company and someone from the laboratory. Course coordinator: Thierry NALPAS and Marc POUJOL Teaching format: internship; Teaching duration: 6 months 6 months

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