1 Απομακρύνοντας τα εμπορικά οχήματα από το κέντρο της πόλης της Θεσσαλονίκης Ευστάθιος Μπουχουράς 1, Σωκράτης Μπάσμπας 2 1,2 Τομέας Συγκοινωνιακών & Υδραυλικών Έργων, Τμήμα Αγρονόμων & Τοπογράφων Μηχανικών, Πολυτεχνική Σχολή, Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης, Θεσσαλονίκη, Ελλάδα 1 2 Περίληψη Η πρόσφατη ανάπτυξη ενός μεθοδολογικού πλαισίου στα πλαίσια των ερευνητικών δραστηριοτήτων του Τομέα Συγκοινωνιακών & Υδραυλικών Έργων του Α.Π.Θ. για την υποστήριξη λήψης αποφάσεων αναφορικά με την βελτιστοποίηση συστημάτων αστικών οδικών εμπορευματικών μεταφορών, και η εφαρμογή του στην περιοχή του κέντρου κατέδειξε τη δυνατότητα εφαρμογής ενός εναλλακτικού τρόπου οργάνωσης και λειτουργίας του συστήματος. Η περιοχή του κέντρου της Θεσσαλονίκης καταλαμβάνει επιφάνεια περίπου 2,5 km 2 και φιλοξενεί σχεδόν κατοίκους. Οι κυρίαρχες χρήσεις γης αφορούν στην κατοικία, στο λιανικό εμπόριο και στην παροχή υπηρεσιών, καθιστώντας το κέντρο πολυσύχναστο προορισμό των κατοίκων της μητροπολιτικής περιοχής της Θεσσαλονίκης. Για την εφαρμογή του μεθοδολογικού πλαισίου πραγματοποιήθηκαν δύο ερευνητικές προσπάθειες με τη χρήση ερωτηματολογίων που αφορούσαν τόσο στους εκπροσώπους των εμπορικών επιχειρήσεων όσο και στους οδηγούς των εμπορικών οχημάτων. Σκοπός των ερευνών ήταν να προσδιοριστούν μεταξύ άλλων οι συνήθειες και τα προβλήματα που αντιμετωπίζουν οι έχοντες ρόλο στο σύστημα των αστικών οδικών εμπορευματικών μεταφορών. Τα αποτελέσματα από τις ερευνητικές προσπάθειες τροφοδότησαν με τα απαραίτητα δεδομένα το μεθοδολογικό πλαίσιο προκειμένου να εξετασθούν δόκιμες λύσεις για τη βελτιστοποίηση του συστήματος διανομής των εμπορευμάτων. Ως κυρίαρχη λύση προέκυψε η κατανομή της περιοχής του κέντρου σε ζώνες με κοινά χαρακτηριστικά, όπου η κυκλοφορία των εμπορικών οχημάτων θα απαγορεύεται. Στα όρια των ζωνών θα εγκατασταθούν μικροί αποθηκευτικοί χώροι (mini-warehouses) από όπου τα εμπορεύματα θα διανέμονται στους τελικούς παραλήπτες με τη χρήση οχημάτων φιλικών προς το περιβάλλον αλλά και τους κατοίκους (ηλεκτροκίνητα οχήματα, τρίκυκλα, ποδήλατα). Keywords: Αστικές Οδικές Εμπορευματικές Μεταφορές, Εμπορικά Οχήματα, ιανομή Εμπορευμάτων.
2 Removing the commercial vehicles from the center of the city of Thessaloniki Efstathios Bouhouras 1, Socrates Basbas 2 1,2 Department of Transportation & Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Rural & Surveying Engineering, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece 1 2 Abstract A methodological framework was recently developed in the framework of research activities of the Department of Transportation & Hydraulic Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki concerning a tool in order to enhance the way city logistics is organized and functions. In this paper a new approach is presented, based on the results of the implementation of the framework, in order to promote sustainable mobility regarding the distribution of goods in the Thessaloniki city center. The central area of the city of Thessaloniki of approximately 2,5 km 2 wide accommodates nearly residents. The area is mainly used for residential, commercial and service purposes. Two questionnaire based surveys took place in an effort to collect all the necessary data in order to be used as inputs to the methodological framework. The main idea is to exclude the commercial vehicles from the study area and replace them with environment friendly vehicles by restructuring the Urban Road Freight Transportation (URFT) system. The study area is divided to zones with common characteristics and miniwarehouses are placed in the borders of these zones in order to be used as the last link between the receivers of the goods and the carriers. From these mini-warehouses, the goods are distributed to their final destination using electrical vehicles, bicycles or tricycles. Keywords: Urban Road Freight Transport, Commercial Vehicles, Freight Distribution. 1. Introduction In order for a transportation system to become sustainable, it is important and necessary to examine how it is built and how it functions, and then to identify
3 its problems and propose solutions through the implementation of strategies and measures. Policies and measures for Urban Road Freight Transport sector aim at the dissolution of the problems that the sector creates, such as reducing the environmental aspects in order the residents to accept the activities of the sector, to increase the level of safety of the other users of the road network and to optimize operations and increase the efficiency of the sector (Bouhouras, 2011). Two (2) categories of policies and measures are distinguished for optimizing Urban Road Freight Transport systems: The specific policies and measures. The complex policies and measures. Basic parameter in the selection of measures and policies in order to optimize the organization and operation of Urban Road Freight Transport systems is to avoid copying the measures applied in other case studies in urban centers that experienced similar problems. The problems of Urban Road Freight Transport system in most cases are resulting from the interaction of three main pillars that constitute this (CITYFREIGHT Deliverable 6, 2001): The urban environment. The system used for the distribution of the goods. The stakeholders who are divided into two superclusters, representing the general public and the private sector. The purpose of a management system of transport systems is to provide the best conditions for the organization and operation of urban road freight transport systems. In fact, optimization is expressed by reducing data transport costs, both internal and external. In order to optimize the system certain policies and measures must be implemented. The concepts of policies and measures incorporate actions, restrictions, alternative proposals and plans. Recently, there is also need for a methodological framework of principles and regulations. At the same time policies and measure must address the effects of any interventions both in society and its individual subsets. 2. Prior Research A methodological framework was developed in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki through which its user will be able to face the Urban Road Freight Transport sector's problems and consequently to adopt and implement policies and measures. It is in fact a methodological framework whose structure is based on queries addressed to the person that will take the final decisions, in order to obtain access in a package of policies and measures that can address the sector s problems (Bouhouras, 2011). The proposed methodological framework, aims to link the problems of the Urban Road Freight Transport sector with the necessary policies and measures so that to achieve the optimization of his/her organization and the optimization of the way it operates. The methodology apart from the analysis of the international literature includes also:
4 Data collection surveys in the field and questionnaire based surveys in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. Implementation of the proposed methodolog gical framework in two Greek cities. The first step in the processs to understand how the Urban Road Freight Transport sector works is the presentation and analysis of all the stakeholders involved in the system, as shown in Figure 1 (Bouhouras, 2011). The methodological framework is developed in order to satisfy the needs of the users from public and private sector. It must be noted thatt the proposed methodological framework was primary developed in order to become a decision making support tool for a public sector user. Nevertheless a subsection is incorporated in order to cover the needs of a private sector user. Fig. 1. The stakeholders of the Urban Road Freight Transportatio on System The proposed methodological framework was used in the case of two Greek cities, the city of Katerini and the city of Thessaloniki. The city of Katerini was selected because of the necessary data availability. More specifically a research project (AUTH, 2009) was conducted in 2007 by the Department of Transportation & Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Rural & Surveying Engineering, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. In this research project an alternative scenario was developed aiming at the promotion of sustainable mobility. In this scenario the construction of an extended network of pedestrian roads and woonerven was proposed. This scenario which includes among other things, a specific Urban Road Freight Transportation policy was examined and evaluated with the traffic simulation and assignment model SATURN. The proposed scenario
5 was analyzed also using the proposed methodological framework and the results from the two analyses were compared. Based on the SATURN results it was found that a number of measures proposed by the Methodological Framework could be successfully adopted and implemented. The research in the city of Thessaloniki lasted three years ( ). Two research projects (Adamou & Oulis (2008); Zimis & Labrou (2008)) were conducted that period by the Department of Transportation & Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Rural & Surveying Engineering, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, concerning the following: 1. The parking facilities dedicated for the commercial vehicles. In addition a questionnaire based survey (40 questionnaires) was conducted in the study area (the hyper centre). The survey addresses the parking needs of the retailers. 2. The needs of the drivers of the commercial vehicles in the same area. The method used is again a questionnaire based survey (194 questionnaires). The study area covers almost 2,5 km 2 and it is enclosed by: Nikis Avenue in the south, Aggelaki Street and part of Ethnikis Amynis ssreet in the east, Olympiados Street in the north and finally, Dodekanisou Street in the west. During the questionnaire based survey concerning the drivers of the commercial vehicles, almost 200 questionnaires were fulfilled. The analysis of the data collected revealed some of the characteristics of the Urban Road Freight Transportation sector in the city of Thessaloniki: The average number of the crew of the commercial vehicles is one, including the driver. That means that the driver is responsible not only to drive the vehicle, but also to load and unload the goods from and to the vehicle, increasing the time needed to deliver the goods. The average gross weight of the commercial vehicles is 5,5 tons, while the average payload is 2,3 tons. The commercial vehicle s fleet mobilized in the road network of the study area is young. The average age is at 10 years, but taking into consideration the fact that in 2000 Euro Class 3 engines were established for the commercial vehicles and in 2009 Euro Class 5 engines, it is clear that the environment in the study area is significant burden due to urban road freight transportation. The interviews from the crew of the commercial vehicles took place during their stop in order to load or unload goods. At that time the members of the research team recorded if the vehicles were parked legally (in the specific parking lots for commercial vehicles) or illegally. The analysis of the collected data revealed that 60% of the vehicles were illegally parked, while only 40% were legally parked. It must be mentioned that as legally parked, are considered the vehicles parked outside the limits of the specific parking lots for commercial vehicles but in a buffer zone not exceeded 25 meters. This buffer zone was considered by the research team as a buffer zone, in which the vehicles would be considered as legal by convention.
6 Another important result exported from the analysis of the collected data is that 55% of the commercial vehicles mobilized in the study area, are mobilized to deliver and pick up goods, while 43% of the vehicles only deliver goods. Finally only 2% of the vehicles only pick up goods. It is obvious that reverse logistics is not developed in the city of Thessaloniki. The 52% of the commercial vehicles are loaded by 60% to 80% of their payload, 21% of the vehicles are fully loaded and 27% are loaded by 0% to 50%. It must be noticed that all vehicles are mobilized during the morning hours, and no vehicles are mobilized during the afternoon, due to the fact that since November 2008 goods distribution in the study area is allowed from 09:30 to 12:30. The percentage of vehicles which return to their bases empty of cargo is found to be up to 75%. The 96% of the vehicles tours are scheduled. However the schedule is decided by the carriers up to 55% of the cases, the drivers decide the schedule in almost 40% of the cases and the receivers in 3% of the cases. It is clear that the receivers cannot decide about the schedule of the tours, in order to receive their goods. At the same time the deliveries of the goods can be delayed usually up to an hour. 3. Analysis All the data collected from the questionnaire based surveys, were used as inputs to the methodological framework. The analysis of the data, combined of course with other data concerning the URFT system in the study area, led as a result to a package of measures and policies. These measures and policies were proposed form the framework as best solutions in order to optimize the URFT system. These measures and policies refer to the following: 1. Construction of mini warehouses in the perimeter of the study area in order to storage the goods temporarily. From these mini warehouses the goods would be delivered to their final receivers. 2. A specific percentage of the parking spaces for the private cars would be attributed as parking spaces for exclusive use for the commercial vehicles. 3. Creation of green zones in specific small areas inside the study area. 4. Restriction in the presence of the commercial vehicles inside the study area through Time Windows, during which the vehicles could deliver their load. 5. Implementation of the Night Deliveries policy. 6. Implementations of telematics applications in order the drivers of the commercial vehicles to schedule the use of the exclusive parking spaces for the commercial vehicles for the next day. This measure will lead to an optimized use of these parking spaces, increasing the number of vehicles that will park in each parking space. 7. Promotion of Joint Deliveries and Joint Receptions policies.
7 The proposal for the URFT system in the study area is based on the idea of removing the commercial vehicles. In order this to be achieved the URFT system must be reorganized. The new system should be based on the following: 1. The road freight transportation system should deliver the goods in a logistic center located in the borders of the Metropolitan area of the city of Thessaloniki, as presented in Figure 1 (Google Earth, 2009). A study was carried out in order to specify the location of the logistics center. The area that achieved the highest score was the area of Diavata (Mylona, 2009). Another study after examining several scenarios regarding the size and the role of an urban consolidation centre suggested the port of the city of Thessaloni ki as a candidate area (Hatzakis, 2010). Even in this case the proposed system could still be sustainable. The differencee would lie to the fact that the first step of the system would exist because the goods would be transported to the warehouses directly using medium and light goods vehicles. The road freight transportation system should also service directly industries located in a radius bigger than 10km from the borders of the Metropolitan areaa of Thessaloniki. Proposed logistic center Study area Fig 1. Proposed location of the logistics center in the city of Thessaloniki 2. The goods should then be carried to an urban consolidation center using medium and light goods vehicles. The urban consolidation center
8 should be located in the borders of the city of Thessaloniki. Such an area is near the commercial port of the city (Bouhouras, 2011) as presented in Figure 2 (Wikimapia, 2009). Fig 2. Proposed location of the urban consolidation center in the city of Thessaloniki 3. The next step concerns the transportation of the goods from the urban consolidation center to the mini warehouses using vans. These mini warehouses should be located in the borders of the study area. The study area should be divided to six zones (Bouhouras, 2011). These zones have homogenous characteristics as these were detected through the analysis of the data collected in the questionnaire based surveys. 4. The final step (last mile delivery) of the transportation from the mini warehouses to the final receivers should be carried out using electrical vehicles, bicycles or tricycles, as presented in Figure 3 (Wikimapia, 2009).
9 Zone D Zone E Zone C Zone A Zone B Zone F Fig 3. Proposal of the zonal system for the last mile delivery The zones as proposed are the following: Zone A: enclosed by Agiou Dimitriou Street, El. Venizelou Street, Egnatia Street and Mixail Kalou Street. Zone B: Egnatia Street, El. Venizelou Street, Nikis Avenue, Admiral Kountourioti Street and Kazantaki Street. Zone C: Agiou Dimitriou Street, Agias Sofias Street, I. Tsimiski Street and El. Venizelou Street. Zone D: Agiou Dimitriou Street, Ethnikis Amynis Street, Egnatia Street and Agias Sofias Street, Zone E: Egnatia Street, Aggelaki Street, I. Tsimiski Street and Agias Sofias Street. Zone F: I. Tsimiski Street, Andronikou Manoli Street, Alexander the Great Avenue, Niki Avenue and El. Venizelou Street. 4. Conclusions The methodological framework revealed the measures and policies that could be implemented in order to optimize the way URFT systems is organized and functions in the city of Thessaloniki. The proposal for the removal of commercial vehicles from the center of the city of Thessaloniki is based on the idea of reorganizing the URFT system. The proposal incorporates a new system in which goods transportation is divided to smaller steps. Each step begins and finishes to an area where the goods are storaged. The final step (last mile delivery) take place using environmental friendly vehicles, such as electrical vehicles, bicycles, tricycles etc. In such a way the commercial vehicles are removed from the center of the city of Thessaloniki. However as all the measures and policies that the Methodological Framework proposes, must be tested using a microsimulation model. The simulation process is extremely important. It will assist the decision makers to evaluate the measures and policies and at the same time to avoid unnecessary expenses and save time (Bouhouras, 2011). The removal of the
10 commercial vehicles from the city of Thessaloniki will upgrade the quality of life for the residents and at the same time will optimize the URFT system. The proposed framework of how URFT system should work in the city of Thessaloniki is used with many variations in other European cities, such as in Paris (La Rochelle). The results are quite promising extending the life time of the La Rochelle initiative (EU Technical Report, 2007). The zonal system proposed for the central area of the city of Thessaloniki was selected among the other possible measures and policies proposed from the methodological framework because it is the only measure that can guarantee the total removal of the commercial vehicles from the study area. The other measures and policies could relieve the residents and the retail shops owners from the impacts of the URFT system but then could not remove them totally. The implementation of the zonal system would give the chance for a better life to the residents, visitors and employees, and at the same time it would ensure that the retail sector functions with fewer problems. References Adamou, J. & Oulis, J. (2008), Investigation of the Freight Transport Characteristics in the Northern Part of the Central Area of Thessaloniki, Diploma Thesis, Supervisor: S. Basbas, Faculty of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (2009), Investigation of transportation characteristics, evaluation of the efficiency of the road network and proposal of measures for urban mobility in the city of Katerini, Research Program, Department of Transportation & Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Rural & Surveying Engineering, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Bouhouras, E. (2011), Development of a methodological framework for the optimization of urban road freight transport systems based on their qualitative characteristics, PhD Thesis, Department of Transportation & Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Rural & Surveying Engineering, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki CITYFREIGHT (2001), CITY FRIGHT Inter- and Intra City Freight Distribution Networks, Deliverable 6: Best practices Guidelines, European Commission Fifth Framework Programme, Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development European Union Technical Report 2007/018 (2007), Sustainable Urban Transport Plans, Preparatory Document in relation to the follow-up of the Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment Google Earth (2009), Virtual globe, map and geographic information program,
11 Hatzakis, N., Papageorgiou, D. & Papanikolaou, F. (2010), Logistic Center in the city of Thessaloniki, Design and Purpose, Findings of work group of the Technical Chamber of Greece, Section of Central Macedonia Mylona, E. (2009), Feasibility study for an Urban Consolidation Center in the city of Thessaloniki, MSc Thesis, Supervisor: S. Basbas, Postgraduate program Techniques and Methods for Analysis, Design and Management Area, Department of Transportation & Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Rural & Surveying Engineering, School of Technology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Wikimapia (2009), An online editable map, Zimis, P. & Labrou, T. (2008), Investigation of the Freight Transport Characteristics in the Southern Part of the Central Area of Thessaloniki, Supervisor: S. Basbas, Diploma Thesis, Faculty of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki