# Chapter 5 Section 2 day f.notebook. November 17, Honors Statistics

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1 Chapter 5 Section 2 day f.notebook November 17, 2014 Honors Statistics Monday November 17,

2 1. Welcome to class Daily Agenda 2. Please find folder and take your seat. 3. Review Homework C5#3 4. Continue simulations 5. Tests, papers, grades and gradesheets. 6. Collect folders 2

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4 Honors Statistics Notes Quiz Chapter 5 Section 2 4

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9 OTL C5#3 homework assignment Page 301: 11,12, 23, 24 A Skip 12 Finish reading notes Chapter 5 Section 2 pages

10 Exercise 5.11 Playing "Pick4" page 301 Playing Pick 4 The Pick 4 games in many state lotteries announce a four digit winning number each day. You can think of the winning number as a four digit group from a table of random digits. You win (or share) the jackpot if your choice matches the winning number. The winnings are divided among all players who matched the winning number. That suggests a way to get an edge. (a) The winning number might be, for example, either 2873 or Explain why these two outcomes have exactly the same probability. There are 10,000 four digit numbers (0000, to 9999) each has the same probability of randomly occurring. Each are equally likely. (b) If you asked many people whether 2873 or 9999 is more likely to be the randomly chosen winning number, most would favor one of them. Use the information in this section to say which one and to explain why. How might this affect the four digit number you would choose? Most people would think that 2873 is more likely to be a random selection. Humans tend to see "runs" of numbers such as 9999 as not random. We don't expect to see the same number four times in a row. If you don't want to share the "winnings" then choose a number that seems "nonrandom" 10

11 Exercise 5.12 An Unenlightened gambler page 301 An unenlightened gambler (a) A gambler knows that red and black are equally likely to occur on each spin of a roulette wheel. He observes five consecutive reds occur and bets heavily on black at the next spin. Asked why, he explains that black is due by the law of averages. Explain to the gambler what is wrong with this reasoning. The wheel is not affected by what has occurred on the last spin. It has no memory, outcomes are independent. Reds and blacks will continue to be equally likely on each remaining spin. (b) After hearing you explain why red and black are still equally likely after five reds on the roulette wheel, the gambler moves to a poker game. He is dealt five straight red cards. He remembers what you said and assumes that the next card dealt in the same hand is equally likely to be red or black. Is the gambler right or wrong, and why? He is WRONG. Unlike the wheel, cards are affected by each card that is dealt. Removing a card changes the number of each color that is left in the deck. If five red cards are dealt then there are less red cards remaining in the deck and the probability of a red will decrease. 11

12 Exercise 5.23 Recycling page 302 Recycling Do most teens recycle? To find out, an AP Statistics class asked an SRS of 100 students at their school whether they regularly recycle. In the sample, 55 students said that they recycle. Is this convincing evidence that more than half of the students at the school would say they regularly recycle? The Fathom dotplot below shows the results of taking 200 SRSs of 100 students from a population in which the true proportion who recycle is There are quite a few samples that result in 55 students or more that say they recycle. (a) Explain why the sample result does not give convincing evidence that more than half of the school s students recycle. (meaning more than 50 students) Given that the true answer is 50% of students recycle the above distribution shows that taking a random sample size 200 from that (50%) population and obtaining an answer of 55 or more students that say they recycle is quite common. See above dotplot. (b) Suppose instead that 63 students in the class s sample had said Yes. Explain why this result would give strong evidence that a majority of the school s students recycle. There are only a very few samples that result in 63 students or more that say they recycle. Given that the true answer is 50% of students recycle the above distribution shows that taking a random sample size 200 from that (50%) population and obtaining an answer of 63 or more students that say they recycle is VERY UNCOMMON or unexpected. So either the sampler is "unlucky", doing something wrong or PERHAPS the percent of students that recycle is greater than 50%. See above dotplot. 12

13 Exercise 5.24 Brushing teeth, wasting water page 303 Brushing teeth, wasting water? A recent study reported that fewer than half of young adults turn off the water while brushing their teeth. Is the same true for teenagers? To find out, a group of statistics students asked an SRS of 60 students at their school if they usually brush with the water off. In the sample, 27 students said No. The Fathom dotplot below shows the results of taking 200 SRSs of 60 students from a population in which the true proportion who brush with the water off is There are quite a few samples that result in 27 students or less that say they brush their teeth with the water off. > a) Explain why the sample result does not give convincing evidence that fewer than half of the school s students brush their teeth with the water off. 27/60 = 0.45 Given that the true answer is 50% of students that brush their teeth with the water off, the above distribution shows that taking a random sample size 60 from that (50%) population and obtaining an answer of 45% or less students that say they brush there teeth with the water off is quite common. See above dotplot. There are no samples that result in 18 students or less that say they brush their teeth with the water off. (b) Suppose instead that 18 students in the class s sample had said No. Explain why this result would give strong evidence that fewer than 50% of the school s students brush their teeth with the water off. 18/60 = 30% Given that the true answer is 50% of students brush their teeth with the water off the above distribution shows that taking a random sample size 60 from that (50%) population and obtaining an answer of 18 or less students that say they brush their teeth with the water off is NOT EXPECTED. So either the sampler is "unlucky", doing something wrong or PERHAPS the percent of students that brush their teeth with the water off is less than 50%. See above dotplot. 13

14 Please place the following in your pocket folder: 1. your homework C5#3 (into folder) 2. any other homework papers into binder Please put your folders on the back shelf at the end of the class or as directed by your teacher 14

15 Matching probabilities Probability is a measure of how likely an event is to occur. Match each statement about an event with one of the probabilities that follow. (The probability is usually a much more exact measure of likelihood than is the verbal statement.) { 0, 0.01, 0.3, 0.6, 0.99, 1 } a) This event is impossible. It can never happen. 0 b) This event is certain. It will occur on every trial of the random phenomenon. c) This event is very unlikely, but it will occur once in a while in a long sequence of trials d) This event will occur more often than not

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22 0 Relative Frequency 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% SA A N D SD overall opinion 22

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26 66 Relative Frequency 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Relative Frequency 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% SA A N D SD Men Women 26

27 66 Relative Frequency 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Relative Frequency 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% SA A N D SD Men Women 27

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35 Probability model for the sum of two fair dice Sum of dice Probability

36 Flipping coins Imagine flipping a fair coin three times... Give a probability model for this chance process. List the sample space What is the probability of each outcome? What is the probability of two heads? 36

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39 Rule 1 Rule 2 Rule 3 Rule 4 Rule 5 39

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41 Randomly select a student who took the 2013 AP Statistics exam and record the student's score. Here is the probability model. Score Probability Show that this is a legitimate probability model. Find the probability that the chosen student scored 3 or better. Find the probability that the chosen student scored less than 5. 41

42 Explain why the events A and B are mutually exclusive Say in plain language what the event "A or B" is. What is P(A or B) If C is the event that the person chosen has normal cholesterol (below 200 mg/dl) what is P(C) = 42

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47 How do you want it - the crystal mumbo-jumbo or statistical probability? A Skip 43, 45 OTL C5#4 homework assignment USE PROPER NOTATION!!!! P(...) = Page : 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 51 Start reading notes Chapter 5 Section 3 pages

48 Chapter 5 Section 2 day f.notebook November 17, 2014 Exercise 5.39 Role playing games page 314 Role playing games Computer games in which the players take the roles of characters are very popular. They go back to earlier tabletop games such as Dungeons & Dragons. These games use many different types of dice. A four sided die has faces with 1, 2, 3, and 4 spots (a) List the sample space for rolling the die twice (spots showing on first and second rolls). dice (b) What is the assignment of probabilities to outcomes in this sample space? Assume that the die is perfectly balanced. Sum of spots Probability 48

49 Exercise 5.41 Role playing games page 315 Role playing games Refer to Exercise 39. Define event A: sum is 5. Find P(A). Sum of spots 2 Probability 1/16 P(5) = P(1,4) + P(2,3) + P(3,2) + P(4,1) = x 4 =

50 Exercise 5.43 Probability models page 315 Probability models? In each of the following situations, state whether or not the given assignment of probabilities to individual outcomes is legitimate, that is, satisfies the rules of probability. If not, give specific reasons for your answer. (a) Roll a 6 sided die and record the count of spots on the up face: P(1) = 0, P(2) = 1/6, P(3) = 1/3, P(4) = 1/3,P(5) = 1/6, P(6) = /6 + 1/3 + 1/3 + 1/6 + 0 = 1 so this is a legitimate assignment of probabilities (b) Choose a college student at random and record gender and enrollment status: P(female full time) = 0.56, P(male full time) = 0.44, P(female part time) = 0.24, P(male part time) = = 1.41 This is NOT a legitimate assignment of probabilities because the sum is greater than 1 (c) Deal a card from a shuffled deck: P(clubs) = 12/52,P(diamonds) = 12/52, P(hearts) = 12/52, P(spades) = 16/52. 12/ / / /52 = 52/52 = 1 This is a legitimate assignment of probabilities. 50

51 Exercise 5.44 Rolling a die page 314 Rolling a die The following figure displays several possible probability models for rolling a die. Some of the models are not legitimate. That is, they do not obey the rules. Which are legitimate and which are not? In the case of the illegitimate models, explain what is wrong 6/7 6/6 7/6 6 NOT YES NOT NOT 51

52 Exercise 5.45 Blood types page 315 Blood types All human blood can be typed as one of O, A, B, or AB, but the distribution of the types varies a bit with race. Here is the distribution of the blood type of a randomly chosen black American: (a) What is the probability of type AB blood? Why? P(AB blood) = 1 - P(not AB blood) = 1 - ( ) = =.04 (b) What is the probability that the person chosen does not have type AB blood? P(not AB blood) = 1 - P(AB blood) = 1 - (.04) = 0.96 (c) Maria has type B blood. She can safely receive blood transfusions from people with blood types O and B. What is the probability that a randomly chosen black American can donate blood to Maria? P(donate to Maria) = P( type O or type B)= =.69 52

53 Exercise 5.46 Languages in Canada page 315 Languages in Canada Canada has two official languages, English and French. Choose a Canadian at random and ask, What is your mother tongue? Here is the distribution of responses, combining many separate languages from the broad Asia/Pacific region: 7 > (a) What probability should replace? in the distribution? Why? P(other) = 1 - P(not other) = 1 - ( ) = =.09 > (b) What is the probability that a Canadian s mother tongue is not English? P(not ENGLISH) = 1 - P(ENGLISH) = 1 - (0.63) = 0.37 > (c) What is the probability that a Canadian s mother tongue is a language other than English or French? P(not ENGLISH and not FRENCH) = 1 - P(ENGLISH and FRENCH) = 1 - (0.85) =

54 Exercise 5.47 Education among young adults page 315 Education among young adults Choose a young adult (aged 25 to 29) at random. The probability is 0.13 that the person chosen did not complete high school, 0.29 that the person has a high school diploma but no further education, and 0.30 that the person has at least a bachelor s degree. (a) P(not high school) = 0.13 P(high school only) = 0.29 P(at least bachelor's degree) = 0.30 What must be the probability that a randomly chosen young adult has some education beyond high school but does not have a bachelor s degree? Why? P(some education but not a bachelor's degree) = 1 - ( ) (b) = = 0.28 What is the probability that a randomly chosen young adult has at least a high school education? Which rule of probability did you use to find the answer? Law of Complements P(at least high school education) = 1 - P(not high school) = =

55 Exercise 5.49 Who eats breakfast? page 315 Who eats breakfast? Students in an urban school were curious about how many children regularly eat breakfast. They conducted a survey, asking, Do you eat breakfast on a regular basis? All 595 students in the school responded to the survey. The resulting data are shown in the two way table below. 8 If we select a student from the school at random, what is the probability that the student is (a) a female? 275 P(female) = = (b) someone who eats breakfast regularly? 300 P(breakfast) = = (c) a female and eats breakfast regularly? (d) a female or eats breakfast regularly? OR 110 P(female and breakfast) = = P(female or breakfast) = = P(female or breakfast) = =

56 Exercise 5.51 Roulette page 316 Roulette An American roulette wheel has 38 slots with numbers 1 through 36, 0, and 00, as shown in the figure. Of the numbered slots, 18 are red, 18 are black, and 2 the 0 and 00 are green. When the wheel is spun, a metal ball is dropped onto the middle of the wheel. If the wheel is balanced, the ball is equally likely to settle in any of the numbered slots. Imagine spinning a fair wheel once. Define events B: ball lands in a black slot, and E: ball lands in an even numbered slot. (Treat 0 and 00 as even numbers.) > (a) Make a two way table that displays the sample space in terms of events B and E. > (b) Find P(B) and P(E). 18 P(black) = = > (c) Describe the event B and E in words. Then find P(Band E). > (d) Explain why P(B or E) P(B) + P(E). 20 P(even) = = What is the probability that the metal ball lands in a slot that is black and an even number? 10 P(black and even) = = > Then use the general addition rule to compute P(B or E). There are some slots that are black and even. These events are not mutually exclusive so we must be careful not to count the black and even slots twice. P(black or even) = = OR P(black or even) = =

### 4.19 What s wrong? Solution 4.25 Distribution of blood types. Solution:

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